Florida extract from
John Reed Swanton's

The Indian Tribes of North America

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(Florida) Extract from

The Indian Tribes of North America

by John R. Swanton

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145—1953

[726 pages—Smithsonian Institution]

(pp. 120-153)


Acuera. Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon").

Connections.—This tribe belonged to the Timucuan or Timuquanan linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family.

Location.—Apparently about the headwaters of the Ocklawaha River.

Towns: (See Utina.)

History.— The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in a letter written at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de Cuba. According to information transmitted to him by his officer Baltazar de Gallegos, Acuera was "a large town . . . where with much convenience we might winter," but the Spaniards did not in fact pass through it, though, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The name appears later in Laudonniθre's narrative of the second French expedition to Florida, 1564-65 (1586), as a tribe allied with the Utina. It is noted sparingly in later Spanish documents but we learn that in 1604 there was an encounter between these Indians and Spanish troops and that there were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis and Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices of them. The remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de Timucua," which stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally removed to the Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County, where Tomoka River keeps the name alive.

Population.— This is nowhere given by itself. (See Utina.)

Aguacaleyquen, see Utina .

Ais. Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775) derivation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called:

Jece, form of the name given by Dickenson (1699).

Connections.—Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language was similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes. (See Calusa.) It is believed that it was connected with the Muskhogean stock.

Location.—Along Indian River on the east coast of the peninsula.


The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears some form of the tribal name.

History.—Fontaneda (1854) speaks of a Biscayan named Pedro who had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the Spaniards made their first establishments in the peninsula, a war broke out with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597 Governor Mendez de CanΈo, who traveled along the entire east coast from the head of the Florida Keys to St. Augustine, reported that the Ais chief had more Indians under him than any other. A little later the Ais killed a Spaniard and two Indians sent to them by CanΈo for which summary revenge was exacted, and still later a difficulty was created by the escape of two Negro slaves and their marriage with Ais men. Relations between the Floridian government and these Indians were afterward friendly but efforts to missionize them uniformly failed. An intimate picture of their condition in 1699 is given by the Quaker Dickenson (1803), who was ship-wrecked on the coast farther south and obliged, with his companions, to travel through their territory. They disappear from history after 1703, but the remnant may have been among those who, according to Romans (1775), passed over to Cuba in 1763, although he speaks of them all as Calusa.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on the southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above, the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the southeast coast. In 1728, 52 "Costa" Indians were reported.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Ais were noted as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and they were probably responsible for the fact that the water course on which they dwelt came to be called Indian River.

Alabama. Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and perhaps some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River, whence they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part of the Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to have maintained an independent existence for a very long period. (See Alabama.)

Amacano. A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee, placed in a mission on the Apalachee coast in 1674 with two others, Chine, and Caparaz (q. v.). The three together had 300 souls.

Amacapiras, see Macapiras.

Apalachee. Meaning perhaps "people on the other side" (as in Hitchiti), or it may be cognate with Choctaw apelachi, "a helper."

Connections. —These Indians belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family, their closest connections having been apparently the Hitchiti and Alabama.

Location. —The Apalachee towns, with few exceptions, were compactly situated in the neighborhood of the present Florida capital, Tallahassee. (See also Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.)


Aute, 8 or 9 days' journey from the main towns and apparently southwest of them.
Ayubale, 77 leagues from St. Augustine.
Bacica, probably near the present Wacissa River.
Bacuqua, seemingly somewhat removed from the main group of towns.
Calahuchi, north of the main group of towns and not certainly Apalachee.
Cupayca, location uncertain; its name seems to be in Timucua.
Ibitachuco, 75 leagues from St. Augustine.
Iniahica, close to the main group of towns, possibly the Timucua name for one of the others given, since hica is the Timucua word for "town".
Ochete, on the coast 8 leagues south of Iniahica.
Ocuia, 84 leagues from St. Augustine.
Ospalaga, 86 leagues from St. Augustine.
Patali, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.
Talimali, 88 leagues from St. Augustine and very likely identical with Iniahica.
Talpatqui, possibly identical with the preceding.
Tomoli, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.
Uzela, on or near Ocilla River.
Yapalaga, near the main group of towns.
Ychutafun, on Apalachicola River.
Yecambi, 90 leagues from St. Augustine.

A few other names are contained in various writings or placed upon sundry charts, but some of these belonged to distinct tribes and were located only temporarily among the Apalachee; others are not mentioned elsewhere but appear to belong in the same category; and still others are simply names of missions and may apply to certain of the towns mentioned above. Thus Chacatos evidently refers to the Chatot tribe, Tama to the Tamali, and Oconi probably to a branch of the Oconee mentioned elsewhere. The Chines were a body of Chatot and derived their name from a chief. Among names which appear only in Spanish we find Santa Fe. Capola and Ilcombe, given on the Popple Map, were probably occupied by Guale and Yamasee refugees. A late Apalachee settlement was called San Marcos.

History. —The Apalachee seem to appear first in history in the chronicles of the Narvaez expedition (Bandelier, 1905). The explorers spent nearly a month in an Apalachee town in the year 1628 but were subjected to constant attacks on the part of the warlike natives, who pursued them during their withdrawal to a coast town named Aute. In October 1539, De Soto arrived in the Apalachee province and remained there the next winter in spite of the unceasing hostility of the natives, who well maintained the reputation for prowess they had acquired 11 years before. Although the province is mentioned from time to time by the first French and Spanish colonists of Florida, it did not receive much attention until the tribes between it and St. Augustine had been pretty well missionized. In a letter written in 1607 we learn that the Apalachee had asked for missionaries and, although one paid a visit to them the next year, the need is reiterated at frequent intervals. It was not until 1633, however, that the work was actually begun. In that year two monks entered the country and the conversion proceeded very rapidly so that by 1647 there were seven churches and convents and eight of the principal chiefs had been baptized. In that year, however, a great rebellion took place. Three missionaries were killed and all of the churches with their sacred objects were destroyed. An expedition sent against the insurgents was repulsed, but shortly afterward the movement collapsed, apparently through a counterrevolution in the tribe itself. After this most of the Apalachee sought baptism and there was no further trouble between them and the Spaniards except for a brief sympathetic movement at the time of the Timucua uprising of 1656. The outstanding complaint on the part of the Indians was that some of them were regularly commandeered to work on the fortifications of St. Augustine. In 1702 a large Apalachee war party was severely defeated by Creek Indians assisted by some English traders, and in 1704 an expedition from South Carolina under Colonel Moore practically destroyed the nation. Moore claims to have carried away the people of three towns and the greater part of the population of four more and to have left but two towns and part of another. Most of these latter appear to have fled to Mobile, where, in 1705, they were granted land on which to settle. The Apalachee who had been carried off by Moore were established near New Windsor, S. C., but when the Yamasee War broke out they joined the hostile Indians and retired for a time to the Lower Creeks. Shortly afterward the English faction among the Lower Creeks became ascendant and the Apalachee returned to Florida, some remaining near their old country and others settling close to Pensacola to be near their relatives about Mobile. By 1718 another Apalachee settlement had been organized by the Spaniards near San Marcos de Apalache and close to their old country. In 1728 we hear of two small Apalachee towns in this neighborhood. Most of them gravitated finally to the neighborhood of Pensacola. In 1764, the year after all French and Spanish possessions east of the Mississippi passed into the hands of Great Britain, the Apalachee, along with several other tribes, migrated into Louisiana, now held by Spain, and settled on Red River, where they and the Taensa conjointly occupied 8 miles of land between Bayou d'Arro and Bayou Jean de Jean. Most of this land was sold in 1803 and the Apalachee, reduced to a small band, appear to have moved about in the same general region until they disappeared. They are now practically forgotten, though a few mixed-blood Apalachee are still said to be in existence. A few accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma.

Population. —Mooney (1928) estimates 7,000 Apalachee Indians in 1650, a figure which seems to me to be ample. Governor Salazar's mission-by-mission estimate in 1675 yielded a total of 6,130, and a Spanish memorial dated 1676 gives them a population of 5,000. At the time of Moore's raid there appear to have been about 2,000. The South Carolina Census of 1715 gives 4 Apalachee villages, 275 men, and 638 souls. As the Mobile Apalachee were shortly afterward reduced to 100 men, the number of the entire tribe in 1715 must have been about 1,000 By 1758 they appear to have fallen to not much over 100, and in 1814 Sibley reported but 14 men in the Louisiana band, signifying a total of perhaps 50 (Sibley, 1832). Morse's estimate (1822) of 150 in 1817 is evidently considerably too high.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Apalachee were mentioned repeatedly as a powerful and warlike people, and this character was attested by their stout resistance to Narvaez and De Soto. The sweeping destruction which overtook them at the hands of the Creeks and Carolinians mark an epoch in Southeastern history. Their name is preserved in Apalachee Bay and River, Fla.; Apalachee River, Ga., Apalachee River, Ala.; and most prominently of all, in the Appalachian Mountains, and other terms derived from them. Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, the name of which signifies "Old Town," is on the site of San Luis de Talimali, the principal Spanish mission center. There is a post village named Apalachee in Morgan County, Ga.

Apalachicola. At times some of the Apalachicola Indians lived south of the present Florida boundary line and they gave their name to the great river which runs through the panhandle of that State. (See Georgia.)

Calusa. Said by a Spaniard, Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who was a captive among them for many years, to mean "fierce people," but it is perhaps more probable that, since it often appears in the form Carlos, it was, as others assert, adopted by the Calusa chief from the name of the Emperor Charles V, about whose greatness he had learned from Spanish prisoners.

Connection. —From the place names and the few expressions recorded by Fontaneda, I suspect that the Calusa were connected linguistically with the Muskhogean stock and particularly with that branch of it to which the Apalachee and Choctaw belonged, but no definite conclusion on this point is as yet possible.

Location.—On the west coast of the Peninsula of Florida southward of Tampa Bay and including the Florida Keys. The Indians in the interior, about Lake Okeechobee, while forming a distinct group, seem also to have been Calusa.


Unknown, except as indicated above.

Villages: In the following list the letters S and I indicate respectively towns belonging to the seacoast division and those of the interior division about Lake Okeechobee. Beyond this allocation the positions of most of the towns may be indicated merely in a general manner, by reference to neighboring towns.

Abir (I), between Neguitun and Cutespa.
Alcola (or Chosa), location uncertain.
Apojola Negra, the first word is Timucua; the second seems to be Spanish; location unknown.
Calaobe (
Caragara, between Namuguya and Henhenguepa.
Casitoa (
S), between Muspa and Cotebo.
Cayovea (
Cayucar, between Tonco and Neguitun.
Chipi, between TomΈobe and Taguagemae.
Chosa (see Alcola).
Comachica (
Cononoguay, between Cutespa and Estegue.
Cotebo, between Casitoa and Coyobia.
Coyobia, between Cotebo and Tequemapo.
Cuchiyaga, said to be southwest from Bahia Honda and 40 leagues northeast of Guarungube, probably on Big Pine Key.
Custavui, south of Jutun.
Cutespa (
I), between Abir and Cononoguay.
Elafay, location uncertain.
Enempa (
Estame (
S), between Metamapo and Sacaspada.
Estantapaca, between Yagua and Queyhicha.
Estegue, between Cononoguay and Tomsobe.
Excuru, between Janar and Metamapo.
Guarungube, "on the point of the Martyrs," and thus probably near Key West.
Guevu (
Henhenguepa, between Caragara and Ocapataga.
Janar, between Ocapataga and Escuru.
Judyi, between Satucuava and Soco.
Juestocobaga, between Queyhicha and Sinapa.
Jutun (
S), between Tequemapo and Custavui.
Metamapo (
S), between Escuru and Estame.
Muspa (
S), between Teyo and Casitoa.
Numuguya, between Taguagemae and Caragara.
Neguitun, between Cayucar and Abir.
No or Non (S).
Ocapataga, between Henhenguepa and Janar.
Queyhicha, between Estantapaca and Juestocobaga.
Quisiyove (
Sacaspada (
S), between Estame and Satucuava.
Satucuava, between Sacaspada and Judyi.
Sinaesta (
Sinapa (
S), between Juestocobaga and Tonco.
Soco, between Judyi and Vuebe.
Taguagemae, between Chipi and Namuguya.
Tampa (
S), the northernmost town, followed on the south by Yegua, and probably on Charlotte Harbor.
Tatesta (
S), between the Tequesta tribe and Cuchiyaga, about 80 leagues north of the latter, perhaps at the innermost end of the Keys.
Tavaguemue (
Tequemapo (
S), between Coyobia and Jutun.
Teyo, between Vuebe and Muspa.
Tiquijagua (?).
Tomo (
Tomsobe (
I), between Estegue and Chipi.
Tonco, between Sinapa and Cayucar.
Tuchi (
Vuebe, between Soco and Teyo, possibly the same as Guevu.
Yagua (
S), between Tampa and Estantapaca.

History.— Most early navigators who touched upon the west coast of Florida must have encountered the Calusa but the first definite appearance of the tribe historically is in connection with shipwrecks of Spanish fleets, particularly the periodical treasure fleet from Mexico, upon the Calusa coast. These catastrophes threw numerous Spanish captives into the hands of the natives and along with them a quantity of gold and silver for which the Calusa shortly became noted. Ponce de Leon visited them in 1513, Miruelo in 1516, Cordova in 1517; and Ponce, during a later expedition in 1521, received from them a mortal wound from which he died after reaching Cuba. Most of our early information regarding the Calusa is obtained from Fontaneda (1854), who was held captive in the tribe from about 1561 to 1669. At the time when St. Augustine was settled attempts were made to establish a post among these Indians and to missionize them, but the post had soon to be withdrawn and the missionary attempt proved abortive. The Calusa do not seem to have been converted to Christianity during the entire period of Spanish control. While their treatment of castaways was restrained, in every other respect they appear to have continued their former manner of existence, except that they resorted more and more to Havana for purposes of trade. Outside of a steady diminution in numbers there is little to report of them until the close of the Seminole War. The Seminole, when hard pressed by the American forces, moved south into the Everglade region and there came into contact with what was left of the Calusa. Romans (1775) states that the last of the Calusa emigrated to Cuba in 1763, but probably the Indians who composed this body were from the east coast and were not true Calusa. The Calusa themselves appear about this time under the name Muspa, which, it will be seen, was the designation of one of their towns. On the movement of the Seminole into their country they became involved in hostilities with the American troops, and a band of Muspa attacked the camp of Colonel Harney in 1839 killing 18, out of 30 men. July 23 of the same year Harney fell upon the Spanish Indians, killed their chief, and hung six of his followers,. The same band later killed a botanist named Perrine living on Indian Key and committed other depredations. The Calusa may have been represented by the "Choctaw band" of Indians, which appears among the Seminole shortly after this time. The Seminole now in Oklahoma assert that a body of Choctaw came west with them when they were moved from Florida, but the only thing certain as to the Calusa is that we hear no more about them. Undoubtedly some did not go west and either became incorporated with the Florida Seminole or crossed to Cuba.

Population.— Mooney's (1928) estimate of 3,000 Calusa Indians in 1650 is probably as near the truth as any estimate that could be suggested. No census and very few estimates of the population, even of the most partial character, are recorded. An expedition sent into the Calusa country in 1680 passed through 5 villages said to have had a total population of 960, but this figure can be accepted only with the understanding that these villages were principal centers. In the band that attacked Harney in 1839 there were said to be 250 Indians.

Connection in which they have become noted.—When first discovered the Calusa were famous for the power of their chiefs, the amount of gold which they had obtained from Spanish treasure ships, and for their addiction to human sacrifice. Their name persists in that of Caloosahatchee River and probably also in that of Charlotte Harbor. Another claim to distinction is the adoption by their chief of the name of the great Emperor Charles— if that was indeed the case. The only similar instance would seem to be in the naming of the Delaware Indians, but that was imposed upon the Lenni Lenape, not adopted by them.

Caparaz. A small tribe or band placed in 1674 in connection with a doctrine called San Luis on the Apalachee coast along with two other bands called Amacano and Chine. Possibly they may have been survivors of the Capachequi encountered by De Soto in 1540. The three bands were estimated to contain 300 people.

Chatot. Meaning unknown, but the forms of this word greatly resemble the synonyms of the name Choctaw.

Connections.—The language spoken by this tribe belonged, undoubtedly, to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock.

Location.—West of Apalachicola River, perhaps near the middle course of the Chipola. (See also Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana).


From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear that there were at least two towns in early times, one called Chacato, after the name of the tribe, and the other Tolentino.

History.—The Chatot are first mentioned in a Spanish document of 1639 in which the governor of Florida congratulates himself on having consummated peace between the Chatot, Apalachicola, and Yamasee on one side and the Apalachee on the other. This, he says, "is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never maintained peace with anybody." In 1674 the two missions noted above were established among these people, but the following year the natives rebelled. The disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish officer Florencia, and the Chatot presently settled near the Apalachee town of San Luis, mission work among them being resumed. In 1695, or shortly before, Lower Creek Indians attacked this mission, plundered the church, and carried away 42 Christianized natives. In 1706 or 1707, following on the destruction of the Apalachee towns, the Chatot and several other small tribes living near it were attacked and scattered or carried off captive, and the Chatot fled to Mobile, where they were well received by Bienville and located on the site of the present city of Mobile. When Bienville afterward moved the seat of his government to this place he assigned to them land on Dog River by way of compensation. After Mobile was ceded to the English in 1763 the Chatot, along with a number of other small tribes near Hak City, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have settled first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing is heard of them afterward though in 1924 some old Choctaw remembered their former presence on the Sabine. The remnant may have found their way to Oklahoma.

Population.—I would estimate a population of 1,200-1,500 for the Chatot when they were first missionized (1674). When they were settled on the site of Mobile, Bienville (1932, Vol. 3, p. 536) says that they could muster 250 men, which would indicate a population of near 900, but in 1725-26 there were but 40 men and perhaps a total population of 140. In 1805 they are said to have had 30 men or about 100 people. In 1817 a total of 240 is returned by Morse (1822), but this figure is probably twice too large.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Chatot are noted because at one time they occupied the site of Mobile, Ala., and because Bayou Chattique, Choctaw Point, and Choctaw Swamp close by that city probably preserve their name. The Choctawhatchee, which is near their former home, was probably named for them.

Chiaha. A few Creeks of this tribe emigrated from their former towns to Florida before the Creek-American War and after that encounter may have been joined by others. In an early list of Seminole settlements they are credited with one town on "Beech Creek," and this may have been identical with Fulemmy's Town or Pinder Town located on Suwanee River in 1817, which was said to be occupied by Chiaha Indians. The Mikasuki are reported to have branched off from this tribe. (See Georgia.)

Chilucan. A tribe mentioned in an enumeration of the Indians in Florida missions made in 1726. Possibly the name is derived from Muskogee chiloki, "people of a different speech," and since one of the two missions where they are reported was San Buenaventura and elsewhere that mission is said to have been occupied by Mocama Indians, that is, seacoast Timucua, a Timucuan connection is indicated. In the list mentioned, 70 Chilucan were said to be at San Buenaventura and 62 at the mission of Nombre de Dios.

Chine. A small tribe or band associated with two others called Amacano and Caparaz (q.v.) in a doctrine established on the coast of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may have moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated 1680 there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This tribe and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to number 300 individuals in 1674.

Creeks, see Alabama, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Mikasukee, Muskogee, Oconee, Sawokli, Tawasa, and Yuchi.

Fresh Water ("Agua Dulce") Indians. A name applied to the people of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no native equivalent.

Connections.—The same as Acuera (q.v.).

Location.—In the coast district of eastern Florida between St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral.

Villages: The following towns are given in this province extending from north to south, but not all of the native names have been preserved:

Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Antonico; another possible name is Tunsa.
Equale, location uncertain.
Filache, location uncertain.
Maiaca, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later lists).
San Julian, location uncertain.
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed in 1600 by a flood.
Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by another as 24 leagues.

The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca, but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early date which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In addition to the preceding, a number of town names have been preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some of them may be synonyms of the town names already given, especially of towns like Antonico and St. Julian, the native names of which are otherwise unknown. These include:

Ηacoroy, 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco.
Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Ηicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily in the Fresh Water Province.
Elanogue, near Antonico.
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Mogote, in the region of Nocoroco.
Nocoroco, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a river called Nocoroco River, perhaps Halifax River.
Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns, Perqui and Maland.
Pia, south of Nocoroco.
Sabobche, south of Nocoroco.
Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province.
Tucura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned.
Yaocay, near Antonico.

History.—The history of this province differed little from that of the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. Ponce de Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1613. The French had few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda (1814) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later there were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de Anacape and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission list of 1655 and in that of 16,80 but from data given with the latter it is evident that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape. All of these Indians were converted rapidly early in the seventeenth century and the population declined with increasing celerity. The last body of Timucua were settled in this district and have left their name in that of Tomoka Creek. (See Utina.)

Population.—There are no data on which to give a separate and full statement of the Timucua population in this district. In 1602, however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized and 100 more were under instruction. (See Acuera [probably means Utina--g.h.].)

Guacata. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—On the evidence furnished by place names in this section, the tribe is classified with the south Florida peoples.

Location.—On or near Saint Lucie River in Saint Lucie and Palm Beach Counties.

History.—The Guacata are first mentioned by Fontaneda (1854), who in one place speaks of them as on Lake Mayaimi (Okeechobee) but this probably means only that they ranged across to the lake from the eastern seacoast. Shortly after his conquest of Florida Menendez left 200 men in the Ais country, but the Indians of that tribe soon rose against them and they moved to the neighborhood of the Guacata, where they were so well treated that they called the place Santa Lucia. Next year, however, these Indians rose against them and although they were at first defeated the Spaniards were so hard pressed that they abandoned the place in 1568. They were still an independent body in the time of Dickenson, in 1699, but not long afterward they evidently united with other east coast bands, and they were probably part of those who emigrated to Cuba in 1763.

Population.—No separate estimate has ever been made. (See Ais.)

Guale. In relatively late times many of these Indians were driven from their country into Florida. (See Georgia.)

Hitchiti. The ancient home of the Hitchiti was north of Florida but after the destruction of the earlier tribes of the peninsula, in which they themselves participated, Hitchiti-speaking peoples moved in in great numbers to take their places, so that up to the Creek-American War, the Hitchiti language was spoken by the greater number of Seminole. The later immigration, as we have indicated above, reduced the Hitchiti element to a minority position, so that what we now call the Seminole language is practically identical with Muskogee. True Hitchiti as distinguished from Hitchiti-speaking peoples who bore other names, do not appear to have been very active in this early movement though Hawkins (1848) mentions them as one of those tribes from which the Seminole were made up. The Hitchiti settlement of Attapulgas or Atap'halgi and perhaps other of the so-called Fowl Towns seem to represent a later immigration into the peninsula. (See Georgia.)

Icafui. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan group though they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe called Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or Hitchiti. On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name of this tribe, possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti.

Location.—On the mainland and probably in southeastern Georgia near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean populations.


Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but the names of none of them are known with certainty.

History.—Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the Franciscan missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their way to or from interior peoples. It was a "visita" of the missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in no respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina.)

Population.—Separate figures regarding this tribe are wanting. (See Utina.)

Jeaga. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—The Jeaga are classed on the basis of place names and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were perhaps of the Muskhogean division proper.

Location.—On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east coast of Florida.


Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several settlements are given which may have belonged to one or both of them, viz: Cabista, Custegiyo, Janar, Tavuacio.

History.—The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda (1854) and by many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. Near Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best informants regarding the ancient people of the east coast of Florida, was cast ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this tribe was probably merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other tribes of this coast, and removed with them to Cuba. (See Ais .)

Population.—No separate enumeration is known. (See Ais.)

Koasati. Appearance of a "Coosada Old Town" on the middle course of Choctawhatchee River on a map of 1823 shows that a band of Koasati Indians joined the Seminole in Florida, but this is all we know of them. (See Alabama.)

Macapiras, or Amacapiras. Meaning unknown. A small tribe which was brought to the St. Augustine missions in 1726 along with some Pohoy, and so apparently from the southwest coast. There were only 24, part of whom died and the rest returned to their old homes before 1728.

Mikasuki. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim that they were originally Chiaha (q. v.) are probably correct.

Location.—Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee Lake in Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.)


Alachua Talofa or John Hick's Town, in the Alachua Plains, Alachua County.
New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County.
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake.

History.—The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore we know that their independent status had been established by that date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha. They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided, part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it is quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from themselves, the Muskogee element blamed them for sins they themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct Square Ground as late as 1912.

Population.—Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young to the effect that there were 1,400 Mikasuki in his time, about 1817. This figure is probably somewhat too high though the Mikasuki element is known to have been a large one. They form one entire band among the Florida Seminole.

Connection which they have become noted.—The Mikasuki attained prominence in the Seminole War. In the form Miccosukee their name has been applied to a lake in Jefferson and Leon Counties, Fla., and a post village in the latter county. In the form Mekusuky it has been given to a village in Seminole County, Okla.

Mococo, or Mucoco. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—They belonged with little doubt to the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock.

Location.—About the head of Hillsboro Bay.


None are mentioned under any other than the tribal name.

History.—The chief of this tribe gave asylum to a Spaniard named Juan Ortiz who had come to Florida in connection with the expedition of Narvaez. When Do Soto landed near the Mococo town its chief sent Ortiz with an escort of warriors to meet him. Ortiz afterward became De Soto's principal interpreter until his death west of the Mississippi, and the Mococo chief remained on good terms with the Spaniards as long as they stayed in the neighborhood. There are only one or two later references to the tribe. (See Utina.)

Connection in which they have become noted.—The contacts of the Mococo with De Soto and his followers constitute their only claim to distinction.

Muklasa. A small Creek town whose inhabitants were probably related by speech to the Alabama and Koasati. They are said to have gone to Florida after the Creek War. (See Alabama.)

Muskogee. The first true Creeks or Muskogee to enter Florida seem to have been a body of Eufaula Indians who made a settlement called Chuko tcati, Red House, on the west side of the peninsula some distance north of Tampa Bay. {1} This was in 1761. Other Muskogee drifted into Florida from time to time, but the great immigration took place after the Creek-American War. The new-comers were from many towns, but more particularly those on the Tallapoosa River. They gave the final tone and the characteristic language to the Florida emigrants who had before been dominantly of Hitchiti connection, and therefore the so-called Seminole language is Muskogee, with possibly a few minor changes in the vocabulary. (See Alabama.)

Ocale, or Etocale. Meaning unknown, but perhaps connected with Timucua tocala, "it is more than," a comparative verb.

Connections.—(See Acuera.)

Location.—In Marion County or Levy County north of the bend of the Withlacoochee River.


Uqueten (first village approaching from the south), and perhaps Itaraholata.

History.—This tribe is first mentioned by the chroniclers of the De Soto expedition. He passed through it in 1539 after crossing Withlacoochee River. Fontaneda also heard of it, and it seems to appear on De Bry's map of 1591. This is the last information that has been preserved.

Population.—Unknown. (See Acuera and Utina. )

Connection in which they have become noted.—Within comparatively modern times this name was adopted in the form Ocala as that of the county seat of Marion County, Fla. There is a place so called in Pulaski County, Ky.

Oηita, see Pohoy.

Oconee. After leaving the Chattahoochee about 1750 the Oconee moved into Florida and established themselves on the Alachua Plains in a town which Bartram calls Cuscowilla. They constituted the first large band of northern Indians to settle in Florida and their chiefs came to be recognized as head chiefs of the Seminole. One of these, Mikonopi, was prominent during the Seminole War, but the identity of the tribe itself is lost after that struggle. Another part of them seem to have settled for a time among the Apalachee (q.v.) (See Georgia.)

Onatheaqua. In the narratives of Laudonniere and Le Moyne this appears as one of the two main Timucua tribes in the northwestern part of Florida, the other being the Hostaqua (or Yustaga). Elsewhere I have suggested that it may have covered the Indians afterward gathered into the missions of Santa Cruz de Tarihica, San Juan de Guacara, Santa Catalina, and Ajoica, where there were 230 Indians in 1675, but that is uncertain. (See Utina.)

Osochi. A Creek division thought to have originated in Florida. (See Alabama.)

Pawokti. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—They were probably affiliated either with the Tawasa or the Alabama. In any case there is no reason to doubt that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect, using Muskhogean in the extended sense.

Location.—The earliest known location of the Pawokti seems to have been west of Choctawhatchee River, not far from the shores of the Gulf of Mιxico. (See also Alabama.)

History.—Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908) assigns the Pawokti the above location before they were driven away by northern Indians, evidently Creeks, in 1706-7. Although the name does not appear in any French documents known to me, they probably settled near Mobile along with the Tawasa. At any rate we find them on Alabama River in 1799 a few miles below the present Montgomery and it is assumed they had been there from 1717, when Fort Toulouse was established. Their subsequent history is merged in that of the Alabama (q.v.).

Population.—(See Alabama.)

Pensacola. Meaning "hair people," probably from their own tongue, which in that case was very close to Choctaw.

Connections.—The name itself, and other bits of circumstantial evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the Muskhogean stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close to Choctaw.

Location.—In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. (See also Mississippi.)

History.—In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez expedition had an encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably belonged to this tribe. It is also probable that their territory constituted the prince of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the commander of De Soto's fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he brought a remarkably fine "blanket of sable fur." In 1559 a Spanish colony under Tristan de Luna landed in a port called "the Bay of Ichuse," (or "Ychuse") undoubtedly in the same province, but the enterprise was soon given up and the colonists returned to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems to be mentioned first by name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 we learn they were at war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years afterward, when the Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is claimed that the tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but this is an error. It had merely moved farther inland and probably toward the west. They are noted from time to time, and in 1725-6 Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536) particularly describes the location of their village near that of the Biloxi of Pearl River. The last mention of them seems to be in an estimate of Indian population dated December 1, 1764, in which their name appears along with those of six other small tribes. They may have been incorporated finally into the Choctaw or have accompanied one of the smaller Mobile tribes into Louisiana near the date last mentioned.

Population.—In 1725 (or 1726) Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536) says that in the Pensacola village and that of the Biloxi together, there were not more than 40 men. The enumeration mentioned above, made in 1764, gives the total population of this tribe and the Biloxi, Chatot, Capinans, Washa, Chawasha, and Pascagoula collectively as 251 men.

Connection in which they have become noted.—Through the adoption of their name first for that of Pensacola Bay and secondly for the port which grew up upon it, the Pensacola have attained a fame entirely disproportionate to the aboriginal importance of the tribe. There are places of the name in Yancey County, N. C., and Mayes County, Okla.

Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—They were evidently closely connected with the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock. (See Utina ).

Location.—On the south shore of Tampa Bay.

Towns.—(See History.)

History.—This tribe, or a part of the same, appears first in history under the names Oηita or Ucita as a "province" in the territory of which Hernando de Soto landed in 1539. He established his headquarters in the town of the head chief on June 1, and when he marched inland on July 15 he left a captain named Calderon with a hundred men to hold this place pending further developments. These were withdrawn at the end of November to join the main army in the Apalachee country. In 1612 these Indians appear for the first time under the name Pohoy or Pooy in the account of an expedition to the southwest coast of Florida under an ensign named Cartaya. In 1675 Bishop Calderon speaks of the "Pojoy River," and in 1680 there is a passing reference to it. Some time before 1726 about 20 Indians of this tribe were placed in a mission called Santa Fe, 9 leagues south of St. Augustine, but they had already suffered from an epidemic and by 1728 the remainder returned to their former homes. (See Utina.)

Population.—In 1680 the Pohoy were said to number 300.

Connection in which they have become noted.— The only claim of the Pohoy to distinction is derived from their contacts with the expedition of De Soto.

Potano. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—(See Utina.)

Location.—In the territory of the present Alachua County.


The following places named in the De Soto narratives probably belonged to this tribe: Itaraholata or Ytara, Potano, Utinamocharra or Utinama, Cholupaha, and a town they called Mala-Paz. A letter dated 1602 mentions five towns, and on and after 1606, when missionaries reached the tribe, stations were established called San Francisco, San Miguel, Santa Anna, San Buenaventura, and San Martin(?). There is mention also of a mission station called Apalo.

History.—The name Potano first appears as that of a province through which De Soto passed in 1539. In 1564-65 the French colonists of Florida found this tribe at war with the Utina and assisted the latter to win a victory over them. After the Spaniards had supplanted the French, they also supported the Utina in wars between them and the Potano. In 1584 a Spanish captain sent to invade the Potano country was defeated and slain. A second expedition, however, killed many Indians and drove them from their town. In 1601 they asked to be allowed to return to it and in 1606 missionary work was undertaken among them resulting in their conversion along with most of the other Timucua peoples. Their mission was known as San Francisco de Potano and it appears in the mission lists of 1655 and 1680. In 1656 they took part in a general Timucuan uprising which lasted 8 months. In 1672 a pestilence carried off many and as the chief of Potano does not appear as signatory to a letter written to Charles II by several Timucua chiefs in 1688, it is possible their separate identity had come to an end by that date. Early in the eighteenth century the Timucua along with the rest of the Spanish Indians of Florida were decimated rapidly and the remnant of the Potano must have shared their fate. (See Utina.)

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Potano Indians at 3,000 in 1650 and this is probably fairly accurate, as the Franciscan missionaries state that they were catechizing 1,100 persons in the 5 towns belonging to the tribe in 1602. In 1675 there were about 160 in the 2 Potano missions. (See Acuera and Utina.)

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Potano tribe was anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, the most powerful of all the Timucua peoples.

Saturiwa. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—(See Utina.)

Location.—About the mouth of St. Johns River. Some early writers seem to include Cumberland Island in their jurisdiction.


Laudonniere (1586) says that the chief of this tribe ruled over 30 subchiefs, but it is uncertain whether these subchiefs represented villages belonging to the tribe, allied tribes, or both. The Spaniards give the following: San Juan del Puerto, the main mission for this province under which were Vera Cruz, Arratobo, Potaya, San Matheo, San Pablo, Hicachirico ("Little Town"), Chinisca, and Carabay. San Diego de Salamototo, near the site of Picolata, on which no villages seem to have depended; and Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, 3 leagues from St. Augustine, may be classed here somewhat uncertainly.

History.—The Saturiwa were visited by Jean Ribault in 1562 and probably by earlier explorers, but they appear first under their proper name in the chronicles of the Huguenot settlement of Florida of 1564-5. Fort Caroline was built in the territory of the Saturiwa and intimate relations continued between the French and Indians until the former were dispossessed by Spain. The chief, known as Saturiwa at this time, assisted De Gourgues in 1567 to avenge the destruction of his countrymen. It is perhaps for this reason that we find the Spaniards espousing the cause of Utina against Saturiwa 10 years later. The tribe soon submitted to Spain, however, and was one of the first missionized, its principal mission being San Juan del Puerto. There labored Francisco de Pareja to whose grammar and religious works we are chiefly indebted for our knowledge of the Timucua language (Pareja, 1612, 1613, 1866). Like the other Florida Indians, they suffered severely from pestilence in 1617 and 1672. The name of their chief appears among those involved in the Timucua rebellion of 1656, and the names of their missions appear in the list of Bishop Calderon and in that of 1680. We hear nothing more of them, and they evidently suffered the same fate as the other tribes of the group.

Population.—No separate figures for the Saturiwa have been preserved, except that a missionary states in 1602 that there were about 500 Christians among them and in 1675 San Juan del Puerto contained "about thirty persons" and Salamototo "about forty." (See Utina.)

Connection in which they have become noted.— The prominence of the Saturiwa was due to the intimate dealings between them and the French colonists. Later the same people, though not under the same name, became a main support of the Spanish missionary movement among the Florida Indians.

Sawokli. A division of Creek Indians belonging to the Hitchiti-speaking group. Anciently it seems to have lived entirely in Florida, but later it moved up into the neighborhood of the Lower Creeks. (See Alabama.)

Seminole. Meaning "one who has camped out from the regular towns," and hence sometimes given as "runaway," but there is too much onus in this rendering. Prof. H. E. Bolton believes it was adopted from Spanish cimarron meaning "wild."

Ikanafαskalgi, "people of the point," a Creek name.
Ikaniϊksalgi, "peninsula people," own name.
Isti seminole, "Seminole people."
Lower Creeks, so called by Bartram (1792).
Ungiayσ-rono "peninsula people," Huron name.

Connections.— As implied above, the Seminole removed from the Creek towns and constituted just before the last Seminole War a fair representation of the population of those towns: perhaps two-thirds Creek proper or Muskogee, and the remaining third Indians of the Hitchiti-speaking towns, Alabama, Yamasee, and besides a band of Yuchi, latterly a few of the original Indian inhabitants of southern Florida.

Location.—The Seminole towns were first planted about Apalachicola River, in and near the old Apalachee country and in the Alachua country in the central part of the State, although a few were scattered about Tampa Bay and even well down the east coast as far south as Miami. They did not enter the Everglade section of the State until toward the end of the last Seminole War. As a result of that war, the greater part were removed to the territory now constituting Seminole County, Okla. A few remained in the old territory and their descendants are there today.


Ahapopka, near the head of Ocklawaha River.
Ahosulga, 5 miles south of New Mikasuki, perhaps in Jefferson County.
Alachua, near Ledwiths Lake.
Alafiers, probably a synonym for some other town name, perhaps McQueen's Village, near Alafia River.
Alapaha, probably on the west side of the Suwannee just above its junction with the Allapaha.
Alligator, said to be a settlement in Suwannee County.
Alouko, on the east side of St. Marks River 20 miles north of St. Marks.
Apukasasoche, 20 miles west of the head of St. Johns River.
Attapulgas: first location, west of Apalachicola River in Jackson or Calhoun Counties; second location inland in Gadsden County.
Beech Creek, exact location unknown.
Big Cypress Swamp, in the "Devil's Garden" on the northern edge of Big Cypress Swamp, 15 to 20 miles southwest of Lake Okeechobee.
Big Hammock, north of Tampa Bay.
Bowlegs' Town, chief's name, on Suwannee River and probably known usually under another name.
Bucker Woman's Town, on Long Swamp east of Big Hammock.
Burges' Town, probably on or near Flint or St. Marys River, southwestern Georgia.
Calusahatchee, on the river of the same name and probably occupied by Calusa Indians.
Capola, east of St. Marks River.
Catfish Lake, on a small lake in Polk County nearly midway between Lake Pierce and Lake Rosalie, toward the headwaters of Kissimmee River.
Chefixico's Old Town, on the south side of Old Tallahassee Lake, 5 miles east of Tallahassee.
Chetuckota, on the west bank of Pease Creek, below Pease Lake, west central Florida.
Choconikla, on the west side of Apalachicola River, probably in Jackson County.
Chohalaboohulka, probably identical with Alapaha.
Chukochati, near the hammock of the same name.
Cohowofooche, 23 miles northwest of St. Marks.
Cow Creek, on a stream about 15 miles northeast of the entrance of Kissimmee River.
Cuscowilla (see Alachua).
Etanie, west of St. Johns River and east of Black Creek.
Etotulga, 10 miles east of Old Mikasuki.
Fish-eating Creek, 5 miles from a creek emptying into Lake Okeechobee.
Fulemmy's Town, perhaps identical with Beech Creek, Suwannee River.
Hatchcalamocha, near Drum Swamp, 18 miles west of New Mikasuki.
Hiamonee, on the east bank of Ocklocknee River, probably on Lake Iamonia.
Hitchapuksassi, about 20 miles from the head of Tampa Bay and 20 miles south-east of Chukochati.
Homosassa, probably on Homosassa River.
Iolee, 60 miles above the mouth of Apalachicola River on the west bank at or near Blountstown.
John Hicks' Town, west of Payne's Savannah.
King Heijah's Town, or Koe Hadjo's Town, consisted of Negro slaves, probably in Alachua County.
Lochchiocha, 60 miles east of Apalachicola River and near Ocklocknee River.
Loksachumpa, at the head of St. Johns River.
Lowwalta (probably for ˜iwahali), location unknown.
McQueen's Village, on the east side of Tampa Bay, perhaps identical with Alafiers.
Miami River, about 10 miles north of the site of Fort Dallas, not far from Biscayne Bay, on Little Miami River.
Mulatto Girl's Town, south of Tuscawilla Lake.
Negro Town, near Withlacoochee River, probably occupied largely by runaway slaves.
New Mikasuki, 30 miles west of Suwannee River, probably in Madison County.
Notasulgar, location unknown.
Ochisi, at a bluff so called on the east side of Apalachicola River.
Ochupocrassa, near Miami.
Ocilla, at the mouth of Aucilla River on the east side.
Oclackonayahe, above Tampa Bay.
Oclawaha, on Ocklawaha River, probably in Putnam County.
Oithlakutci, on Little River 40 miles east of Apalachicola River.
Okehumpkee, 60 miles southwest from Volusia.
Oktahatki, 7 miles northeast of Sampala.
Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee in Leon County.
Oponays, "back of Tampa Bay," probably in Hillsboro or Polk Counties.
Owassissas, on an eastern branch of St. Marks River and probably near its head.
Payne's Town, near Koe Hadjo's Town, occupied by Negroes.
Picolata, on the east bank of St. Johns River west of St. Augustine.
Pilaklikaha, about 120 miles south of Alachua.
Pilatka, on or near the site of Palatka, probably the site of a Seminole town and of an earlier town as well.
Red Town, at Tampa Bay.
Sampala, 26 miles above the forks of the Apalachicola on the west bank, in Jackson County, or in Houston County, Ala.
Santa Fe, on the river of the same name, perhaps identical with Washitokha.
Sarasota, at or near Sarasota.
Seleuxa, at the head of Aucilla River.
Sitarky, evidently named after a chief, between Camp Izard and Fort King, West Florida.
Spanawalka, a miles below Iolee and on the west bank of Apalachicola River.
Suwannee, on the west bank of Suwannee River in Lafayette County.
Talakhacha, on the west side of Cape Florida on the seacoast.
Tallahassee, on the site of present Tallahassee.
Tallahassee or Spring Gardens, 10 miles from Volusia, occupied by Yuchi.
Talofa Okhase, about 30 miles west southwest from the upper part of Lake George.
Taluachapkoapopka, a short distance west of upper St. Johns River, probably at the present Apopka.
Tocktoethla, 10 miles above the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers.
Tohopki lagi, probably near Miami.
Topananaulka, 3 miles west of New Mikasuki.
Topkegalga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River near Tallahassee.
Totstalahoeetska, on the west side of Tampa Bay.
Tuckagulga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River between it and hiamonee.
Tuslalahockaka, 10 miles west of Walalecooche.
Wacahoota, location unknown.
Wachitokha, on the east side of Suwannee River between Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
Wakasassa, on the coast east of the mouth of Suwannee River.
Wasupa, 2 miles from St. Marks River and 18 miles from St. Marks itself.
Wechotookme, location unknown.
Welika, 4 miles east of the Tallahassee town.
Wewoka, at Wewoka, Okla.
Willanoucha, at the head of St. Marks River, perhaps identical with Alouko.
Withlacoochee, on Withlacoochee River, probably in Citrus or Sumter County.
Withlako, 4 miles from Clinch's battle ground.
Yalacasooche, at the mouth of Ocklawaha River.
Yulaka, on the west side of St. Johns River, 35 miles from Volusia or Dexter.
Yumersee, at the head of St. Marks River, 2 miles north of St. Marks, a settlement of Yamasee. (See Georgia.)

History.—The origin of the Seminole has already been given. The nucleus of the nation was constituted by a part of the Oconee, who moved into Florida about 1750 and were gradually followed by other tribes, principally of the Hitchiti connection. The first true Muskogee to enter the peninsula were some of the Indians of Lower Eufaula, who came in 1767 but these were mixed with Hitchiti and others. There was a second Muskogee immigration in 1778, but after the Creek-American War of 1813-14 a much greater immigration occurred from the Creek Nation, mainly from the Upper Towns, and as the great majority of the newcomers were Muskogee, the Seminole became prevailingly a Muskogee people, what is now called the Seminole language being almost pure Muskogee. Later there were two wars with the Whites; the first from 1817-18 in which Andrew Jackson lead the American forces; and the second, from 1835 to 1842, a long and bitter contest in which the Indians demonstrated to its fullest capacity the possibilities of guerrilla warfare in a semi-tropical swampy country. Toward the end of the struggle the Indians were forced from northern and central Florida into the Everglade section of the State. This contest is particularly noteworthy on account of the personality of Osceola, the brains of Seminole resistance, whose capture by treachery is an ineffaceable blot upon all who were connected with it and incidentally upon the record of the American Army. Diplomacy finally accomplished what force had failed to effect -- the policy put in practice by Worth at the suggestion of General E. A. Hitchcock. The greater part of the hostile Indians surrendered and were sent to Oklahoma, where they were later granted a reservation of their own in the western part of the Creek Nation. Both the emigrants, who have now been allotted, and the small number who stayed behind in Florida have since had an uneventful history, except for their gradual absorption into the mass of the population, an absorption long delayed in the case of the Florida Seminole, but nonetheless certain.

Population.—Before the Creek-American war the number of Seminole was probably about 2,000; after that date the best estimates give about 5,000. Exclusive of one census which seems clearly too high, figures taken after the Seminole war indicate a gradual reduction of Seminole in Oklahoma from considerably under 4!000 to 2,500 in 1851. A new census, in 1857, gave 1,907, and after that time little change is indicated though actually the amount of Indian blood was probably declining steadily. In Florida the figures were: 370 in 1847, 348 in 1850, 450 in 1893, 565 in 1895, 358 in 1901, 446 in 1911, 600 in 1913, 562 in 1914, 573 in 1919, 586 in 1937. In 1930 there were 1,789 in Oklahoma, 227 in Florida, and 32 scattered in other States.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The chief claim of this tribal confederation to distinction will always be the remarkable war which they sustained against the American Nation, the losses in men and money which they occasioned having been out of all proportion to the number of Indians concerned. The county in Oklahoma where most of the Seminole were sent at the end of the great war bears their name, as does a county in Florida, and it will always be associated with the Everglade country, where they made their last stand. Towns or post villages of the name are in Baldwin County, Ala.; Seminole County, Okla.; Armstrong County, Pa.; and Gaines County, Tex.

Surruque. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—Somewhat doubtful, but they were probably of the Timucuan linguistic group. (See Utina.)

Location.—At or very close to Cape Canaveral.

History.—The Surruque appear first in history as the "Sorrochos" of Le Moyne's map (1875), and his "Lake Sarropι" also probably derived its name from them. About the end of the same century, the sixteenth, trouble arose between them and the Spaniards, in consequence of which the Spanish governor fell upon a Surruque town, killed 60 persons and captured 54. Later they probably united with the Timucua people and shared their fortunes.

Population.—No estimate is possible. (See Utina.)

Tacatacuru. The meaning is unknown, though it seems to have something to do with "fire" (taca).

Connections.—(See Utina.)

Location.—On Cumberland Island to which the name Tacatacuru was applied.


It is probable that the same name was used for its chief town, which was missionized by the Spaniards under the name of San Pedro Mocama. Under this mission were those of Santo Domingo and Santa Maria de Sena.

History.—The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland Island), or of the neighboring mainland, met Jean Ribault in 1562 and seems to have remained on good terms with the French during their occupancy of Fort Caroline in 1564-65. He, or a successor, is mentioned among those who joined De Gourgues in his attack upon the Spaniards in 1567, but soon afterward they made peace with Spain and one chief, Don Juan, was of great assistance to the white men in many ways, particularly in driving back the Guale Indians after their rising in 1597. This chief died in 1600, and was succeeded by his niece. The church built by these Indians was said to be as big as that in St. Augustine. The good relations which subsisted between the Tacatacuru Indians and the Spaniards do not appear to have been broken by the Timucua rebellion of 1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned Cumberland Island and it was occupied by Yamasee. The mission of San Pedro Mocama consequently does not appear in the mission list of 1680, although it is in that of 1655. {2} The tribe was subsequently amalgamated with the other Timucua peoples and shared their fortunes. (See Utina.)

Population.—There is no estimate of the number of Tacatacuru distinct from that of the other Timucua. The missionary stationed among them in 1602 notes that there were then 8 settlements and 792 Christianized Indians in his province, but this province may not have been confined to the tribe. In that year Santo Domingo served 180 Christians and Santa Maria de Sena 112.

Tawasa. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—They spoke a dialect belonging to the Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic family, intermediate between Timucua proper and Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, and Apalachee.

Location.—In 1706-7 in west Florida about the latitude of the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers; at an earlier time and again later they were on the Alabama near the present Montgomery. (See also Louisiana.)


They usually occupied only one town at Autauga on Autauga Creek in the southeastern part of Autauga County, Ala., is said to have belonged to them.

History.—De Soto found the Tawasa near the Montgomery site in 1540. Some time during the next century and a half they moved to the neighborhood of Apalachicola River, but in 1707 they were attacked by the Creeks, who captured some of them, while the greater part fled to the French and were by them given lands near the present Mobile. They occupied several different sites in that neighborhood but in 1717 they moved back to the region where De Soto found them, their main village being in the northwestern suburbs of the present Montgomery. After the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814, they were compelled to abandon this place and move into the Creek territories between the Coosa and Talapoosa Rivers, where they remained until the main migration beyond the Mississippi. Previous to this, some of them had gone with other Alabama into Louisiana and they followed their fortunes. The name was remembered by Alabama in Polk County, Tex., until within a few years.

Population.—The French census of 1760 returned 40 Tawasa men and the Georgia census of 1792 "about 60." The census of 1832-33 gives 321 Indians in towns called Tawasa and Autauga, but all of these were quite certainly not Tawasa Indians in the strict application of that term. (See Alabama.)

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Tawasa tribe will be remembered ethnologically on account of the rescue of so much important information regarding the early history of themselves and their neighbors through the captive Indian Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908), who made his way into Virginia in 1708, and on account of the still more important vocabulary obtained from him.

Tekesta or Tequesta. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—The language of this tribe was probably connected with the languages of the other peoples of the southeast coast of Florida and with that of the Calusa, and may have been Muskhogean.

Location.—In the neighborhood of Miami.


Besides Tekesta proper, the main town, four villages are mentioned between that and the next tribe to the north, the Jeaga, to whom some of the villages may have belonged. These were, in order from south to north: Tavuacio, Janar, Cabista, and Custegiyo.

History.—The Tekesta do not appear in history much before the time of Fontaneda, who was a captive among the Calusa from 1551 to 1569. In 1566 we learn that they protected certain Spaniards from the Calusa chief, although the latter is sometimes regarded as their overlord. A post was established in their country in 1566 but abandoned 4 years later. Attempts made to convert them to Christianity at that time were without success. In 1573 they are said to have been converted by Pedro Menendez Marques, but later they returned to their primitive beliefs. It was these Indians who, according to Romans (1775), went to Cuba in 1763 along with some others from this coast.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 1,000 Indians on the southeast coast of Florida. According to Romans those who went to Cuba in 1763 had 30 men. Adair (1775) says there were 80 families.

Connection in which they have become noted.—Although the name has found no topographical lodgement, the Tekesta may be remembered as the earliest known body of people to occupy the site of Miami.

Tocobaga. Meaning unknown, though toco means in Timucua "to come out," "to proceed from."

Connections.—(See Utina.)

Location.—About Old Tampa Bay.


The main town was at or near Safety Harbor at the head of Old Tampa Bay.

History.—Narvaez probably landed in the territory of this tribe in 1528, but his chroniclers speak of meeting very few Indians. Eleven years later De Soto's expedition disembarked just south in Tampa Bay but came into little contact with this tribe. Two years after driving the French from St. Johns River in 1565, Menendez visited Tocobaga, and left a captain and 30 soldiers among them, all of whom were wiped out the year following. In 1612 a Spanish expedition was sent to punish the chiefs of Pohoy and Tocobaga because they had attacked Christian Indians, but spent little time in the latter province. There is no assured reference to a mission nearer than Acuera, nor do the Tocobaga appear among the tribes which participated in the great Timucua revolt of 1656. Ultimately it is probable that they joined the other Timucua and disappeared with them, though they may have united with the Calusa. It is also possible that they are the "Tompacuas" who appear later in the Apalachee country, and if so they may have been the Indians placed in 1726 in a mission near St. Augustine called San Buenaventura under the name "Macapiras" or "Amacapiras." (See Utina.)

Population.—Unknown. (See Utina.)

Connection in which they have become noted.—The principal claim to notoriety on the part of the Tocobaga is the fact that Narvaez landed in their country in 1528.

Uηita, see Pohoy.

Utina or Timucua. The first name, which probably refers to the chief and means "powerful," is perhaps originally from uti, "earth," while the second name, Timucua, is that from which the linguistic stock, or rather this Muskhogean subdivision of it, has received its name.

Connections.—As given above.

Location.—The territory of the Utina seems to have extended from the Suwannee to the St. Johns and even eastward of the latter, though some of the subdivisions given should be rated as independent tribes. (See Timocua under Georgia.)


Laudonniere (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the Utina chief, but among them he includes "Acquera" (Acuera) and Moquoso far to the south and entirely independent, so that we are uncertain regarding the status of the others he gives, which are as follows. Cadecha, Calanay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona, Omittaqua, and Onachaquara.

As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the leading Timucua division and gave its name to the whole, and as the particular tribe to which each town mentioned in the documents belonged cannot be given, it will be well to enter all here, although those that can be placed more accurately will be inserted in their proper places.

In De Soto's time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been the principal town. In the mission period we are told that the chief lived at Ayaocuto.

Acassa, a town inland from Tampa Bay.
Aguacaleyquen, a town in the province of Utina between Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
Ahoica, probably near the Santa Fe River.
Alachepoyo, inland from Tampa Bay.
Alatico, probably on Cumberland Island.
Albino, 40 leagues or 4 days inland from St. Augustine and within 1 1/2 to 2 leagues of two others called Tucuro and Utiaca.
Alimacani, on an island of the same name not far north of the mouth of St. Johns River.
Amaca, inland from Tampa Bay.
Anacapa, in the Fresh Water Province 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Anacharaqua, location unknown.
Antonico, in the Fresh Water Province.
Apalu, in the province of Yustaga.
Arapaja, 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Probably on Alapaha River.
Araya, south of the Withlacoochee River.
Archaha, location unknown.
Assile, on or near Aucilla River.
Astina, location unknown.
Atuluteca, probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island.
Ayacamale, location unknown.
Ayaocute, in the Utina country 34 leagues from St. Augustine.
Ayotore, inland from Cumberland Island and probably southwest.
Beca, location unknown.
Becao, location unknown.
Bejesi, location unknown, perhaps the Apalachee town of Wacissa.
Cachipile, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Ηacoroy, south of St. Augustine and 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco, probably in the Fresh Water Province.
Cadecha, allied with Utina.
Calany, allied with Utina.
Caparaca, south of St. Augustine, southwest of Nocoroco and probably in the Fresh Water Province.
Casti, location unknown.
Cayuco, near Tampa Bay.
Chamini, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.
Chinica, 70 leagues from St. Augustine.
Cholupaha, south of Aguacaleyquen in the Potano Province.
Chuaquin, 60 leagues west of St. Augustine.
Ηicale, south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco, perhaps in the Fresh Water Province.
Cilili, said to be a Utina town.
Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.
Coya, location unknown.
Disnica, south of St. Augustine, perhaps should be Tisnica.
Eηalamototo, on the site of Picolata.
Eηita, near Tampa Bay, possibly a variant of Oηita.
Eclauou, location unknown.
Edelano, on an island of the same name in St. Johns River.
Elajay, location unknown, perhaps Calusa.
Elanogue, in the Fresh Water Province near Antonico.
Emola, location unknown.
Enecaque, location unknown.
Equale, in the Fresh Water Province.
Ereze, inland from Tampa Bay.
Esquega, a town or tribe on the west coast.
Exangue, near Cumberland Island.
Filache, in the Fresh Water Province.
Guacara, on Suwannee River in northwestern Florida.
Guaηoco, probably a town on a plain so called in the Urriparacoxi country.
Heliocopile, location unknown.
Helmacape, location unknown.
Hicachirico ("Little town"), one league from the mission of San Juan del Puerto, which was probably at the mouth of St. Johns River in the Saturiwa Province.
Hiocaia, the probable name of a town giving its name to a chief, location unknown.
Huara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Itaraholata, south of Potano, Potano Province.
Juraya, a rancheria, apparently in the Timucua territory.
Laca, another name for Eηalamototo.
Lamale, inland from Cumberland Island.
Luca, between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River in the Urriparacoxi country.
Machaba, 64 leagues from St. Augustine, near the northern border of the Timucua country inland.
Maiaca, the town of the Fresh Water Province most distant from St. Augustine, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St. Johns River.
Malaca, south of Nocoroco.
Marracou, location unknown.
Mathiaqua, location unknown.
Mayajuaca, near Maiaca.
Mayara, on lower St. Johns River.
Mocama, possibly a town on Cumberland Island, province of Tacatacuru, but probably a province.
Mogote, south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco.
Moloa, on the south side of St. Johns River near its mouth, province of Saturiwa.
Napa, on an island one league from Cumberland Island.
Napituca, north of Aguacaleyquen, province of Utina.
Natobo, a mission station and probably native town 2 1/2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.
Nocoroco, at the mouth of a river, perhaps Halifax River, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet, Fresh Water Province.
Ocale, in a province of the same name in the neighborhood of the present Ocala.
Oηita, probably on Terra Ceia Island, on Hillsborough Bay.
Onathaqua, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Osigubede, a chief and probably town on the west coast.
Panara, inland from Cumberland Island.
Parca, location unknown.
Patica, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of the mouth of St. Johns River.
Patica, on the west bank of St. Johns River in the Utina territory.
Pebe, a chief and probably a town on the west coast.
Pentoaya, at the head of Indian River.
Perquymaland, south of Nocoroco; possibly the names of two towns, Perqui and Maland, run together.
Pia, on the east coast south of Nocoroco.
Pitano, a mission station and probably a native town a league and a half from Puturiba.
Pohoy, a town or province, or both, at Tampa Bay, and perhaps a synonym of Ocita.
Potano, the principal town of the Potano tribe, on the Alachua plains.
Potaya, 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River.
Puala, near Cumberland Island.
Punhuri, inland from Cumberland Island.
Puturiba, probably near the northern end of Cumberland Island, province of Tacatacuru. There was another town of the same name west of the Suwannee River.
Sabobche, near the coast south of Nocoroco.
Saint Julian, in the Fresh Water Province.
San Mateo, about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.
San Pablo, about 1 1/2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa.
San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine.
Sarauahi, a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto.
Sena, on an "inlet" north of the mouth of St. Johns River, perhaps Amelia River.
Siyagueche, near Cape Canaveral.
Socochuno, location unknown.
Soloy, not far from St. Augustine and probably on the river called Seloy by the French.
Surruque, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.
Tacatacuru, the name of Cumberland Island and Province, and perhaps of the chief town, on the mainland side of the island near the southern end, 2 leagues from the Barra de San Pedro.
Tafocole, inland from Tampa Bay.
Tahupa, inland from Cumberland Island.
Tanpacaste, a chief and perhaps town north of Pohoy, i.e., north of Tampa Bay.
Tarihica, 54 leagues from St. Augustine, and perhaps in the Onatheaqua Province.
Tocaste, on a large lake south of the Withlacoochee River, province of Urriparacoxi.
Tocoaya, very near Cumberland Island.
Tocobaga, the chief town of the province so called, in Safety Harbor, Tampa Bay.
Tocoy, in the Fresh Water Province 5 leagues south of St. Augustine.
Tolapatafi, probably toward the west coast of the peninsula of Florida near Aucilla River.
Toloco, location unknown.
Tomeo, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucura, near the Fresh Water Province.
Tucuro, see Abino.
Tunsa, possibly a synonym of Antonico.
Uηachile, a town or tribe in the Yustaga Province, perhaps the mother town of the Osochi.
Uqueten, the southernmost village of the province of Ocale on Withlacoochee River entered by De Soto.
Urica, 60 leagues from St. Augustine.
Uriutina, just north of the river of Aguacaleyquen, perhaps at Lake City.
Urubia, near Cape Canaveral and 1 1/2 leagues from the town of Surruque.
Utayne, inland from Cumberland Island.
Utiaca, see Abino.
Utichini, inland from Cumberland Island and within a league and a half of Puturiba.
Utinamocharra, 1 day's journey north of Potano, Potano Province.
Vera Cruz, half a league from San Juan del Puerto, province of Saturiwa.
Vicela, a short distance south of Withlacoochee River, province of Urriparacoxi.
Xapuica, near the Guale country, perhaps a synonym of Caparaca.
Xatalalano, inland from Cumberland Island.
Yaocay, near Antonico in the Fresh Water Province.
Ycapalano, inland from Cumberland Island and probably within half a league or a league of Puturiba.
Yufera, inland and probably northwest from Cumberland Island.

History.—The Utina were evidently those Indians occupying the province called Aguacaleyquen which De Soto passed through in 1539. In 1564 the French came in contact with them after the establishment of Fort Caroline. On one occasion they sent a contingent to help them defeat the neighboring Potano. After the Spaniards had supplanted the French, the Timucua allied themselves with the former and in 1576 or 1577 a body of soldiers was sent to support them against several neighboring tribes. They were missionized at a comparatively early date, and afterward followed the fortunes of the rest of the Timucua.

Following is a brief over-all sketch of the history of the tribes constituting the Timucuan group. They first came into contact with Europeans during Ponce de Leon's initial expedition in 1513 when the peninsula and subsequently the State received its name. Narvaez in 1525 and De Soto in 1539 passed through the country of the western tribes. Ribault visited those on and near St. Johns River in 1562, and the French settlers of Fort Caroline on that river in 1564-65 were in close contact with them. A considerable part of our knowledge regarding these Indians is contained in the records of that colony. The Spaniards supplanted the French in 1565 and gradually conquered the Timucua tribes while the Franciscans missionized them. Our knowledge of the Timucua language is derived mainly from religious works by the missionaries Pareja and Mouilla and a grammar compiled by the former. During the early half of the seventeenth century the missions were in a flourishing condition but a general rebellion in 1656 occasioned some losses by death and exile. They also suffered severely from pestilences which raged in the missions in 1613-17, 1649-50, and 1672. It is probable that some decline in population took place even before the great rebellion but that and the epidemics occasioned considerable losses. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, however, all the Florida Indians began to suffer from the invasion of Creek and Yuchi Indians to the northward, and this was accentuated after the break-up of the Apalachee in 1704 by the expedition under Moore. Most of the remaining Timucua were then concentrated into missions near St. Augustine, but this did not secure immunity against further attacks by the English and their Indian allies. Sometime after 1736 the remnants of these people seem to have removed to a stream in the present Volusia County which in the form Tomoka bears their name. Here they disappear from history, and it is probable that they were swallowed up by the invading Seminole.

Population.—The Timucua, in the wide extent of the term, are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 13,000 in 1650 including 3,000 Potano, 1,000 Hostaqua, 8,000 Timucua proper and their allies, and 1,000 Tocobaga. In a letter dated February 2, 1635, it is asserted that 30,000 Christian Indians were connected with the 44 missions then maintained in the Guale and Timucua provinces. While this figure is probably too high, it tends to confirm Mooney's (1928) estimate. In 1675 Bishop Calderon of Cuba states that he confirmed 13,152 in the four provinces of Timucua, Guale, Apalache, and Apalachicoli, but Governor Salazar estimates only 1,400 in the Timucua missions that year. Later, pestilences decimated the Timucua very rapidly, and their ruin was completed by attacks of the English and the northern Indians, so that by 1728 the single town which seems to have contained most of the survivors had but 15 men and 20 women. Eight years later 17 men were reported there. Not long after this time the tribe disappears entirely, though it is highly probable that numbers of individuals who had belonged to it had made their homes with other Indians.

As to the Utina tribe by itself, we have a missionary letter dated 1602 which estimates its population as 1,500, in this case probably an understatement.

Connection in which they have become noted.—This tribe, known as the Utina or Timucua, is noteworthy (1) for having given its name to the peoples of the Timucuan or Timuquanan stock now regarded as part of the Muskogean family, and (2) as having been, next perhaps to the Potano, the most powerful tribe constituting that stock.

The Timucuan group has left its name in that of the river above mentioned.

Yamasee. Some tribes affiliated with the Yamasee settled in the Apalachee country in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The great body came to Florida from South Carolina after their war with the English colonists in 1715, and most of them remained in the northeastern part of the peninsula. Their final appearance is as the Ocklawaha band of Seminole. Part of them moved west, however, and settled near Mobile, and either this or a third party lived among the Creeks for a time, after which they seem to have returned to west Florida, where they were represented by the "Yumersee" town of the Seminole. A considerable number of them were captured by the Creek Indians and incorporated with them. (See Georgia.)

Yuchi. In the seventeenth century a body of Yuchi established themselves west of Apalachicola River, but moved north to join the Upper Creeks before 1761. At a much later date a body of eastern Yuchi joined the Seminole and in 1823 had a settlement called Tallahassee or Spring Gardens 10 miles from Volusia. They probably moved to Oklahoma at the end of the last Seminole war. (See Georgia.)

Yufera. This is the name of a town or group of towns reported as located somewhere inland from Cumberland Island, and perhaps in the present territory of Georgia. The name is derived through Timucua informants but it may have referred to a part of the Muskogee tribe called Eufaula.

Yui. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—(See Utina.)

Location.—On the mainland 14 leagues inland from Cumberland Island and probably in the southeastern part of the present state of Georgia.


They had five villages but the names of these are either unknown or unidentifiable.

History.—The name of the Yui appears first in Spanish documents. They were visited by the missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland Island) and appear to have been Christianized early in the seventeenth century. No individual mission bore their name and they are soon lost sight of, their history becoming that of the other Timucua tribes.

Population.—The missionaries estimated more than 1,000 Indians in this province in 1602. (See Utina.)

Yustaga. Meaning unknown.

Connections.—No words of the Yustaga language have been preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged to the Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of as if distinct.

Location.—Approximately between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers somewhat toward the coast.


The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though the missions of Asile, San Marcos, Machaba, and San Pedro seem to have belonged to it.

History.—The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma (in Bourne, 1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the title to a "province" through which the Spaniards marched just before coming to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns River, some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again mentioned by the Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its history is soon merged in that of the Timucuan peoples generally. The last mention of the name appears to be in 1659. It is of particular interest as the province from which the Osochi Indians who settled among the Lower Creeks probably emigrated in 1656 or shortly afterward.

Population.—In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in the mission of Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total very close to Mooney's (1928) estimate of 1,000 as of the year 1600.



{1} A possible exception to this statement was the temporary entrance of a small body of Coweta Indians under Secoffee, or the Cowkeeper.

{2} I have stated else where that the name of the mission was wanting in the list drawn up in 1655. I should have given the date as 1680.