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by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Delaware. Bands of two of the main divisions of the Delaware Indians, the Munsee and Unami, extended into parts of New York State, including the island of Manhattan. (See New Jersey.)
Erie. The Erie occupied parts of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus Counties. (See Ohio.)
Iroquois. From Algonkin Irinakhoiw, "real adders," with the French suffix -ois. Also called:
O˝gwanonsio˝ni', their own name, meaning "We are of the extended lodge," whence comes the popular designation, "People of the longhouse."
Five Nations, from the five constituent tribes.
Mat-che-naw-to-waig, Ottawa name, meaning "bad snakes."
Mingwe, Delaware name.
Nadowa, name given by the northwestern Algonquians and meaning "adders."
Six Nations, name given after the Tuscarora had joined them.
Connections.The Iroquois belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic stock, their nearest relations being the Tuscarora, Neutral Nation, Huron, Erie, and Susquehanna.
Location.In the upper and central part of the Mohawk Valley and the lake region of central New York. After obtaining guns from the Dutch, the Iroquois acquired a dominating influence among the Indians from Maine to the Mississippi and between the Ottawa and Cumberland Rivers. (See also Indiana, Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Canada.)
Subdivisions: There were five tribes, as follows: Cayuga, about Cayuga Lake; Mohawk, in the upper valley of Mohawk River; Oneida, about Oneida Lake; Onondaga, in Onondaga County and the neighboring section; Seneca, between Luke Seneca and Genesee River. Later there were added to these, for the most part not on terms of perfect equality, the Tuscarora from North Carolina, some Delaware, Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy, New England Indians, and other fragments of tribes, besides entire towns from the Huron, Erie, Andaste, and other conquered peoples.
Chondote, on the east side of Cayuga Lake a few miles south of Cayuga.
Gandasetaigon, near Port Hope, Ont.
Ganogeh, at Canoga.
Gayagaanhe, near the east shore of Cayuga Lake 3 1/2 miles south of Union Springs.
Gewauga, at Union Springs, town of Springport.
Goiogouen, on the east side of Cayuga Lake on Great Gully Brook, about 4 miles south of the present Union Springs, and 4 leagues from the town of Tiohero.
Kawauka, (?), Kente, on Quinte Bay, Lake Ontario, Ont.
Neodakheat, at Ithaca.
Oneniote, at Oneida on Cayuga Lake.
Onnontare, probably east of Seneca River and at Bluff Point, near Fox Ridge, Cayuga County.
Owego, on the right bank of Owego Creek, about 2 miles from the Susquehanna River, in Tioga County.
Skannayutenate, on the west side of Cayuga Lake, northeast of Canoga, Seneca County.
Tiohero, 4 leagues from Goiogouen.
Canajoharie, on the east bank of Otsquago Creek nearly opposite Fort Plain.
Canastigaone, on the north side of Mohawk River just above Cohoes Falls.
Canienga, near the bank of Mohawk River.
Caughnawaga, on Mohawk River near the site of Auriesville.
Chuchtononeda, on the south side of Mohawk River- named from a band.
Kanagaro, on the north side of Mohawk River in Montgomery County or Herkimer County.
Nowadaga, at Danube, Herkimer County.
Onoalagona, at Schenectady.
Osquake, at Fort Plain and on Osquake Creek, Montgomery County.
Saratoga, about Saratoga and Stillwater.
Schaunactada, at and south of Albany.
Schoharie, near Schoharie.
Teatontaloga, on the north side of Mohawk River and probably near the mouth of Schoharie Creek in Montgomery County.
Tewanondadon, in the peninsula formed by the outlet of Otsego Lake and Shenivas Creek.
Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake.
Canowdowsa, near junction of Lackawanna and Susquehanna Rivers.
Chittenango, on Chittenango Creek, Madison County.
Cowassalon, on creek of same name in Madison County.
Ganadoga, near Oneida Castle, Oneida County.
Hostayuntwa, at Camden.
Oneida, name of several of the main towns of the tribe, in the valleys of Oneida Creek and Upper Oriskany Creek.
Opolopong, on the east branch of Susquehanna, about 30 miles above Shamokin and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa.
Oriska, near Oriskany in Oneida County.
Ossewingo, a few miles above Chenango, Broome County.
Ostogeron, probably above Toskokogie on the Chenango River.
Schoherage, probably on the west branch of Chenango River (?) below Tuskokogie.
Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of the east branch of the Susquehanna River.
Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin, on a creek issuing from the Great Swamp north of the Cashuetunk Mountains, Pa.
Tegasoke, on Fish Creek in Oneida County.
Gadoquat, at Brewerton, Onondaga County
Gannentaha, a mission on Onondaga Lake about 5 leagues from Onondaga.
Gistwiahna, at Onondaga Valley.
Onondaga, the principal town of the tribe, which occupied several distinct sites, the earliest known probably 2 miles west of Cazenovia and east of West Limestone Greek, Madison County.
Onondaghara, on Onondaga River 3 miles east of Onondaga Hollow.
Onondahgegahgeh, west of Lower Ebenezer, Erie County.
Onontatacet, on Seneca River.
Otiahanague, at the mouth of Salmon River, Oswego County.
Touenho, south of Brewerton, at the west end of Lake Oneida.
Tueadasso, near Jamesville.
Buckaloon, on the north side of Allegheny River near the present Irvine, Warren County, Pa.
Canadasaga, near Geneva.
Canandaigua, near Canandaigua.
Caneadea, at Caneadea.
Catherine's Town, near Catherine.
Cattaraugus, on a branch of Cattaraugus Creek.
Chemung, probably near Chemung.
Chinklacamoose, probably mainly Delaware but frequented by Seneca, on the site of Clearfield, Pa. Chinoshahgeh, near Victor.
Condawhaw, at North Hector.
Connewango, 2 villages, one at Warren, Pa., and one on the left bank of Allegheny River above the site of Tionesta, Pa.
Dayoitgao, on Genesee River near Fort Morris.
Deonundagae, on Livingston River west of Genesee River.
Deyodeshot, about 2 miles southeast of East Avon, on the site of Keinthe.
Deyohnegano, 2 villages: one near Caledonia; one on Allegheny Reservation, Cattaraugus County.
Deyonongdadagana, on the west bank of Genesee River near Cuylerville.
Dyosyowan, on Buffalo Creek, Erie County, Pa.
Gaandowanang, on Genesee River near Cuylerville.
Gadaho, at Castle.
Gahato, probably Seneca, in Chemung County.
Gahayanduk, location unknown.
Ganagweh, near Palmyra.
Ganawagus, on Genesee River near Avon.
Ganedontwan, at Moscow.
Ganos, at Cuba, Allegany County.
Ganosgagong, at Dansville.
Gaousge, probably Seneca, on Niagara River.
Gaskosada, on Cayuga Creek west of Lancaster.
Geneseo, near Geneseo.
Goshgoshunk, mainly Munsee and Unami, 3 villages on Allegheny River in the upper part of Venango County, Pa.
Hickorytown, mainly Munsee and Unami, probably about East Hickory or West Hickory, Forest County, Pa.
Honeoye, on Honeoye Creek, near Honeoye Lake.
Joneadih, on Allegheny River nearly opposite Salamanca.
Kanagaro, 2 villages, one on Boughton Hill, directly south of Victor, N. Y.; one with several different locations from 1 1/2 to 4 miles south from the first, and southeast from Victor, on the east side of Mud Creek.
Kanaghsaws, about 1 mile northeast of Conesus Center.
Kannassarago, between Oneida and Onondaga.
Kashong, on Kashong Creek at its entrance into Lake Seneca.
Kaygen, on the south bank of Chemung River below Kanestio River.
Keinthe, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, later transferred to Bay of Quinte.
Lawunkhannek, mainly Delaware, on Allegheny River above Franklin, Venango County, Pa.
Mahusquechikoken, with Munsee and other tribes, on Allegheny River about 20 miles above Venango, Pa.
Middle Town, 3 miles above the site of Chemung.
New Chemung, at or near the site of Chemung.
Newtown, on Chemung River near Elmira.
Oatka, at Scottsville, on the west bank of Genesee River.
Old Chemung, about 3 miles below New Chemung.
Onnahee, on the east side of Fall Brook, in the western part of lot 20, town of Hopewell, Ontario County.
Onoghsadago, near Conewango (?).
Onondarka, north of Karaghyadirha on Guy Johnson's map of 1771.
Owaiski, near Wiscoy on the west bank of Genesee River, Allegheny County.
Sheshequin, about 6 miles below Tioga Point, Bradford County, Pa.
Skahasegao, at Lima, Livingston County.
Skoiyase, at Waterloo.
Sonojowauga, at Mount Morris, Livingston County.
Tekisedaneyout, in Erie County.
Tonawanda, on Tonawanda Creek, Niagara County.
Totiakton, on Honeoye outlet not far from Honeoye Falls in Monroe County.
Venango, at Franklin, at the mouth of French Creek, Venango County, Pa.
Yorkjough, about 12 miles from Honeoye and 6 from New Genesee, probably in Livingston County.
Yoroonwago, on upper Allegheny River near the present Corydon, Warren County, Pa.
Iroquoian villages of unspecified tribes:
Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake.
Caughnawaga, on Sault St. Louis, Quebec Province, Canada.
Churamuk, on the east side of Susquehanna River, 18 miles above Owego.
Conihunta, 14 miles below Unadilla.
Conoytown, of mixed Conoy and Iroquois, on Susquehanna River between Bainbridge and Sunbury, Pa.
Coreorgonel, of mixed Tutelo and Iroquois, on the west side of Cayuga Lake inlet and on the border of the Great Swamp 3 miles from the south end of Cayuga Lake.
Cussewago, principally Seneca, on the site of the present Waterford, Erie County, Pa.
Ganadoga, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Ganagarahhare, at Venango, Crawford County, Pa.
Ganeraske, at the mouth of Trent River, Ontario, Canada.
Ganneious, at the site of Napanee, Ontario, Canada.
Indian Point, at Lisbon, N. Y.
Janundat, on Sandusky Bay, Erie County, Ohio.
Jedakne, Iroquois or Delaware, on the west branch of Susquehanna River, probably at Dewart, Northumberland County, Pa.
Johnstown, location not given.
Jonondes, location unknown.
Juaniata, on Duncan Island in Susquehanna River, near the mouth of the Juniata.
Juraken, 2 villages, one on the right bank of the Susquehanna at Sunbury, Pa., the other on the left bank of the east branch of the Susquehanna.
Kahendohon, location unknown.
Kanaghsaws, about 1 mile northwest of Conesus Center, N. Y.
Kannawalohalla, at Elmira, N. Y.
Kanesadageh, a town of the Turtle Clan mentioned in the Iroquois Book of Rites
Karaken, location unknown.
Karhationni, location unknown.
Karhawenradonh, location unknown.
Kayehkwarageh, location unknown.
Kickenapawling, mixed Delaware (?) and Iroquois, 5 miles north of the present Stoyestown, Pa., at the fork of Quemahoning and Stony Creeks.
Kittanning, mixed Iroquois, Delaware, and Caughnawaga, about the present Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pa.
Kuskuski, mixed Delaware and Iroquois, on Beaver Creek, near Newcastle, Pa.
La Montagne, on a hill on Montreal Island, Quebec Province, Canada.
La Prairie, at La Prairie, Quebec, Canada.
Logstown, Shawnee, Delaware, and Iroquois, on the right bank of the Ohio River, 14 miles below Pittsburgh.
Loyalhannon, on Loyalhanna Greek, Pa.
Manckatawangum, near Barton, Bradford County, Pa.
Matchasaung, on the left bank of the east branch of the Susquehanna River, about 13 miles above Wyoming, Pa.
Mingo Town, near Steubenville, Ohio.
Mohanet, probably Iroquois, on the east branch of the Susquehanna River, Pa.
Nescopeck, mixed Iroquois, Shawnee, and Delaware, formerly at the mouth of Nescopeck River, Luzerne County, Pa.
Newtown, 4 towns: one, probably of the Seneca, on Chemung River near Elmira, N. Y.; one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on the north bank of Licking River, near Zanesville, Ohio; one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on Muskingum River near Newtown, Ohio; and one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on the west side of Wills Creek, near Cambridge, Ohio.
Newtychanning, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River and the north side of Sugar Creek, near North Towanda, Pa.
Oka, mixed Iroquois, Nipissing and Algonkin, on Lake of the Two Mountains, near Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Onaweron, location unknown.
Onkwe Iyede, location unknown.
Opolopong, on the east branch of the Susquehanna River about 30 miles above Shamokin and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa.
Oskawaserenhon, location unknown.
Ostonwackin, Delaware and Iroquois, at the mouth of Loyalstock Creek on the west branch of the Susquehanna River, at Montoursville, Pa.
Oswegatchie, at Ogdensburg, N. Y.
Otsiningo, on Chenango River, Broome County, N. Y.
Otskwirakeron, location unknown.
Ousagwentera, "beyond Fort Frontenac."
Pluggy's Town, a band of marauding Indians, chiefly Mingo, at Delaware, Ohio.
Runonvea, near Big Flats, Chemung County, N. Y.
Saint Regis, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River at the international boundary and on both sides.
Sault au Recollet, near the mouth of the Ottawa River, Two Mountains County, Quebec, Canada.
Sawcunk, mixed Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo, on the north bank of the Ohio River near the mouth of Beaver Creek and the present town of Beaver, Pa.
Schohorage, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, a short distance above the Indian town of Oquaga, Pa.
Sconassi, on the west side of the Susquehanna River below the west branch, probably in Union County, Pa.
Scoutash's Town, Mingo or Shawnee, near Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio.
Seneca Town, Mingo, on the east side of Sandusky River in Seneca County, Ohio.
Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of the east branch of Susquehanna River, N. Y.
Sewickley, a Shawnee town occupied in later years by a few Mingo and Delaware, on the north side of Allegheny River about 12 miles above Pittsburgh, near Springdale, Pa.
Shamokin, Delaware, Shawnee, and Iroquois, a short distance from the forks of the Susquehanna and on the northeast branch.
Shenango, 3 towns: one, on the north bank of the Ohio River a short distance below the present Economy, Pa.; one, at the junction of the Conewango and Allegheny Rivers; and one, some distance up the Big Beaver near Kuskuski (see above).
Sheshequin, Iroquois and Delaware, about 8 miles below Tioga Point, Pa.
Sittawingo, in Armstrong County, Pa.
Skenandowa, at Vernon Center, Oneida County, Pa.
Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin on a creek issuing from the Great Swamp north of the Cashuetunk Mountains, Pa.
Taiaiagon, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Tioga, at Athens, Pa.
Tohoguses Town, at junction of Plum and Crooked Creeks, Armstrong County, Pa.
Tonihata, on an island in the St. Lawrence River supposed to be Grenadier Island Leeds County, Ontario, Canada.
Tullihas, mixed Delaware, Mahican, and Caughnawaga, on the west branch of the Muskingum River, Ohio, above the forks.
Tuskokogie, just above Schoherage (q. v.) on Chenango River (?).
Unadilla, near Unadilla, Otsego County.
Wauteghe, on upper Susquehanna River between Teatontaloga and Oquaga.
History.In Cartier's time the five Iroquois tribes seem to have been independent and in a state of constant mutual warfare. At a later period, not before 1570 according to Hewitt (1907), they were induced by two remarkable men, Dekanawida and Hiawatha, to form a federal union. While the immediate object of the league was to bring about peace between these and other neighboring tribes, the strength which the federal body acquired and the fact that they were soon equipped with guns by the Dutch at Albany incited them to undertake extensive wars and to build up a rude sort of empire.
The related Tuscarora of North Carolina joined them in successive migrations, the greater part between 1712 and 1722, and the remainder in 1802. In the French-English wars they took the part of the English and were a very considerable factor in their final victory. Later all but the Oneida and part of the Tuscarora sided against the American colonists and as a result their principal towns were laid waste by Sullivan in 1779. The Mohawk and Cayuga, with other Iroquoian tribes in the British interest, were given a reservation on Grand River, Ontario. The remainder received reservations in New York except the Oneida, who were settled near Green Bay, Wis. The so-called Seneca of Oklahoma consist of remnants from all of the Iroquois tribes, the Conestoga, Hurons, and perhaps others, which Hewitt (in. Hodge, 1910) thinks were gathered around the Erie and perhaps the Conestoga as a nucleus.
Population.In 1600 the Iroquois are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 5,500; in 1677 and 1685 their numbers were placed at about 16,000; in 1689 they were estimated at about 12,850; in 1774, 10,000 to 12,500; in 1904 they numbered about 16,100, of whom 10,418 were in Canada; in 1923 there were 8,696 in the United States and 11,355 in Canada; total, 20,051. By the census of 1910 there were reported in the United States 2,907 Seneca, 2,436 Oneida, 365 Onondaga, 368 Mohawk, 81 Cayuga, 1,219 St. Regis, and 61 unspecified, a total of 7,437, besides 400 Tuscarora. In 1930 the figure, including Tuscarora, was 6,866. In 1937, 3,241 Oneida were living in Wisconsin and 732 "Seneca" in Oklahoma.
Connection in which they have become noted.The group of tribes known as the Iroquois is famous from the fact that it had attained the highest form of governmental organization reached by any people north of the valley of Mexico. It is also noted, largely in consequence of the above fact, for the dominating position to which it attained among the Indian tribes of northeastern North America, and for its long continued alliance with the English in their wars with the French. Hiawatha, the name of one of the founders of the confederation, was adopted by Longfellow as that of his hero in the poem of the name, though the story centers about another people, the Chippewa. Lewis H. Morgan (1851) based his theories regarding the nature of primitive society, which have played a very important part in ethnology and sociology, on studies of Iroquois organization. The name Iroquois has been given to a branch of the Kankakee River, Ill., to an Illinois County and a village in the same, and to villages in South Dakota and Ontario. The names of each of the five constituent tribes have also been widely used.
Mahican. The name means "wolf." This tribe is not to be confused with the Mohegan of Connecticut (q. v.), though the names are mere varieties of the same word. Also called:
Akochakane˝, meaning "Those who speak a strange tongue." (Iroquois name.)
Canoe Indians, so called by Whites.
Hikanagi or NhÝkana, Shawnee name.
Loups, so called by the French.
Orunges, given by Chauvignerie (1736), in Schoolcraft (1851-57, vol. 3, p. 554).
River Indians, Dutch name.
Uragees, given by Colden, 1747.
Connections.The Mahican belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, and spoke an r-dialect, their closest connections being with the southern New England Indians to the east.
Location.On both banks of the upper Hudson from Catskill Creek to Lake Champlain and eastward to include the valley of the Housatonic. (See also Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Wisconsin.)
Mahican proper, in the northern part of the territory.
Mechkentowoon, on the west bank of Hudson River above Catskill Creek.
Wawyachtonoc, in Dutchess and Columbia Counties and eastward to the Housatonic River in Connecticut.
Westenhuck (or Housatonic?), near Great Barrington, Mass.
Wiekagjoc, on the eastern bank of the Hudson River near Hudson.
Aepjin, at or near Schodac.
Kaunaumeek, in New York about halfway between Albany and Stockbridge, Mass.
Kenunckpacook, on the east side of Housatonic River a little above Scaticook.
Maringoman's Castle, on Murderer's Creek, at Bloominggrove, Ulster County.
Monemius, on Haver Island, in Hudson River near Cohoes Falls, Albany County.
Nepaug, on Nepaug River, town of New Hartford, Litchfield County, Conn.
Peantam, at Bantam Lake, Litchfield County, Conn.
Potic, west of Athens, Greene County.
Scaticook, 3 villages in Dutchess and Rensselaer Counties, and in Litchfield County, Conn., the last on Housatonic River near the junction with Ten Mile River.
Wequadnack, near Sharon, Litchfield County, Conn.
Wiatiac, near Salisbury, Litchfield County, Conn.
Wiltmeet, on Esopus Creek, probably near Kingston.
Winooskeek, on Lake Champlain, probably at the mouth of Winooski River, Vt.
Wyantenuc, in Litchfield County, Conn.
History.The traditional point of origin of the Mahican was in the West. They were found in occupancy of the territory outlined above by the Dutch, and were then at war with the Mohawk who, in 1664, compelled them to move their capital from Schodac near Albany to the present Stockbridge. They gradually sold their territory and in 1721 a band was on Kankakee River, Ind., while in 1730, a large body settled close to the Delaware and Munsee near Wyoming, Pa., afterward becoming merged with those tribes. In 1730 those in the Housatonic Valley were gathered into a mission at Stockbridge and were ever afterward known as Stockbridge Indians. In 1756 a large body of Mahican and Wappinger, along with Nanticoke and other people, settled in Broome and Tioga Counties under Iroquois protection. In 1788 another body of Indians drawn from New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, including Mahican, settled near the Stockbridges at Marshall, N. Y. The Stockbridge and Brotherton Indians later removed to Wisconsin, where they were probably joined by part at least of the band last mentioned. A few Mahican remained about their old home on Hudson River for some years after the Revolution but disappeared unnoticed.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 3,000 Mahican in 1600; the Stockbridges among the Iroquois numbered 300 in 1796, and 606 in 1923, including some Munsee. The census of 1910 gave 533 Stockbridges and 172 Brotherton. The census of 1930 indicated about 813.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Mahican tribe has probably attained more fame from its appearance in the title of Cooper's novel. "The Last of the Mohegans," than from any circumstance directly connected with its history. There is a village called Mohegan in the northern part of Westchester County, N. Y., and another, known as Mohican in Ashland County, Ohio, while an affluent of the Muskingum also bears the same name.
Mohegan. (See Connecticut.)
Montauk. Meaning "uncertain."
Connections.The Montauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and spoke an r-dialect like that of the Wappinger.
Location.In the eastern and central parts of Long Island.
Corchaug, in Riverhead and Southold Townships.
Manhasset, on Shelter Island.
Massapequa, in the southern part of Oyster Bay and Huntington Townships.
Matinecock, in the townships of Flushing, North Hempstead, the northern part of Oyster Bay and Huntington, and the western part of Smithtown.
Merric, in the eastern part of Hempstead Township.
Montauk proper, in Southampton Township.
Nesaquake, in the eastern part of Smithtown and the territory east of it.
Patchogue, on the southern coast from Patchogue to Westhampton.
Rockaway, in Newtown, Jamaica, and Hempstead Townships.
Secatogue, in Islip Township.
Setauket, on the north shore from Stony Brook to Wading River.
Shinnecock, on the coast from Shinnecock Bay to Montauk Point.
Aquebogue, on a creek entering the north side of Great Peconic Bay.
Ashamomuck, on the site of a White town of the same name in Suffolk County.
Cutchogue, at Cutchogue in Suffolk County.
Massapequa, probably at Fort Neck.
Mattituck, on the site of the present Mattituck, Suffolk County.
Merric, on the site of Merricks, Queens County.
Montauk, above Fort Pond, Suffolk County.
Nesaquake, at the present Nissequague, about Smithtown, Suffolk County.
Patchogue, near the present Patchogue, Suffolk County.
Rechquaakie, near the present Rockaway.
There were also villages at Flushing, Glen Cove, Cold Spring, Huntington, Cow Harbor, Fireplace, Mastic, Moriches, Westhampton, and on Hog Island in Rockaway Bay.
History.The Montauk were in some sense made tributary to the Pequot, until the latter were destroyed, when they were subjected to a series of attacks by the Narraganset and took refuge, about 1759, with the Whites at Easthampton. They had, meanwhile, lost the greater part of their numbers by pestilence and, about 1788, most of those that were left went to live with the Brotherton Indians in New York. A very few remained on the island, whose mixed-blood descendants are still officially recognized as a tribe by the State of New York, principally under the name Shinnecock.
Population.Including Canarsee, the Montauk are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 6,000 in 1600. In 1658-59 an estimate gives about 500; in 1788, 162 were enumerated; in 1829, 30 were left on Long Island; in 1910, 167 "Shinnecock," 29 "Montauk," and 1 "Possepatuck." In 1923, 250 were returned, including 30 Montauk, 200 Shinnecock, and 20 Poospatock (Patchoag).
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Montauk is perpetuated in that of the easternmost point of land on Long Island, a post village in the same county, and one in Dent County, Mo. They were among those tribes most active in the manufacture of siwan or wampum.
Neutrals. So called by the French because they remained neutral during the later wars between the Iroquois and Huron. Also called:
Hatiwanta-runh, by Tuscarora, meaning "Their speech is awry"; in form it is close to the names applied by the other Iroquois tribes and more often quoted as Attiwandaronk.
Connections.The Neutrals belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic stock; their position within this is uncertain.
Location.In the southern part of the province of Ontario, the westernmost part of New York, in northeastern Ohio, and in southeastern Michigan. (See also Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Canada.)
Subdivisions: It seems impossible to separate these from the names of the villages, except perhaps in the cases of the Aondironon (in Ontario bordering Huron territory), and the Ongniaahra (see below).
Villages: There were 28, but only the names of the following have been preserved:
Kandoucho, in Ontario near the Huron country, i.e., in the northern part of Neutral territory.
Khioetoa, apparently a short distance east of Sandwich, Ontario.
Ongniaahra, probably on the site of Youngstown, N Y.
Ounontisaston, not far from Niagara River.
Teotongniaton, in Ontario.
History.Shortly after the destruction of the Huron, the Neutrals became involved in hostilities with the Iroquois and were themselves destroyed in 1650-51, most of them evidently being incorporated with their conquerors, though an independent body is mentioned as wintering near Detroit in 1653.
Population.The Neutrals were estimated by Mooney (1928) to number 10,000 in 1600; in 1653 the independent remnant included 800. They were probably incorporated finally with the Iroquois and Wyandot.
Connection in which they have become noted.The chief claim of the Neutrals to permanent fame is the fact that the name of one of their subdivisions, the Ongniaahra, became fixed, in the form Niagara, to the world-famous cataract between New York and Ontario.
Saponi. Some years after leaving Fort Christanna, Va., the Saponi settled among the Iroquois and were formally adopted by the Cayuga tribe in 1753. (See Virginia.)
Tuscarora. After their defeat in the Tuscarora War, 1712-13, bands of this tribe began moving north and in course of time the majority settled in New York so that the Iroquois came to be known afterwards as the "Six Nations" instead of the "Five Nations." (See North Carolina.)
Tutelo. The Tutelo accompanied the Saponi from Virginia and were adopted by the Cayuga at the same time. (See Virginia.)
Wappinger. From the same root as Abnaki and Wampanoag, and meaning "Easterners"
Connections.The Wappinger belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest allies being the Mahican, the Montauk, and next the New England tribes.
Location.The east bank of the Hudson River from Manhattan Island to Poughkeepsie and the territory eastward to the lower Connecticut Valley. (See also Connecticut.)
Subdivisions or "Sachemships"
Hammonasset, west of the Connecticut River Conn., at its mouth.
Kitchawank, in the northern part of Westchester County beyond Croton River and between Hudson River and the Connecticut.
Massaco, in the present towns of Simsbury and Canton on Farmington River, Conn.
Menunkatuck, in the present town of Guilford, Conn.
Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County, N. Y.
Paugussett, in the eastern part of Fairfield County and the western edge of New Haven County, Conn.
Podunk, in the eastern part of Hartford County, Conn., east of Connecticut River.
Poquonock, in the towns of Windsor, Locks, and Bloomfield, Hartford County, Conn.
Quinnipiac, in the central part of New Haven County, Conn.
Sicaog, in Hartford and West Hartford, Conn.
Sintsink, between Hudson, Croton, and Pocantico Rivers.
Siwanoy, in Westchester County and part of Fairfield County, Conn., between the Bronx and Five Mile River.
Tankiteke, mainly in Fairfield County, Conn., between Five Mile River and Fairfield and extending inland to Danbury and even into Putnam and Dutchess Counties, N. Y.
Tunxis, in the southwestern part of Hartford County, Conn.
Wangunk, on both sides of Connecticut River from the Hartford city line to about the southern line of the town of Haddam.
Wappinger proper, about Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County, N. Y,
Wecquaesgeek, between the Hudson, Bronx, and Pocantico Rivers.
Alipconk, in the Weckquasgeek sachemdom, on the site of Tarrytown, N. Y.
Appaquag, on the Hockanum River east of Hartford, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Aspetuck, near the present Aspetuck in Fairfield County, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Canopus, in Canopus Hollow, Putnam County.
Capage, near Beacon Falls on Naugatuck River, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.
Cassacuhque, near Mianus in the town of Greenwich, Conn., Siwanoy sachemdom.
Cockaponset, near Haddam in Middlesex County, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Coginchaug, near Durham, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Cossonnacock, near the line between the towns of Haddam and Lyme, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Cupheag, given as the probable name of a town at Stratford, Conn., but this was perhaps Pisquheege.
Hockanum, at the mouth of Hockanum River, Hartford County, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Keskistkonk, probably on Hudson River, south of the highlands, in Putnam County, in the Nochpeem sachemdom.
Kitchiwank, about the mouth of Croton River, N. Y., in the Kitchiwank sachemdom.
Machamodus, on Salmon River in Middlesex County, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Massaco, near Simsbury on Farmington River, Conn., in the Massaco sachemdom.
Mattabesec, on the site of Middletown, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Mattacomacok, near Rainbow in the town of Windsor, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Mattianock, at the mouth of Farmington River in the Poquonock sachemdom.
Menunketuck, at Guilford, Conn., in the Menunketuck sachemdom.
Meshapock, near Middlebury, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.
Mioonktuck, near New Haven, Conn., in the Quinnipiac sachemdom.
Namaroake, on Connecticut River in the town of East Windsor, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Naubuc, near Glastonbury, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Naugatuck, near Naugatuck, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.
Newashe, at the mouth of Scantic River, in the Podunk sachemdom.
Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County.
Noroaton, at the mouth of Noroton River, in the Siwanoy sachemdom.
Norwauke, at Norwalk, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.
Ossingsing, at the site of Ossining, N. Y.
Pahquioke, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Pashesauke, on Lyndes Neck at the mouth of the Connecticut River in the Hammonassett sachemdom.
Pasquasheck, probably on the bank of Hudson River in Dutchess County.
Pataquasak, near Essex Post Office, Conn., in the Hammonassett sachemdom.
Pattaquonk, near Chester, Conn., in the Hammonassett sachemdom.
Paugusset, on the bank of Housatonic River about 1 mile above Derby, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.
Pauquaunuch, in Stratford Township, Fairfield County, Paugusset sachemdom, apparently the same town as Pisquheege.
Pequabuck, near Bristol, Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom.
Pisquheege, near Stratford, Fairfield County, in the Paugusset sachemdom.
Pocilaug, on Long Island Sound near Westbrook, Conn., in the Hammonassett sachemdom.
Pocowset, on Connecticut River opposite Middletown, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Podunk, at the mouth of Podunk River, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Pomeraug, near Woodbury, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.
Poningo, near Rye, N. Y, in the Siwanoy sachemdom.
Poquannuc, near Poquonock in Hartford County, Conn., in the Poquonock sachemdom.
Potatuck, the name of one or two towns on or near Potatuck River, in the town of Newtown, Fairfield County, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.
Pyquag, near Wethersfield, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.
Quinnipiac, on Quinnipiac River north of New Haven, Conn., in the Quinnipiac sachemdom.
Ramapo, near Ridgefield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Sackhoes, on the site of Peekskill, N. Y., in the Kitchawank sachemdom.
Saugatuck, at the mouth of Saugatuck River, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Scanticook, on Scantic River near its junction with Broad Brook, Hartford County, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.
Senasqua, at the mouth of Croton River, in the Kitchawank sachemdom.
Shippan, near Stamford, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.
Sioascauk, near Greenwich, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.
Squantuck, on the Housatonic River, above Derby, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.
Suckiauk, near W. Hartford, Conn., in the Sicaog sachemdom.
Titicus, near Titicus in the town of Ridgefield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Totoket, near Totoket in the town of N. Branford, New Haven County, Conn., in the Quinnipiac sachemdom.
Tunxis, in the bend of Farmington River near Farmington, Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom.
Turkey Hill, near Derby, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom, perhaps given under another name.
Unkawa, between Danbury and Bethel, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Weantinock, near Fairfield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Wecquaesgeek, at Dobbs Ferry, in the Wecquaesgeek sachemdom.
Weataug, near Weatogue in the town of Simsbury, Conn., in the Massaco sachemdom.
Wepowaug, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.
Werawaug, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.
Woodtick, near Woodtick in the town of Wolcott, New Haven County Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom.
Woronock, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom, evidently another name for Wepowaug.
History.The Wappinger were found by Henry Hudson in 1609 in occupancy of the lands above mentioned. The Connecticut bands gradually sold their territory and joined the Indians at Scaticook and Stockbridge. The western bands suffered heavily in war with the Dutch, 1640-45, but continued to occupy a tract along the coast in Westchester County until 1756, when most of those who were left joined the Nanticoke at Chenango, Broome County, N. Y., and were finally merged, along with them, into the Delaware. Some joined the Moravian and Stockbridge Indians while a few were still living in Dutchess County in 1774, and a few mixed-bloods live now on Housatonic River below Kent. These belong to the old Scaticook settlement founded by a Pequot Indian named Mauwehu or Mahwee, and settled mainly by individuals of the Paugusset, Unkawa, and Potatuck towns of the Paugusset sachemdom.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the New York divisions of Wappinger at about 3,000 in 1600, and places that of the various Connecticut bands at 1,750, a total of 4,750. The war with the Dutch is said to have cost the western bands 1,600, but we have no estimates of their population at a later date, except as parts of the Stockbridge, Brotherton, and Iroquois Indians, and a few mixed-bloods at Scaticook, Conn., a few miles below Kent.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Wappinger bands were among those particularly engaged in the manufacture of siwan or wampum. They occupied much of the mainland territory of the present Greater New York but not Manhattan Island. Wappingers Falls in Dutchess County, N.Y., preserves the name.
Wenrohronon. Probably meaning "The people or tribe of the place of floating scum," from the famous oil spring of the town of Cuba, Allegany County.
Connections.The Wenrohronon belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic stock. Their closest affiliations were probably with the Neutral Nation, which part of them finally joined, and with the Erie, who bounded them on the west.
Location.Probably originally, as indicated in the explanation of their name, about the oil spring at Cuba, N. Y. (See also Pennsylvania.)
History.The Wenrohronon maintained themselves for a long time in the above territory, thanks to an alliance with the Neutral Nation, but when the protection of the latter was withdrawn, they left their country in 1639 and took refuge among the Hurons and the main body of the Neutrals, whose fate they shared.
Population.Before their decline Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910) estimates the Wenrohronon at between 1,200 and 2,000. Those who sought refuge with the Hurons in 1639 numbered more than 600.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Wenrohronon are noted merely on account of their association with the oil spring above mentioned.