by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Indian Tribes of Haiti
Connections.—So far as known, the Bainoa belonged to the Arawakan linguistic family.
Location.—The Bainoa tribe or "province" included all of the present Republic of Haiti south of the San Nicolas Mountains, except that portion west of the River Savane, and also southwestern Santo Domingo to the River Maguana or San Juan.
Subdivisions: (As given by Peter Martyr (1912)
Attibuni, on the River Artibonite.
However, I have omitted from his list Marien and Maguana, which I believe should be considered distinct.
Cahibo or Cibao.
Connections.—The Cahibo belonged, so far as known, to the Arawakan linguistic family, except that a different language is said to have been spoken in the provinces of Cubana and Aaiohigua, but the difference may have been dialectic. Peter Martyr's words render it impossible to suppose the language of this entire tribe was distinct from the speech of the remaining Haitians.
Location.—The northwestern mountain section of Santo Domingo, about the Desert Mountains or Cordilleras del Cibao.
Baiohaigua, Cotoy, Cubana, Cybaho, Dahaboon, Manabaho, and mountainous districts called Hazue, Mahaitin and Neibaymao.
Connections.—So far as known, all the Indians in this province belonged to the Arawakan linguistic family.
Location.—The eastern part of the present Dominican Republic, extending on the south side of the Bay of Samana to a point near the mouth of the Juna River and on the south coast of the whole island to the neighborhood of the mouth of the San Juan or Maguana. Peter Martyr (1912) defines it as reaching only to the coast just west of the present Ciudad Trujillo (formerly Santo Domingo City), but the subdivisions he names indicate the greater extension given above.
Peter Martyr (1912), gives the following "districts or cantons": Arabo, Aramana, Baguanimabo, Caicoa, Guanama, Guiagua, Hazoa, Higuey, Macorix, Reyre, Xagua, and the rugged district of Haiti to the north.
Connections.—Cave dwellers were reputed to live here, from which circumstance at least the western part of the territory indicated is sometimes supposed to have been occupied by a people who preceded the Arawak, the Guanacahibes, who were also represented in western Cuba. No language of this province is known, however, distinct from Arawak.
Location.—All of the southwestern peninsula of the Republic of Haiti west of the River Savane.
Peter Martyr gives the following "cantons": Ayqueroa, Chaymi, Guabaqua, Habacoa, Ianaizi, Little Bainoa, Manabaxao, Navicarao, Nimaca, Taquenazabo, Zamana.
Hubabo (or Ciguayo)
Connections.—Peter Martyr (1912) seems to say that the inhabitants of this province spoke a language distinct from other Haitians, but the wording is obscure and may refer to the province or tribe of Cahibo.
Location.—In the northern part of Santo Domingo between the Yaqui del Norte and Juna Rivers and the Atlantic and from the Peninsula of Samana to about Point Blanco.
Peter Martyr knew only the following: Canabaco, Cubao, and Xamana. If my interpretation of his words is correct, the people of this province were called Macoryzes. Elsewhere they seem to be called Ciguana.
Connections.—The Maguana probably spoke an Arawakan dialect but their position is uncertain. Peter Martyr gives this as a district or canton of the Bainoa province, but his description of it extends it so far, and the importance of its chief was so great that I have thought it best to give it an independent status. It seems possible that this is identical with the district of Magua assigned to the province of Cahibo.
Location.—In the upper Artabonite Valley, and the valleys of San Tome and San Juan, and Constanza Valley, apparently as far as the Bay of Samana.
None are given.
Connections.—The Marien probably spoke an Arawak language and are attached to the province of Bainoa by Peter Martyr (1912), but their chief sems to have acted independently of all others, and Marien is sometimes called a "province."
Location.—The northwestern coast districts of the present Dominican R3epublic and the northern coast of Haiti from the site of Isabella to the Windward Passage.
None are known.
Indian Tribes of Cuba
(After Lehmann, 1920)
Lucayans in Bahamas
Caribs in Lesser Antilles.
Indian Tribes of Puerto Rico
(After Lehmann, 1920)
Indian Tribes of Jamaica