Montana extract from
John Reed Swanton's
The Indian Tribes of North America

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(Montana) Extract from

The Indian Tribes of North America

by John R. Swanton

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145—1953

[726 pages—Smithsonian Institution]

(pp. 387-398)

Montana

Arapaho. The Arapaho proper occupied, or camped in, parts of southeastern Montana at various periods of their history. (See Wyoming.)

Arikara. Some Arikara hunted in eastern Montana. In 1869 and 1880, together with the Hidatsa and Mandan, they relinquished rights to land in the southeastern part of the State. (See North Dakota.)

Assiniboin. From a Chippewa term signifying "one who cooks by the use of stones."

E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying "long arrows" (Long, 1823).
Guerriers de pierre, French name.
Hohe, Dakota name, signifying "rebels."
Sioux of the Rocks, English name.
Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the Indian.
Tlu'tlma'eka, Kutenai name, signifying "cutthroats," the usual term for Dakota derived from the sign language.
Weepers, given by Henry (1809).

Connections.—The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota), having sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they spoke.

Location.—The Assiniboin were most prominently associated historically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin Rivers, Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory north of the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White Earth. (See also North Dakota.)

Subdivisions.The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He states that, anciently, there were three principal tribal divisions, viz: Ho'ke (Like-Big-Fish), Tu-wan'hudan (Looking-like-Ghosts), and Sitcon'-ski (Tricksters, lit. " Wrinkled-Ankles"). Lowie obtained the names of the following smaller bands: Tcanxta'daa, Unska'ha (Roamers), Wazi'a wintca'cta, (Northern People), Wato'paxna-onn wan or Wato'paxnatun, Tcan'xe wintca'cta (People of the Woods), Tanin'ta`bin (Buffalo-Hip), Hu'deca`bine (Red-Butt), Waci'azi hyabin (Fat-Smokers), Witci'-abin, In'yanton'`wanbin (Rock People), Wato'pabin (Paddlers), Cutce'bi (Canum Mentulae), Cahi'a iye'skabin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees)), Xe'natonwan (Mountain People), Xe'bina (Mountain People), Icna'umbisa, (Those-who-stay-alone), and Ini'na u'mbi. Hayden (1862) mentions a band called Min'-i-shi-nak'-a-to, or Lake People, which does not seem to be identifiable with any of the above. This last may be the band called by Henry (1809) Those-who-have-water-for-themselves-only. The following bands cited by Henry are wholly unidentifiable: Red River, Rabbit, Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan, Foot, and Swampy Ground Assiniboin.

History.—According to tradition, this tribe separated from the Wazikute band of Yanktonai. The separation evidently took place before contact with the Whites, but there is evidence that when Europeans first heard of the tribe they were south of their later habitat, probably in the vicinity of the Lake of the Woods and Lake Nipigon. Thence they moved northwest toward Lake Winnipeg and later to the banks of the Assiniboin and Saskatchewan Rivers. In the mean time they had allied themselves with the Cree and had become enemies of their own southern relatives with whom they were afterward almost constantly at war. This northward movement and alliance with the Cree was due in large measure to the establishment of British posts on Hudson Bay and the desire of the Assiniboin Indians to have access to them and thus supply themselves with firearms and other European articles. The Assiniboin in the United States were gathered under the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck agencies; those in Canada under the Battleford, Edmonton, and Assiniboin agencies, at Moose Mountain, and on Stoney Reservation.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000 Assiniboin in 1780. In 1829 Porter gave 8,000, and Drake (in Church, 1826) thought that there were 10,000 before the smallpox epidemic of 1836, when 4,000 died. The United States Indian Office Report of 1843 gave 7,000; in 1890 they numbered 3,008; and in 1904, 1,234 in the United States, and 1,371 in Canada, a total of 2,605. The census of 1910 gave 1,235 in the United States, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 1,400, while there was an approximately equal number in Canada. The United States Census of 1930 gave 1,581. In 1937, 2,232 were returned in the United States.

Connections in which they have become noted.—The Assiniboin attained prominence during the dealings of explorers and traders with the Indians along the upper Missouri. The Assiniboin or Assiniboine, the name has been adopted for an important affluent of the Red River of the North in Manitoba and Saskatchewan Provinces. Mount Assiniboin is in the Rocky Mountains near the boundary between British Columbia and Alberta, about 20 miles south of Banff.

Atsina. Probably from Blackfoot at-se'-na, supposed to mean "gut people." Also called:

Acapatos, by Duflot de Mofras (1844).
A-re-tear-o-pan-ga, Hidatsa name.
Bahwetego-weninnewug, Chippewa name, signifying "fall people."
Bot-k'in'ago, signifying "belly men."
Fall Indians, common early name.
Gros Ventres des Plaines, derived from an incorrect interpretation of the tribal sign and the qualifying phrase "des Plaines" to distinguish them from the Hidatsa, the Gros Ventres de la Rivire.
Haaninin or Aa'ninena, own name, said to signify "white-clay people," "lime-men," or "chalk-men."
His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o, Cheyenne name.
Hitnena, Arapaho name, signifying "beggars" or "spongers."
Minnetarees of the Plains, Minnetarees of the Prairies, so called to avoid confusion with the Hidatsa (q. v. under North Dakota).
Rapid Indians, from Harmon (1820).
S'pani, Shoshoni name, signifying "bellies."
Sku'tani, Dakota name.

Connections.—The Atsina were a part of the Arapaho, of which tribe they are sometimes reckoned a division, and both belong to the Algonquian linguistic family.

Location.—On Milk River and adjacent parts of the Missouri, in what is now Montana, ranging northward to the Saskatchewan. (See also Canada.)

Subdivisions.Kroeber (1908 b) has recorded the following names of bands or clans, some of which may, however, be duplications:

Names of clans whose position in the camp circle is known, beginning at the south side of the opening at the east: Frozen or Plumes, "Those-who-water-their-horses-once-a-day"; Tendons, "Those-who-do-not-give-away," or "Buffalo-humps"; Opposite (or Middle) Assiniboin, "Ugly-ones or Tent-poles worn smooth [from travel]"; Bloods, "Fighting-alone."

Other clan names: Berry-eaters, Breech-cloths, Coffee, Dusty-ones, Gray-ones or Ash-colored, Kanhutyi (the name of a chief), Night-hawks, Poor-ones, Torn-trousers, Weasel-skin headdress.

History.—If the Arapaho once lived in the Red River country, the Atsina were probably with them. At least, the languages of both point to the region of the Algonquian tribes northeast of the Plains for their origin. At the same time Kroeber (1900 b) thinks that they must have been separated for at least 200 years. According to Hayden (1860), they were south of the Saskatchewan about 1800. In 1818 they joined the Arapaho and remained with them until 1823 when they returned to the location given above in the neighborhood of Milk River. For a long time they maintained an alliance with the Blackfeet but later joined the Crow against them and in the course of the ensuing war, in 1867, suffered a severe defeat. Later they were placed on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont., with the Assiniboin.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates that the Atsina numbered 3,000 in 1780. In 1904 there were 535. The census of 1910 reported 510, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1923 reported 586; 631 were reported by the census of 1930, and 809 in 1937.

Bannock. The Bannock ranged into the western part of the State. (See Idaho.)

Cheyenne. The Cheyenne frequently entered the eastern part of Montana and the Northern Cheyenne were ultimately assigned a reservation within the State. (See South Dakota.)

Chippewa. The Chippewa had little contact with the region now included in Montana until very recent times when a considerable number came to live there, 486 according to the census of 1910. (See Minnesota.)

Cree. The original homes of the Cree were north of the present United States, though their war parties frequently came into the territory now occupied by this country to fight the Dakota, Blackfoot, and other tribes. In comparatively late times a number, given by the census of 1910 as 309, settled in Montana, and others were reported from Washington (91), Michigan, Oregon, North Dakota, Idaho, Kansas, and Minnesota. (See also Canada.)

Crow. A translation, through the French gens des corbeaux, of their own name Absroke, "crow-, sparrowhawk-, or bird-people." Also called:

Hahderuka, Mandan name.
Haideroka, Hidatsa name.
Hounena, Arapaho name, signifying "crow men."
Issappo', Siksika name.
Kangitoka, Yankton Dakota name.
Ka'-xi, Winnebago name.
Kihnatsa, Hidatsa name, signifying "they who refused the paunch," and referring to the tradition regarding the separation of these two tribes.
Kokokiwak, Fox name.
Long-haired Indians, by Sanford (1819).
O-e'-tun'-i-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "crow people."
Par-is-ca-oh-pan-ga, Hidatsa name, signifying "crow people" (Long, 1823).
Stmchi, Kalispel name.
Stmtchi, Salish name.
Stimk, Okinagan name.
Yaxkqa'-a, Wyandot name, signifying "crow."

Connections.—The Crow belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock and were most closely related to the Hidatsa, from whom they claim to have separated.

Location.—On the Yellowstone River and its branches, extending as far north as the Musselshell and as far south as Laramie Fork on the Platte, but centering particularly on three southern tributaries of Yellowstone River, the Powder, Wind, and Big Horn Rivers. (See also Wyoming and Canada.)

Subdivisions.There were formerly three local divisions, known to the people themselves as Min'sepre, Dung-on-the-river-banks?, or Black Lodges; the A`c'araho', Many-Lodges; and the Erarapi'o, Kicked-in-their-bellies. The first of there is called River Crow by some writers and the last two collectively Mountain Crow. They were also divided into 12 clans arranged in pairs.

History.—As stated above, the Crow tribe claims to have separated from the Hidatsa, a tradition shared by the Hidatsa. It is at least certain that the two are more closely related linguistically than is either to any other Siouan group. Their separation into bands must have occurred in the first quarter of the nineteenth century at latest. In 1804 they were found in their historic seats and have been in approximately the same region ever since, the reservation to which they were finally assigned being on the Big Horn River.

Population.—Mooney's (1928) estimate for the year 1780 is 4,000 Crow. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated 350 lodges and 3,500 souls. In 1833 there were said to be 1,200 warriors and a population of from 3,250 to 3,560. In 1890 a total population of 2,287 was reported, and in 1904, 1,826. The census of 1910 gave 1,799, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 1,777. The census of 1930, reported 1,674, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 2,173.

Connections in which they have become noted.—The Crow tribe was prominent in the early history of the Northwest, though not to the extent of the Dakota and Blackfeet. The Indian form of the name, Absarokee, is borne by a post village of Stillwater County, Mont.; in the form Absaraka it appears as the name of a place in Cass County, N. Dak.; and as Absaroka, more prominently, as the name of a range of mountains and a National Forest in the Yellowstone National Park.

Dakota. The Dakota entered Montana at times to hunt and fight the Crow but were not permanent residents of the State. (See South Dakota.)

Hidatsa. Together with the Arikara and Mandan, in 1869 and 1830 the Hidatsa took part in treaties ceding territory in southeastern Montana to the United States Government. (See North Dakota.)

Kalispel. This tribe probably visited the westernmost parts of Montana at times and most of them finally settled upon the Flathead Reservation in that State. Some of them, together with the Salish and Kutenai, ceded Montana lands in 1855. (See Idaho.)

Kiowa. According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived in the southeastern part of this State. (See Oklahoma.)

Kutenai. Said to be from a term applied to this tribe by the Blackfoot Indians and believed by Turney-High (1937) to have come originally from the name of a Kutenai tribe or division called Tunaha. Also called:

Flatbows, the name given often lo the Lower Kutenai, the origin of which is unknown.
Kspelu, their Nez Perc name, signifying "water people.'
Sn'ka or asn'ka, own name, significance unknown.
Shalsa'ulk
o, by the Sinkiuse and said to be from a place name, but see below.
Skels-ulk, Salish name, signifying "Water People."
Slender Bows, name sometimes given as an interpretation of their own name, but erroneously.

Connections.—The Kutenai were placed by Powell in a distinct stock called Kitunahan, but some linguists regard them as remote relatives of the Algonquians and Salishans.

Location.—On Kootenay River, Kootenay Lake, Arrow Lake, and the upper course of the Columbia River, except for the bend between Donald and Revelstoke; in southeastern British Columbia; northwestern Montana; northeastern Washington; and the northern tip of Idaho. In modern times they have settled as far southeast as Flathead Lake. (See also Canada.)

Subdivisions.The Kutenai were separated into two general divisions, the line between extending roughly from north to south through Libby, Mont. The Upper Kutenai lay to the east on upper Kootenay River and depended more upon hunting, especially of the bison, while the Lower Kutenai were largely fishermen. 

Turney-High (1937) gives the following bands:

(1) Tunxa, whose original home was on the Plains and who have now been destroyed and their descendants incorporated with the other bands; 
(2) Tobacco Plains or People-of-the-Place-of-the-Flying-Head, esteemed to be the mother band of the tribe (on Kootenay River at the International Boundary Line- the Fernie Band was a subdivision); 
(3) Jennings Band (about Jennings, Mont.); 
(4) Libby Band (at Libby, Mont.); 
(5) Bonner's Ferry Band (at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho); 
(6) Fort Steele Band (at Steele, B. C.); 
(7) Creston Band (at Creston, B. C.); 
(8) Windermere Band (a very modern band at Windermere, B. C.). 

To these may be added the very modern Dayton-Elmo Band on Flathead Lake drawn from the Jennings and Libby bands.

History.—From information collected by Turney-High (1937). it would seem that the Kutenai formerly lived east of the Rocky Mountains, extending at least as far as MacLeod, Alberta. Their oldest settlement in their present territories would seem to have been at Tobacco Plains whence they gradually spread to the north, west and south, and in recent times to the southeast. Their country was traversed early in the nineteenth century by David Thompson (1916) in the interest of the Northwest Company, and Kootenai House was established in 1807. With the running of the International Boundary, their country was divided between the Dominion of Canada and the United States to the considerable inconvenience of the tribe. Missionary work among them, particularly work among the Upper Kutenai, has been very successful.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated the Kutenai population to be 1,200 in 1780. In 1780 those in the United States were estimated at 400 to 500. In 1890 they numbered 554, and those in British territory the year preceding were enumerated at 553. The census of 1910 gave 538 in the United States. The Report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924 returned about 450, and that of the United States Indian Office only 129 under that name. The latter figure is evidently defective, as the Census of 1930 returned 287 of whom 185 were in Montana and 101 in Idaho. In 1937 there were 118 in Idaho.

Connections in which they have become noted.—The Kutenai are noted for their peculiar language, which differs from the speech of all their neighbors and has been given an independent position as the Kitunahan stock. They have given their name to Kootenay or Kootenai River, also called the Flat Bow or MacGillivray, which flows through British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho; to Kootenay Lake in British Columbia; to Kootenai Mountains, and Kootenai Falls, Mont.; Kootenai County, Idaho; and to a post village, Kootenai, in Bonner County, Idaho.

Mandan. The Mandan were parties to treaties made in 1869 and 1880 ceding their claims to land in southeastern Montana. (See North Dakota.)

Nez Perc. Individuals belonging to this tribe sometimes entered the southwestern part of Montana. (See Idaho.)

Piegan. The Piegan were the southernmost subtribe of the Siksika (q. v.).

Salish. Probably a place name, the last syllable, -ish, "people." Also called:

A-shu'-e-ka-pe, Crow name, signifying, "flatheads."
A-too-ha-pe, Hidatsa name.
Flatheads, widely so called because, in contradistinction to the tribes west of them, they left their heads in the natural condition, flat on top, instead of sloping backward to the crown.
Ka-ka-i-thi, Arapaho name, signifying, "flathead people."
Ka-ko'-is-tsi'-a-ta'-ni-o, Cheyenne name, signifying, "people who flatten their heads."
Ko-toh'-spi-tup'-i-o, Siksika name.
Nebagindibe, Chippewa name, signifying, "flat head."
Pa O-bde'-ca, Yankton Dakota name, signifying, "heads cornered or edged."
Ttes-Plates, common French term.

Connections.—The Salish belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic family, to which they have given their name.

Location.—In western Montana originally, extending from the Rocky Mountains on the west; south to the Gallatin; east to Crazy Mountain and Little Belt Ranges, north to some hilly country north of Helena. Later they were centered farther west around Flathead Lake. (See also Idaho.)

Subdivisions.It is said that there was a distinct band of Salish Indians on a river near Helena, another band near Butte, another somewhere east of Butte, and another somewhere in the Big Hole Valley; and there are traditions of still others.

History.—According to Teit (1930) the Salish once extended farther to the east, and there were related tribes in that region which he calls Sematuse and Tunahe. As Turney-High (1937) has pointed out, however, the Tunahe were evidently a Kutenai division; and the Sematuse, if not mythical, seem to have been an alien people in possession of this country before the Salish entered it. Teit states that these Salish were driven westward out of the Plains by the Blackfoot, particularly after that tribe obtained guns. Turney-High, on the other hand, regards the Salish as rather late intruders into the Plains from the west. However, the pressure of tribes westward by their neighbors to the east as soon as the latter obtained guns is such a common story that it hardly seems probable that the Salish could have escaped its effects. Just how far the Salish retired westward may be a matter of argument, nor does it affect the theory of an earlier eastward migration if such a movement can be substantiated on other grounds. Salish relations with the Whites were always friendly and they were successfully missionized by Roman Catholics under the lead of the famous Father De Smet. By the treaty of July 16, 1855, they ceded all of their lands in Montana and Idaho except a reserve south of Flathead Lake and a second tract in Bitter Root Valley which was to be made into a reserve for them if it were considered advisable. It was, however, not 80 considered, and acting upon an Act of Congress of June 5, 1872, the Salish were removed to the former reservation, where they still live.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 600 Salish in 1780, evidently accepting the figure given by Lewis and Clark for 1806. Teit (1930) considers this much too low, the data collected by him indicating a Salish population of perhaps 3,000, but this would seem to err in the opposite direction. The Indian Office figure for 1905 is 557 and that for 1909, 598. The census of 1910 reported 486, of whom 400 were in Montana, 46 in Washington, 27 in Oregon, 6 in Idaho, 6 in Nebraska, and 1 in Kansas. The census of 1830 reported 2,036 Interior Salish from Montana, but did not give separate figures for the tribe under discussion. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 3,085 in 1937.

Connections in which they have become noted.—It was among the Salish Indians that the noted Father De Smet worked as a missionary. The large group of languages to which this tribe belongs is known to ethnologists as the Salishan linguistic family. Flathead or Selish Lake, Flathead Pass, and Flathead County, all in Montana, also derive their names from the Salish or "Flathead" Indians.

Sematuse. (phonetically SEmte'use). Signifying "foolish" according to some, derived from an old place name according to others. Teit (1930) identified the Sematuse as a former tribe of the Salishan stock, closely related to the Salish tribe. According to his informants, one band of these people was on Big Blackfoot River, another at a place later known as "Big Camas," or "Camas Prairie," and some thought that a smaller band had headquarters near Deer Lodge, and there may have been one at Phillipsburg. Others were said to have been on the Little Blackfoot and Salmon-Trout Rivers but may not have constituted a band. Turney-High (1937), however, thinks that this tribe was mythical or else that it was the name of a non-Salishan people who preceded the Salish in western Montana.

Shoshoni. Before European weapons reached the eastern tribes, bands of Shoshoni ranged over a considerable part of eastern Montana as far north as Milk River. (See Idaho.)

Siksika. A native word signifying "black feet," by which term the tribe is best known. By some they are said to be called Blackfeet from the discoloration of their moccasins by the ashes of prairie fires, but more probably their moccasins were dyed black. Also called:

Ah-hi'-ta-pe, former name for themselves, signifying "blood people."
Ayatchinini, Chippewa name.
Ayatchiyiniw, Cree name, signifying "stranger," or "enemy."
Beaux Hommes, so given by Dobbs (1744).
Carmeneh, Crow name.
Choch-Katit, Arikara name.
Ish-te-pit'-e, Crow name.
I tsi s pi sa, Hidatsa name, signifying "black feet."
Katce, Sarsi name.
Ka-wi-'na-han, Arapaho name, signifying "black people."
Makadewana-ssidok, Chippewa name.
Mmakat'wana-si't'-ak, Fox name.
Mkatewetitta, Shawnee name.
Mukkudda Ozitunnug, Ottawa name (Tanner, 1830).
Netsepoy, sometimes used by the Confederacy and signifying "people who speak our language."
Pah-kee, Shoshoni name.
Po'-o-mas, Cheyenne name, signifying "blankets whitened with earth."
Saha'ntla, Kutenai name, signifying "bad people."
Sawketakix, name sometimes used by themselves, signifying "men of the plains."
S'chko, or S'chkoeishin, Kalispel name, from koi, "black."
Sic'b, Kansa name.
Si-ha'-sa-pa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying "black feet."
Skusheni, Salish name, signifying "black feet."
Stxuaxn, Okinagan name, signifying "black."
Tokoko, Kiowa name, signifying "black legs."
Tuhu'vti-mokat, Comanche name.
Wateni'hte, Arapaho name.

Connections.—The Siksika belong to the Algonquian linguistic stock, forming the most aberrant of all the well-recognized tongues of that family except Arapaho and Atsina.

Location.—In the territory stretching from North Saskatchewan River, Canada, to the southern headstreams of the Missouri in Montana, and from about longitude 105 W. to the base of the Rocky Mountains.

Subdivisions.The Siksika are divided into the following subtribes: The Siksika or Blackfeet proper, occupying the northern part of the above territory; the Kainah or Bloods south of the preceding, and the Piegan, south of the Kainah, the one best represented in the United States.

Each of the above divisions was subdivided into bands as follows:

Siksika bands:

Aisikstukiks.
Apikaiyiks.
Emitahpahksaiyiks.
Motahtosiks.
Puhksinahmahyiks.
Saiyiks.
Siksinokaks.
Tsiniktsistsoyiks.

Kainah or Blood bands:

Ahkaiksumiks.
Ahkaipokaks.
Ahkotashiks.
Ahkwonistsists.
Anepo.
Apikaiyiks.
Aputosikainah.
Inuhksoyistamiks.
Isisokasimiks.
Istsikainah.
Mameoya.
Nitikskiks.
Saksinahmahyiks.
Siksahpuniks.
Siksinokaks.

Piegan bands:

Ahahpitape.
Ahkaiyikokakiniks.
Apikaiyiks.
Esksinaitupiks.
Inuksikahkopwaiks.
Inuksiks.
Ipoksimaiks.
Kahmitaiks.
Kiyis.
Kutaiimiks.
Kutaisotsiman.
Miahwahpitsiks.
Miawkinaiyiks.
Mokumiks.
Motahtosiks.
Motwainaiks.
Nitakoskitsipupiks.
Nitawyiks.
Nitikskiks.
Nitotsiksisstaniks.
Sikokitsimiks.
Sikopoksimaiks.
Sikutsipumaiks.
Susksoyiks (Hayden, 1862).
Tsiniksistsoyiks.

History.—According to certain traditions, the Siksika moved into their present territory from the northeast, and it is at least evident that they had gravitated westward, their movement probably accelerated by the acquisition of horses. They were at war with nearly all of their neighbors except the Athapascan Sarsi and the Atsina; both of these tribes usually acted with them. They were on relatively friendly terms with the English of the Hudson's Bay posts in Canada, upon whom they depended for guns and ammunition, but were hostile to the Whites on the American side, in large measure because through them their enemies received the same kind of supplies. They were several times decimated by smallpox but suffered less than many tribes not so far removed from White influences, and have never been forced to undergo removal from their home country. They are now gathered under agencies on both sides of the International Boundary and are slowly adapting themselves to White modes of life.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 15,000 Blackfeet. Mackenzie (1801) gave 2,250 to 2,500 warriors for 1790, which would reduce Mooney's (1928) figures by about one-half, but in the meantime the smallpox epidemic of 1780-81 had occurred. The official Indian Report for 1858 gave 7,300 and another estimate of about the same period, said by Hayden (1862) to have been made "under the most favorable circumstances," reported 6,720. In 1909 the official enumeration of those in the United States was 2,195, and of those in Canada 2,440, a total of 4,630. The census of 1910 gave 2,367 in the United States, all but 99 of whom were Piegan. The United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gives 3,124 Blackfeet and the Report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924, 2,236; total, 5,360. The United States census of 1930 reported 3,145. In 1937 the Office of Indian Affairs reported 4,242.

Connections in which they have become noted.—The Siksika were peculiar (1) as one of the largest and most warlike tribes of the northern Plains, next to the Dakota alone in prominence; (2) as speaking one of three highly specialized languages of the Algonquian stock; (3) as among the bitterest opponents of explorers and traders on the American side of the International Boundary; and (4) as having given the name Blackfoot to a considerable town in Idaho, capital of Bingham County, to a creek in the same county, to mountains in Idaho and Alberta, to a river in Montana, and to a village in Glacier County, in the same State.

Spokan. Some Spokan probably entered western Montana at times and, in 1910, 134 were reported as residents of the State. (See Washington.)

Tunahe (Tuna'xe). Given by Teit (1930) as the name of an extinct Salishan tribe living in west central Montana, but identified by Turney-High (1937) as a former eastern or plains band of the Kutenai Indians, that band, in fact, from which the name Kutenai is derived.