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by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Apache. Probably from ápachu, "enemy," the Zuñi name for the Navaho who were designated "Apaches de Nabaju" by the early Spaniards in New Mexico. The name has also been applied to some Yuman tribes, the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and the Apache Yuma. Also called:
Ahuádje, Havasupai name for at least Tonto and White Mountain Apache.
Ai-a'-ta, Panamint name.
Atokúwe, Kiowa name.
Awátch or Awátche, Ute name.
Chah'-shm, Santo Domingo Keres name.
Chishyë, Laguna name.
Ha-ma-kaba-mitc kwa-dig, Mohave name, meaning "far-away Mohave."
H'iwana, Taos name.
Igihua'-a, Havasupai name.
Inde or N'de, own name.
Jarosoma, Pima name (from Kino).
Mountain Comanche, by Yoakum (1855-56).
Muxtsuhintan, Cheyenne name.
Oop, Papago name.
Op, or Awp, Pima name.
Póanïn, Sandia and Isleta name (Hodge, 1895).
P'ónin, Isleta name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.).
Shis-Inday, own name meaning "men of the woods," because their winter quarters were always in the forest.
Tá-ashi, Comanche name, meaning "turned up," and having reference to their moccasins.
Tagúi, Old Kiowa name.
Tágukerésh, Pecos name.
Tashin, Comanche name (Mooney, 1898).
Taxkáhe, Arapaho name.
Thah-a-i-nin', Arapaho name, meaning "people who play on bone instruments," meaning two bison ribs, one notched, over which the other is rubbed.
Tinnä'-ash, Wichita name.
Tshishé, Laguna name.
Utce-cí-nyu-mûh or Utsaamu, or Yotché-eme, Hopi name.
Xa-hë'-ta-ño', Cheyenne name meaning "those who tie their hair back."
Connections.Together with the Navaho, the Apache constituted the western group of the southern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock (Hoijer, 1938).
Location.In southern New Mexico and Arizona, western Texas, and southeastern Colorado, also ranging over much of northern Mexico. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and Mexico.)
On linguistic grounds Hoijer (1938) divides the southern Athapascans into two main groups, a western and an eastern. The latter includes the Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache, the two former being more closely related to each other than either is to the Kiowa Apache. In the western group Hoijer again distinguishes two major subdivisions, the Navaho, and the San Carlos-Chiricahua-Mescalero. The Navaho are always regarded as a distinct tribe and will be so treated here. Separate treatment is also being given to the Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache. The rest of the southern Athapascans will be placed under the present head, it being freely admitted at the same time that such treatment is mainly a matter of convenience and that it is impossible to say how many and what southern Athapascan divisions should be given tribal status. What is here called the Apache Tribe may be classified as follows with the locations of the divisions, basing the scheme on the classifications of Hoijer and Goodwin (1935):
1. San Carlos Group:
San Carlos proper:
Apache Peaks Band, in the Apache Mountains, northeast of Globe.
Arivaipa Band, on Arivaipa Creek.
Pinal Band, between Salt and Gila Rivers in Gila and Pinal Counties.
San Carlos Band, in the region of San Carlos River between Gila and Salt Rivers.
White Mountain Group:
Eastern White Mountain Band, in the region of the upper Gila and Salt Rivers in southeastern Arizona.
Western White Mountain Band, in the same region between the Eastern Band and the San Carlos Band.
Canyon Creek Band, centering on Canyon Creek in Gila and Navajo Counties.
Carrizo Band, on Carrizo Creek in Gila County.
Cibicue Band, on Cibecue Creek between the two last.
Southern Tonto Group:
Mazatzal Band, about the Mazatzal Mountains.
Six semibands: north of Roosevelt Lake; on the upper Tonto Creek; between the upper Tonto and the East Verde; west of the preceding between the East Verde, Tonto, and Verde; north of the East Verde; and from Cherry Creek to Clear Creek.
Northern Tonto Group:
Bald Mountain Band, about Bald Mountain, south of Camp Verde.
Fossil Creek Band, on Fossil Creek between Gila and Yavapai Counties.
Mormon Lake Band, centering on Mormon Lake south of Flagstaff.
Oak Creek Band, about Oak Creek south of Flagstaff.
2. Chiricahua-Mescalero Group:
Chiricahua Band, about the Chiricahua Mountains in southwestern Arizona.
Mimbreño Band, centered in the Mimbres Mountains in southwestern New Mexico.
Mogollon Band, about the Mogollon Mountains in Catron and Grant Counties, N. Mex.
Warm Spring Band, at the head of Gila River.
Faraon or Apache Band of Pharaoh, a southern division of the Mescalero.
Mescalero Band, mainly between the Rio Grande and Pecos Rivers, N. Mex.
The term Querecho, as well as Vaquero, was applied rather generally to Apache by the Spaniards but probably more particularly to the Mescalero and their allies Under Llanero were included Mescalero, Jicarilla, and even some Comanche. The term Coyotero has been applied to some of the San Carlos divisions and recently by Murdock (1941) to all.
History.The Apache tribes had evidently drifted from the north during the prehistoric period, probably along the eastern flanks of the Rocky Mountains. When Coronado encountered them in 1540 under the name Querechos, they were in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, and they apparently did not reach Arizona until after the middle of the sixteenth century. They were first called Apache by Oñate in 1598. After that time their history was one succession of raids upon the Spanish territories, and after the United States Government had supplanted that of Mexico in the Southwest, the wars with the Apache constituted some of the most sensational chapters in our military annals. Except for some Apache in Mexico and a few Lipans with the Tonkawa and Kiowa in Oklahoma, these people were finally gathered into reservations in New Mexico and Arizona.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that all of the Apache proper numbered 5,000 in 1680. The census of 1910 gives 6,119 Apache of all kinds, excluding only the Kiowa Apache, and the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 enumerates 6,630. If an increase has actually occurred, it is to be attributed to the captives taken by these people from all the surrounding tribes and from the Mexicans. The census of 1930 returned 6,537 but this includes the Jicarilla and Lipan. The Apache proper would number about 6,000. However, the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives 6,916 exclusive of the Jicarilla.
Connection in which they have become noted.Apache is one of the best-known Indian tribal names. This is due (1) to the warlike character of the people bearing it, (2) to their constant depredations along the Spanish and American frontiers, and (3) to the severe and difficult fighting made necessary before they were forced to give up their ancient raiding proclivities. The word has, therefore, been taken over to some extent into literature when it is desired to describe fierce and ruthless individuals, and in this sense it has been given local application to some of the criminal elements of Paris. The name Apache is given to villages in Cochise County, Ariz., and Caddo County, Okla., and Apache Creek is a place in Catron County, N. Mex.
Comanche. In the Spanish period, the Comanche raided into and across the territory of New Mexico repeatedly. (See Texas.)
Jemez. Corrupted from Ha'-mish or Hae'-mish, the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also spelled Amayes, Ameias, Amejes, Emeges, Gemes, etc. Also called:
Maí-dec-kiz-ne, Navaho name, meaning "wolf neck."
Tu'-wa, own name of pueblo.
Uala-to-hua or Walatoa, own name of pueblo, meaning "village of the bear. "
Wöng'-ge, Santa Clara and Ildefonso name, meaning "Navaho place."
Connections.With the now extinct Pecos, the Jemez constituted a distinct group of the Tanoan linguistic family now a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location.On the north bank of Jemez River, about 20 miles northwest of Bernalillo.
Villages: The following names of villages have been recorded as formerly occupied by the Jemez but the list may contain some duplication:
Amushungkwa, on a mesa west of the Hot Springs, about 12 miles north of Jemez pueblo.
Anyukwinu, north of Jemez pueblo.
Astialakwa, on the summit of a mesa that separates San Diego and Guadalupe Canyons at their mouths.
Bulitzequa, exact site unknown.
Catróo, site not identified.
Ceca, not identified.
Guatitruti, not identified.
Guayoguia, not identified.
Gyusiwa, one-half mile north of Jemez Hot Springs, on a slope descending to the river from the east in Sandoval County.
Hanakwa, not identified.
Kiashita, in Guadalupe Canyon, north of Jemez pueblo.
Kiatsukwa, not identified.
Mecastria, not identified.
Nokyuntseleta, not identified.
Nonyishagi, not identified.
Ostyalakwa, not identified.
Patoqua, on a ledge of the mesa which separates Guadalupe and San Diego Canyons, 6 miles north of Jemez pueblo.
Pebulikwa, not identified.
Pekwiligii, not identified.
Potre, not identified.
Seshukwa, not identified.
Setokwa, about 2 miles south of Jemez pueblo.
Towakwa, not identified.
Trea, not identified.
Tyajuindena, not identified.
Uahatzae, not identified.
Wabakwa, on a mesa north of Jemez pueblo.
Yjar, not identified.
Zolatungzezhii, not identified.
History.The Jemez came from the north, according to tradition, settling in the valleys of the upper tributaries of the Jemez River and at last in the sandy valley of the Jemez proper. Castaneda, the chronicler of Coronado's expedition, mentions seven towns belonging to the Jemez tribe besides three in the region of Jemez Hot Springs. After they had been missionized they were induced to abandon their towns by degrees until about 1622 they became concentrated into the pueblos of Gyusiwa and probably Astialakwa. Both pueblos contained chapels, probably dating from 1618, but before the Pueblo revolt of 1680 Astialakwa was abandoned and another pueblo, probably Patoqua, established. About the middle of the seventeenth century, in conjunction with the Navaho, the Jemez twice plotted insurrection against the Spaniards. After the insurrection of 1680 the Jemez were attacked by Spanish forces led successively by Otermin, Cruzate, and Vargas, the last of whom stormed the mesa in July 1694, killed 84 Indians, and after destroying Patoqua and two other pueblos, returned to Santa Fé with 361 prisoners and a large quantity of stores. Gyusiwa was the only Jemez pueblo reoccupied, but in 1696 there was a second revolt and the Jemez finally fled to the Navaho country, where they remained for a considerable time before returning to their former home. Then they built their present village, called by them Walatoa, "Village of the Bear." In 1728, 108 of the inhabitants died of pestilence. In 1782 Jemez was made a visita of the mission of Sia. In 1838 they were joined by the remnant of their relatives, the Pecos Indians from the upper Rio Pecos. Their subsequent history has been uneventful.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the Jemez population at 2,500 in 1680. In 1890 it was 428; in 1904, 498, including the remnant of Pecos Indians; in 1910, 499. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock numbered 3,412. In 1937 the Jemez Indians numbered 648.
Jicarilla. An Apache tribe which ranged over the northeastern corner of New Mexico. (See Colorado.)
Keresan Pueblos. Keresan is adapted from K'eres, their own designation. Also called:
Bierni'n, Sandia name.
Cherechos, Oñate in 1598.
Drinkers of the Dew, Zuñi traditional name.
Ïng-wë-pi'-ran-di-vi-he-man, San Ildefonso Tewa name.
Pabierni'n, Isleta name.
Connections.These Indians constituted an independent stock having no affiliations with any other.
Location.On the Rio Grande, in north central New Mexico, between the Rio de los Frijoles and the Rio Jemez, and on the latter stream from the pueblo of Sia to its mouth.
Subdivisions and Villages: The Keresan Indians are divided dialectically into an Eastern (Queres) Group and a Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group, comprising the following pueblos:
Eastern (Queres) Group:
Cochiti, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, 27 miles southwest of Santa Fé.
San Felipe, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12 miles above Bernalillo.
Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Rio Jemez.
Santo Domingo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 18 miles above Bernalillo.
Sia, on the north bank of Jemez River about 16 miles northwest of Bernalillo.
Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group:
Acoma, on a rock mesa or peñol, 357 feet in height, about 60 miles west of the Rio Grande, in Valencia County.
Laguna, on the south bank of San Jose River, in Valencia County.
In addition to the above principal towns, we have the following ancient towns and later out-villages recorded:
Former towns of Cochiti and San Felipe:
At the Potrero de las Vacas.
At Tyuonyi or Rito de los Frijoles.
Haatze, near the foot of the Sierra San Miguel, about Cochiti Pueblo.
Hanut Cochiti, about 12 miles northwest of Cochiti Pueblo.
Kuapa, in the Canada da de Cochiti, 12 miles northwest of Cochiti Pueblo.
Former towns of Santo Domingo:
At the Potrero de la Canada Quemada
Gipuy, two towns on the bands of the Arroyo de Galisteo, more than a mile east of the present station of Thornton; (2) west of No. 1.
Huashpatzena, on the Rio Grande.
Former towns of Sia:
Opposite Sia are the ruins of a town called Kakanatzia and south of it another called Kohasaya which may have been former Sia settlements.
Former towns of Acoma:
Kashkachuti, location unknown.
Katzimo or the Enchanted Mesa, about 3 miles northeast of the present Acoma Pueblo.
Kowina, on a low mesa opposite the spring at the head of Cebollita Valley, about 15 miles west of Acoma.
Kuchtya, location unknown.
Tapitsiama, on a mesa 4 or 5 miles northeast of their present pueblo.
Tsiama, the ruins are situated at the mouth of Cañada de la Cruz, at or near the present Laguna village of Tsima.
Acomita, about 15 miles north of Acoma.
Heashkowa, about 2 miles southeast of Acoma.
Pueblito, about 15 miles north of Acoma.
History.Like the other Pueblo peoples of New Mexico, the Keresans traced their origin to the underworld, whence they had emerged at an opening called Shipapu. According to the tradition, they afterward drifted south slowly to the Rio Grande, where they took up their residence in the Rito de los Frijoles, or Tyuonyi, and constructed the cliff dwellings found there today excavated in the friable volcanic tufa. Long before the coming of Europeans, they had abandoned the Rito and moved farther south, separating into a number of autonomous village communities. Coronado, who visited them in 1540, reported seven of these. In 1583 Espejo encountered them and in 1598 Oñate. Missions were established in most of the principal towns early in the seventeenth century, but they were annihilated and Spanish dominion temporarily brought to an end by the great Pueblo rebellion of 1680, which was not finally quelled until about the end of the eighteenth century. Afterward, missionary work was resumed but without pronounced success, while the native population itself gradually declined in numbers. Although some of the most conservative pueblos belong to this group, they will not be able indefinitely to resist the dissolving force of American civilization in which they are immersed.
Population.In 1760 there were 3,956 Keresans; In 1790-93, 4,021; in 1805, 3,653; in 1850, 3,342; in 1860, 2,676; in 1871, 3,317; in 1901-5, 4,249; in 1910, 4,027; in 1930, 4,134; in 1937, 5,781.
Kiowa. The Kiowa raided into and across New Mexico in the Spanish and early American period. (See Oklahoma.)
Kiowa Apache. The Kiowa Apache were an Athapascan tribe incorporated into and accompanying the Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.)
Lipan. The Lipan were the easternmost of the Apache tribes. (See Apache and also Texas.)
Manso. A Spanish word meaning "mild." Also called:
Gorretas, by Zarate-Salmeron.
Lanos, by Perea (1632-33).
Connections.The Manso belonged to the Tanoan division of the Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock.
Location.About Mesilla Valley, in the vicinity of the present Las Cruces, N. Mex.
The mission of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de los Mansos was founded among them but none of the native names of their villages are known.
History.Shortly before the appearance of the Spaniards in their country, the Manso lived in substantial houses like the Pueblo Indians generally but changed these to dwellings of reeds and wood. They were relocated at a spot near El Paso in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco, who established the above-mentioned mission among them. The remnant of the Manso are now associated in one town with the Tiwa and Piro.
Population.In 1668, when the mission of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de los Mansos was dedicated, Vetancourt states that it contained upward of 1,000 parishioners. Very few of Manso blood remain.
Navaho, Navajo. From Tewa Navahú, referring to a large area of cultivated land and applied to a former Tewa pueblo, and by extension to the Navaho, known to the Spaniards as "Apaches de Navajó," who intruded on the Tewa domain or who lived in the vicinity, to distinguish them from other so-called Apache bands. Also called:
Bágowits, Southern Ute name.
Dacábimo, Hopi name.
Dávaxo, Kiowa Apache name.
Diné', own name.
Djëné, Laguna name.
Hua'åmhú'u, Havasupai name.
I'hl-dëné, Jicarilla name.
Moshome, Keresan name.
Oop, Oohp, Pima name.
Págowitch, southern Ute name, meaning "reed knives."
Ta-cáb-cí-nyu-mûh, Hopi name.
Ta`hlï'mnïn, Sandia name.
Tasámewé, Hopi name (Ten Kate, 1885) meaning "bastards."
Te`liémnim, Isleta name.
Tenyé, Laguna name.
Wild Coyotes, Zuñi nickname translated.
Yabipais Nabajay, Garcés (1776).
Yátilatlávi, Tonto name.
Yoetahá or Yutahá, Apache name, meaning "those who live on the border of the Ute."
Yu-i'-ta, Panamint name.
Yutílapá, Yavapai name.
Yutilatláwi, Tonto name
Connections.With the Apache tribes, the Navaho formed the southern division of the Athapascan linguistic family.
Location.In northern New Mexico and Arizona with some extension into Colorado and Utah.
History.Under the loosely applied name Apache there may be a record of this tribe as early as 1598 but the first mention of them by the name of Navaho is by Zarate-Salmeron about 1629. Missionaries were among them about the middle of the eighteenth century, but their labors seem to have borne no fruits. For many years previous to the occupation of their country by the United States, the Navaho kept up an almost constant predatory war with the Pueblo Indians and the White settlers. A revolution in their economy was brought about by the introduction of sheep. Treaties of peace made by them with the United States Government in 1846 and 1849 were not observed, and in 1863, in order to put a stop to their depredations, Col. "Kit" Carson invaded their country, killed so many of their sheep as to leave them without means of support, and carried the greater part of the tribe as prisoners to Fort Sumner and the Bosque Redondo on the Rio Pecos. They were restored to their country in 1867 and given a new supply of sheep and goats, and since then they have remained at peace and prospered greatly, thanks to their flocks and the sale of their famous blankets.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 8,000 Navaho in 1680. In 1867 an incomplete enumeration gave 7,300. In 1869 there were fewer than 9,000. The census of 1890, taken on a faulty system, gave 17,204. The census of 1900 returned more than 20,000 and that of 1910, 22,455. The report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 gives more than 30,000 on the various Navaho reservations, and the 1930 census 39,064, while the Indian Office Report for 1937 entered 44,304.
Connection in which they have become noted.This tribe has acquired considerable fame from its early adoption of a shepherd life after the introduction of sheep and goats, and from the blankets woven by Navaho women and widely known to collectors and connoisseurs. The name has become affixed, in the Spanish form Navajo, to a county, creek, and spring in Arizona; a post village in Apache County, Ariz.; a mountain in New Mexico; and a place in Daniels County, Mont. In southwestern Oklahoma is a post village known as Navajoe. The tribe has attracted an unusual amount of attention from ethnologists and from writers whose interests are purely literary.
Pecos. From P'e'-a-ku', the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also called:
Acuyé, Cicuyé, probably the name of a former pueblo, Tshiquité or Tziquité.
Aqiu, Pecos and Jemez name.
Hiokuö'k, Isleta Tiwa name
K'ok'-o-ro-t'u'-yu, Pecos name of pueblo.
Los Angeles, mission name.
Nuestra Senora de los Angeles de Porciúncula, full church name.
Paego, Keresan name of Pueblo.
Paequiu or Paequiuala, Keresan name of tribe.
P'a-qu-láh, Jemez name.
Péahko, Santa Ana name.
Peakuní, Laguna name of Pueblo.
Tamos, from Espejo.
Connections.The Pecos belonged to the Jemez division of the Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location.On an upper branch of Pecos River, about 30 miles southeast of Santa Fé.
Villages: The following are names of ruined Pecos villages:
Kuuanguala, a few miles southeast of Pecos, near Arroyo Amarillo, at the present site of Rowe.
Pomojoua, near San Antonio del Pueblo, 3 miles southeast of San Miguel, San Miguel County.
San Jose, modern Spanish name of locality.
Seyupa, a few miles southeast of Pecos, at the site of the village of Fulton, San Miguel County.
Tonchuun, 5 miles southeast of Pecos Pueblo.
History.According to tradition, the Pecos came originally from some place to the north of their historic seats, but their last migration was from the southeast where they occupied successively the now ruined pueblos at San Jose and Kingman before locating at their final settlement. Pecos was first visited by Coronado in 1540 and afterward by Espejo in 1583, Castaño de Sosa in 1590-91, and Oñate in 1598. During the governorship of Oñate, missionaries were assigned to Pecos, and the great church, so long a landmark of the Santa Fé Trail, was erected about 1617. The town suffered severely from attacks of the Apache of the Plains and afterward from the Comanche. In the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96 it took an active part and suffered proportionately. In 1782 the Pecos mission was abandoned, the place becoming a visita of Santa Fé. A few years later nearly every man in the Pecos tribe is said to have been killed in a raid by the Comanche, epidemics decreased the numbers of the remainder, and in 1838, the old town of Pecos was abandoned. The 17 surviving Pecos Indians moved to Jemez, where their descendants still live.
Population.At the time of Coronado's visit in 1540 the population was estimated as 2,000-2,500. In 1630 and 1680 there were 2,000 Pecos; in 1760, 599 (including Galisteo); in 1790-93, 152; in 1805, 104; in 1838, 17; in 1910, 10.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Pecos seems assured of permanent preservation as applied to Pecos River, Tex., the largest branch of the Rio Grande, as well as to Pecos County, Tex., and its principal town, and also to a place in San Miguel County, New Mex., adjacent to the ruins of the aboriginal village. The latter are well known as a result of the archeological work done there by Dr. A. V. Kidder for the Department of Archeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.
Piro Pueblos. Significance of Piro unknown. Also called:
Norteños, "northerners" in Spanish, because inhabiting the region of El Paso del Norte (may also refer to Tiwa).
Tükahun, Isleta Tiwa name for all pueblos below their village, meaning "southern pueblos."
Connections.They were a division of the Tanoan linguistic family, which in turn is a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location and major subdivisions.In the early part of the seventeenth century the Piro comprised two divisions, one inhabiting the Rio Grande Valley from the present town of San Marcial, Socorro County, northward to within about 50 miles of Albuquerque, where the Tiwa settlements began; and the other, sometimes called Tompiros and Salineros, occupying an area east of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the salt lagoons, or salinas, where they adjoined the eastern group of Tiwa settlements on the south.
Abo, on the Arroyo del Empedradillo, about 25 miles east of the Rio Grande and 20 miles south of Manzano, in Valencia County
Agua Nueva, on the Rio Grande between Socorro and Servilleta.
Alamillo, on the Rio Grande about 12 miles north of Socorro.
Barrancas, on the Rio Grande near Socorro.
Qualacu, on the east bank of the Rio Grande near the foot of the Black Mesa, on or near the site of San Marcial.
San Felipe, on the Rio Grande, probably near the present San Marcial, Socorro County.
San Pascual, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the present San Antonio village, Socorro County
Senecu, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, at the site of the present village of San Antonio, 13 miles below Socorro.
Senecu del Sur (also Tiwa), on the southeast bank of the Rio Grande, a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Sevilleta, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 20 miles above Socorro.
Socorro or Pilabo, on the site of the present Socorro.
Socorro del Sur, on both sides of the Rio Grande a few mile below El Paso, Tex.
Tabira, at the southern apex of the Mesa de los Jumanos, northeast of the present Socorro.
Tenabo, probably at the Siete Arroyos, northeast of Socorro and east of the Rio Grande.
Teypana, nearly opposite the present town of Socorro, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, in Socorro County.
Following are names of deserted pueblos near the lower Rio Grande which were also in all probability occupied by the Piro:
Huertas, 4 miles below Socorro.
Pueblo Blanco, on the west rim of the Médano, or great sand-flow, east of the Rio Grande.
Pueblo Colorado, same locations Pueblo Blanco.
Pueblo de la Parida, same location as Pueblos Blanco and Colorado.
Pueblo del Alto, on the east side of the Rio Grande, 6 miles south of Belen.
The following deserted pueblos were inhabited either by the Piro or the Tiwa:
Mejia, 5 leagues below Isleta.
Salineta, 4 leagues from Guadelupe Mission at El Paso, Tex.
San Bautista, on the Rio Grande, 16 miles below Sevilleta.
San Francisco, on the lower Rio Grande between El Paso, Tex, and San Lorenzo.
All the above pueblos not definitely located were probably situated in the Salinas in the vicinity of Abo.
History.The western or Rio Grande branch of the Piro was visited by members of Coronado's Expedition in 1540, by Chamuscado in 1580, by Espejo in 1583, by Oñate in 1598, and by Santa Fé to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and began in 1626, and the efforts of the monks combined with the threats of Apache raids to induce the Indians to concentrate into a smaller number of towns. The first actual mission work among the Piros of the Salinas began in 1629 and was prosecuted rapidly, but before the Pueblo rebellion of 1680 Apache raids had become so numerous that all of the villages of the Salinas region and Senecu on the Rio Grande were abandoned. The Piro were not invited to take part in the great rebellion and when Governor Otermin retreated to El Paso nearly all of them joined him, while the few who remained subsequently scattered. Those who accompanied the governor were settled at Senecu del Sur and Socorro del Sur, where their descendants became largely Mexicanized.
Population.The Piro population was estimated at 9,000 early in the sixteenth century, but is now about 60. (See Tewa.)
Pueblo Indians. A general name for those Indians in the Southwest who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in more fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for "town" or "village" in Spanish. It is not a tribal or even a stock name, since the Pueblos belonged to four distinct stocks. Following is the classification of Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge (1910) except that the Kiowa have since been connected with the Tanoans and a few minor changes have been introduced:
Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock:
Northern Division: Nambe, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, Pojoaque (recently extinct), Hano.
Southern Division: Tano (practically extinct) .
Tiwa Group: Isleta, Isleta del Sur (Mexicanized), Sandia, Taos, Picuris.
Jemez Group: Jemez, Pecos (extinct)
Piro Group: Senecu, Senecu del Sur (Mexicanized).
Keresan linguistic stock:
Eastern Group: San Felipe, Santa Ann, Sia, Cochiti, Santo Domingo.
Western Group: Acoma, Laguna, and outlying villages.
Zuñian linguistic stock:
Zuñi Group: Zuñi and its outlying villages.
Shoshonean linguistic stock, part of the Uto-Aztecan stock:
Hopi Group: Walpi, Sichomovi, Mishongnovi, Shipaulovi, Shongopovi, Oraibi.
The Pueblo Indians in New Mexico are being considered at length under the following heads: Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos, Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, and Zuñi; the Hopi are considered under Arizona. (See also Colorado, Nevada, and Texas.)
Connection in which they have become noted.The Pueblo Indians have become famous from the fact that, unlike all of their neighbors, they lived in communal stone houses and in stone dwellings perched along the canyon walls; from their peculiar customs and ceremonies, such as the Snake Dance; and from their real and supposed connection with the builders of the stone ruins with which their country and neighboring parts of the Southwest abound. In recent years they have been subjects of interest to artists and writers and an attempt has been made to base a style of architecture upon the type of their dwellings. They are of historic interest as occupants of one of the two sections of the United States first colonized by Europeans.
Shuman. The Shuman lived at various times in or near the southern and eastern borders of New Mexico. (See Texas.)
Tewa Pueblos. The name Tewa is from a Keres word meaning "moccasins. " Also called:
Tu'-ba-na, Taos name.
Tu'-ven, Isleta and Sandia name.
Connections.They constituted a major division of the Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location.Along the valley of the Rio Grande in the northern part of New Mexico, except for one pueblo, Hano, in the Hopi country, Arizona.
They consisted of two main branches, the Northern Tewa, from near Santa Fé to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and the Southern Tewa or Tano, from Santa Fé to the neighborhood of Golden, back from the Rio Grande.
Northern Tewa towns and villages still occupied:
Hano, the easternmost pueblo of Tusayan, Ariz.
Nambe, about 16 miles north of Santa Fé, on Nambe River, a small tributary of the Rio Grande.
San Ildefonso, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande, about 18 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
San Juan, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande 25 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
Santa Clara, on the western bank of the Rio Grande, about 30 miles above Santa Fé.
Tesuque, 8 miles north of Santa Fé.
Towns and villages formerly occupied by the Northern Tewa:
Abechiu, at a place called Le Puente, on a bluff close to the southern bank of Rio Chams, 3 miles southeast of the present town of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
Agawano, in the mountains about 7 miles east of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz.
Analco, at the place where there is now the so-called "oldest house," adjacent to San Miguel Chapel, in Santa Fé.
Axol, location uncertain.
Camitria, in Rio Arriba County.
Chipiinuinge, on a small but high detached mesa between the Cañones and Polvadera Creek, 4 miles south of Chama and about 14 miles southwest of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
Chipiwi, location uncertain.
Chupadero, location uncertain.
Cuyamunque, on Tesuque Creek, between Tesuque and Pojoaque, about 15 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
Fejiu, at the site of the present Abiquiu on the Rio Chama, Rio Arriba County.
Fesere, on a mesa west or south of the Rio Chama, near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
Homayo, on the west bank of Rio Ojo Caliente, a small western tributary of the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County.
Howiri, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the Hot Springs, near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
Ihamba, on the south side of Pojoaque River, between Pojoaque and San Ildefonso Pueblos.
Jacona, a short distance west of Nambe, on the south side of Pojoaque River, Santa Fé County.
Junetre, in Rio Arriba County.
Kaayu, in the vicinity of the "Santuario" in the mountains about 7 miles east of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz, Santa Fé County.
Keguayo, in the vicinity of the Chupaderos, a cluster of springs in a mountain gorge, about 4 miles east of Nambe Pueblo.
Kuapooge, with Analco occupying the site of Santa Fé.
Kwengyauinge, on a conical hill about 15 feet high, overlooking Chama River, at a point known as La Puenta, about 3 miles below Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
Luceros, partially Tewa.
Navahu, in the second valley south of the great pueblo and cliff village of Puye, west of Santa Clara Pueblo, in the Pajarito Park.
Navawi, between the Rito de los Frijoles and Santa Clara Canyon, southwest of San Ildefonso.
Otowi, on a mesa about 5 miles west of the point where the Rio Grande enters White Rock Canyon, between the Rito de los Frijoles and Santa Clara Canyon, in the northeastern corner of Sandoval County.
Perage, a few rods from the west bank of the Rio Grande, about 1 mile west of San Ildefonso Pueblo.
Pininicangui, on a knoll in a valley about 2 miles south of Puye and 3 miles south of Santa Clara Creek, on the Pajarito Plateau, Sandoval County.
Pojiuuingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan Pueblo.
Pojoaque, on a small eastern tributary of the Rio Grande, about 18 miles northwest of Santa Fé.
Ponyinumbu, near the Mexican settlement of Santa Cruz, in the northern part of Santa Fé County.
Ponyipakuen, near Ojo Caliente and El Rito, about the boundary of Taos and Rio Arriba Counties.
Poseuingge, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the hot springs near Abiquiu.
Potzuye, on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, between San Ildefonso Pueblo on the north and the Rito de los Frijoles on the south.
Pueblito, opposite San Juan Pueblo, on the west bank of the Rio Grande in Rio Arriba County.
Pueblo Quemado (or Tano), 6 miles southwest of Santa Fé.
Puye, on a mesa about 10 miles west of the Rio Grande and a mile south of Santa Clara Canyon, near the intersection of the boundaries of Rio Arribs, Sandoval, and Santa Fé Counties.
Sajiuwingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan Pueblo, Rio Arriba County.
Sakeyu on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, between San Ildefonso Pueblo and Rito de los Frijoles.
Sandia, not the Tiwa pueblo of that name.
Santa Cruz, east of the Rio Grande, 30 miles northwest of Santa Fé, at the site of the present town of that name.
Sepawi, in the valley of El Rito Creek, on the heights above the Ojo Caliente of Joseph, and 5 miles from the Mexican settlement of El Rito.
Shufina, on a castle-like mesa of tufa northwest of Puye and separated from it by Santa Clara Canyon.
Teeuinge, on top of the mesa on the south side of Rio Chama, about 1/4 mile from the river and an equal distance below the mouth of Rio Oso, in Rio Arriba County.
Tejeuingge Ouiping, on the southern slope of the hills on which stands the present pueblo of San Juan, on the Rio Grande.
Tobhipangge, 8 miles northeast of the present Nambe Pueblo.
Triapí, location uncertain.
Triaque, location uncertain.
Troomaxiaquino, in Rio Arriba County.
Tsankawi, on a lofty mesa between the Rito de los Frijoles on the south and Los Alamos Canyon on the north, about 5 miles west of the Rio Grande.
Tsawarii, at or near the present hamlet of La Puebla, or Pueblito, a few miles above the town of Santa Cruz, in southeastern Rio Arriba County.
Tseweige, location uncertain.
Tshirege, on the northern edge of the Mesa del Pajarito about 6 miles west of the Rio Grande and 7 miles south of San Ildefonso Pueblo.
Yugeuingge, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the present pueblo of San Juan, near the site of the village of Chamita.
The following extinct villages are either Tewa or Tano:
Chiuma, location uncertain.
Guia, on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Albuquerque.
Guika, on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
Peñas Negras, on an eminence west of Pecos Road, near the edge of a forest, 8 miles south-southeast of Santa Fé.
The following were inhabited by either the Tiwa or the Tewa:
Axoytre, perhaps the same as Axol above?
Camitre, perhaps the same as Camitria above?
Paniete, location uncertain.
Piamato, location uncertain.
Quiotráco, probably in Rio Arriba County.
So far as known the following pueblos belonged to the Southern Tawa:
Ciénega (also contained Keresan Indians), in the valley of Rio Santa Fé, 12 miles southwest of Santa Fé.
Dyapige, southeast of Lamy, "some distance in the mountains."
Galisteo, 1 1/2 miles southeast of the present hamlet of the name and about 22 miles south of Santa Fé.
Guika (or Tewa), on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
Kayepu, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa Fé County.
Kipana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, in Sandoval County.
Kuakaa, on the south bank of Arroyo Hondo, 5 miles south of Santa Fé.
Ojana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, Sandoval County.
Paako, south of the mining camp of San Pedro, Santa Fé County.
Pueblo Blanco, on the west rim of the Médano, or great sand-flow, east of the Rio Grande.
Pueblo Colorado, on the south border of the Galisteo plain.
Pueblo de los Silos, in the Galisteo Basin, between the Keresan pueblos of the Rio Grande and Pecos.
Pueblo Largo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo.
Pueblo Quemado (or Tewa), 6 miles southwest of Santa Fé.
Puerto (or Keresan).
San Cristóbal, between Galisteo and Pecos.
San Lazaro, 12 miles southwest of the present Lamy, on the south bank of the Arroyo del Chorro, Santa Fé County.
San Marcos, 18 miles south-southwest of Santa Fé.
Sempoai, near Golden, Santa Fé County.
She, about 5 miles south of Galisteo in Santa Fé County.
Tuerto, near the present Golden City, Santa Fé County.
Tungge, on a bare slope near the banks of a stream called in the mountains farther south Rio de San Pedro; lower down, Uña de Gato; and in the vicinity of the ruins Arroyo del Tunque, at the northeastern extremity of the Sandia Mountains, in Sandoval County.
Tzemantuo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa Fé County.
Tzenatay, opposite the little settlement of La Bajada, on the declivity sloping from the west toward the bed of Santa Fé Creek, 6 miles east of the Rio Grande and 20 miles southwest of Santa Fé.
Uapige, east of Lamy Station on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railway, some distance in the mountains.
History.When Coronado passed through the southern end of Tewa territory in 1540, he found it had been nearly depopulated by the Teya, a warlike Plains tribe, perhaps Apache, about 16 years before. The Tewa were next visited by Espejo. In 1630 there were but five Southern Tewa towns remaining and those were entirely broken up during the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96, most of the Indians removing to the Hopi in Arizona, after 1694. The greater part of the remainder were destroyed by smallpox early in the nineteenth century, though there are still a few descendants of this group living in the other pueblos along the Rio Grande, particularly Santo Domingo. The history of the Northern Tewa was similar to that of the Southern but they suffered much less and remain a considerable body at the present day though with a stationary population. The Pueblo of Hano was established among the Hopi as a result of the rebellion of 1680-92.
Populations.The population of the Northern Tewa is given as follows: In 1680, 2,200; in 1760, 1,908; in 1790-93, 980; in 1805, 929; in 1850, 2,025; in 1860, 1,161; in 1871, 979, in 1901-05, 1,200; in 1910, 968. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock numbered 3,412. In 1937, 1,708 were returned from the Tewa excluding the Hano, which were enumerated with the Hopi.
In 1630 Benavides estimated the Southern Tewa population at 4,000; in 1680 Galisteo, probably including San Cristóbal, had an estimated population of 800 and San Marcos of 600. No later separate figures are available.
Connection in which they have become noted.Tano, the alternative name of the Southern Tewa, has been used as a designation of the stock to which the entire group -- Tewa, Tiwa, Piro, Pecos, and Jemez -- belong, a stock now merged with the Kiowa-Tanoan.
Tiwa Pueblos. The name Tiwa is from Ti'wan, pl. Tiwesh', their own name. Also spelled Tebas, Tigua, Tiguex, Tihuas, Chiguas. Also called:
E-nagh-magh, a name given by Lane (in Schoolcraft, 1851-57) to the language of "Taos, Picuris, Tesuqua, Sandia," etc.
Connection.The Tiwa Pueblos are a division of the Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.
Location and Subdivisions.The Tiwa Pueblos formed three geographic divisions, one occupying Taos and Picuris (the most northerly of the New Mexican Pueblos), on the upper waters of the Rio Grande; another inhabiting Sandia and Isleta, north and south of Albuquerque respectively; and the third living in the pueblos of Isleta del Sur and Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., in Texas and Chihuahua, Mexico, respectively.
Towns and Villages: (As far as known)
Alameda, on the east side of the Rio Grande about 10 miles above Albuquerque.
Bejuituuy, near the southern limit of the Tiwa habitat on the Rio Grande, at the present Los Lunas.
Carfaray, supposed to have been east of the Rio Grande beyond the saline lakes.
Chilili, on the west side of the Arroyo de Chilili, about 30 miles southeast of Albuquerque.
Isleta, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12 miles south of Albuquerque.
Isleta del Sur, on the northeast side of the Rio Grande, a short distance below El Paso, Tex.
Kuaua, north of the present bridge across the Rio Grande above Bernalillo.
Lentes, on the west bank of the Rio Grande near Los Lunas.
Manzano, near the present village so called, 6 miles northwest of Quarai and about 25 miles east of the Rio Grande.
Mojualuna, in the mountains above the present Taos Pueblo.
Nabatutuei, location unknown.
Nachurituei, location unknown.
Pahquetooai, location unknown.
Picuris, inhabited, about 40 miles north of Santa Fé.
Puaray, on a gravelly bluff overlooking the Rio Grande in front of the southern portion of the town of Bernalillo.
Puretuay, on the summit of the round mesa of Shiemtuai, or Mesa de las Padillas, 3 miles north of Isleta.
Quarai, about 30 miles straight east of the Rio Grande, in the eastern part of Valencia County.
San Antonio, east of the present settlement of the same name, about the center of the Sierra de Gallego, or Sierra de Carnué, between San Pedro and Chilili, east of the Rio Grande.
Sandia, inhabited, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, 12 miles north of Albuquerque.
Santiago, probably about 12 1/2 miles above Bernalillo, on the Mesa del Cangelon.
Senecu del Sur, including Piro Indians, on the southeastern bank of the Rio Grande, a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Shumnac, east of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the present Mexican settlements of Chilili, Tajique, and Manzano.
Tajique, about 30 miles northeast of Belen, close to the present settlement of the same name, on the southern bank of the Arroyo de Tajique.
Taos, inhabited, on both sides of Taos River, an eastern tributary of the Rio Grande, in Taos County.
The following pueblos now extinct were probably also Tiwa:
Locations entirely unknown:
Ranchos, about 3 miles from Taos Pueblo.
Shinana, on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
Tanques, also on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
Torreon, at the modern town of the same name, about 28 miles east of Belen.
History.The first two Tiwa divisions above mentioned occupied the same positions when Coronado encountered the Tiwa in 1640-42. Relations between his followers and the Indians soon became hostile and resulted in the capture of two pueblos by his army. In 1581 three missionaries were sent to the Tiwa under an escort but all were killed as soon as the escort was withdrawn. In 1583 Espejo approached Puaray, which Coronado had attacked, but the Indians fled. Castaño de Sosa visited the Tiwa in 1598 and Oñate in 1598. Missionary work was begun among them early in the seventeenth century, and the Indians were withdrawn progressively until only four pueblos were occupied by them at the time of the great rebellion of 1680, in which they took part. In 1681 Governor Otermin stormed Isleta and captured 500 Indians most of whom he settled near El Paso. Part of the Isleta fled to the Hopi country and remained there until 1709 or 1718, when the people of Isleta returned and reestablished their town. The Sandia Indians, however, remained away until 1742, when they were brought back by some missionaries and settled in a new pueblo near their former one. Since then there have been few disturbances of importance, but the population until very lately slowly declined.
Population.In 1680 there were said to be 12,200 Tiwa; in 1760, 1,428 were reported; in 1790-93, 1,486; in 1805, 1,491; in 1850, 1,575; in 1860, 1,163; in 1871, 1,478; in 1901-5, 1,613; in 1910, 1,650; in 1937, 2,122. (See Tewa Pueblos.)
Ute. The Ute were close to the northern border of New Mexico, extending across it at times and frequently raiding the tribes of the region and the later white settlements. (See Utah.)
Zuñi. A Spanish adaptation of the Keresan Sünyyitsi, or Su'nyitsa of unknown meaning. Also spelled Juñi. Synonyms are:
A'shiwi, own name, signifying "the flesh."
Cibola, early Spanish rendering of A'swiwi.
La Purísima de Zuñi, mission name.
Nai-te'-zi, Navaho name.
Narsh-tiz-a, Apache name.
Nashtezhe, Navaho name.
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Zuñi, mission name.
Saraí, Isleta and Sandia name of the pueblo; Sarán, Isleta name of the people.
Saray, Tiwa name of the pueblo.
Så'u'ú, Havasupai name.
Siete Ciudades de Cibola, or Seven Cities of Cibola.
Su'nyitsa, Santa Ana name of the pueblo.
Sünyítsi, Laguna name.
Tâa Ashiwani, sacred name of tribe, signifying "corn peoples."
Xaray, the Tiwa name.
Ze-gar-kin-a, given as Apache name.
Connections.The Zuñi constitute the Zuñian linguistic stock.
Location.On the north bank of upper Zuñi River, Valencia County.
Ha[l]ona [??] (extinct), on both sides of Zuñi River, on and opposite the site of Zuñi Pueblo.
Hampasawan (extinct), 6 miles west of Zuñi Pueblo.
Hawikuh (extinct), about 15 miles southwest of Zuñi Pueblo, near the summer village of Ojo Caliente.
Heshokta (extinct), on a mesa about 5 miles northwest of Zuñi Pueblo.
Heshota Ayathltona (extinct), on the summit of Taaiyalana, or Seed Mountain, commonly called Thunder Mountain, about 4 miles southeast of Zuñi Pueblo.
Heshota Hluptsina (extinct), between the "gateway" and the summer village of Pescado, 7 miles east of Zuñi Pueblo.
Heshota Imkoskwin (extinct), near Tawyakwin, or Nutria.
Heshotapathltaie, or Kintyel, on Leroux Wash, about 23 miles north of Navaho Station, on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railway, Ariz.
Heshota Uhla (extinct), at the base of a mesa on Zuñi River, about 5 miles west of the summer village of Ojo Pescado, or Heshotatsina.
Kechipauan (extinct), on a mesa east of Ojo Caliente, or Kyapkwainakwin, 15 miles southwest of Zuñi Pueblo.
Kiakima (extinct), at the southwestern base of Thunder Mountain, 4 miles southeast of Zuñi Pueblo.
Kwakina (extinct), 7 miles southwest of Zuñi Pueblo.
Kwakinawan (extinct), south-southeast of Thunder Mountain, which lies 4 miles east of Zuñi Pueblo.
Matsaki (extinct), near the northwestern base of Thunder Mountain and 3 miles east of Zuñi Pueblo.
Nutria, at the headwaters of an upper branch of Zuñi River, about 23 miles northeast of Zuñi Pueblo.
Ojo Caliente, about 14 miles southwest of Zuñi Pueblo.
Pescado, about 15 miles east of Zuñi Pueblo.
Pinawan (extinct), about 1 1/2 miles southwest of Zuñi Pueblo, on the road to Ojo Caliente.
Shopakia (extinct), 5 miles north of Zuñi Pueblo.
Wimian (extinct), 11 miles north of Zuñi Pueblo.
History.According to Cushing (1896), the Zuñi are descended from two peoples, one of whom came originally from the north and was later joined by the second, from the west or southwest (from the country of the lower Colorado), who resembled the Yuman and Piman peoples in culture. Although indefinite rumors of an Indian province in the far north, containing seven cities, were afloat in Mexico soon after its conquest, the first definite information regarding the Zuñi was supplied by Fray Marcos de Niza, who set out in 1539, with a Barbary Negro named Estevanico as guide, to explore the regions of the northwest. In the present Arizona he learned that Estevanico who, together with some of his Indian companions, had been sent on ahead, had been killed by the natives of "Cibola," or Zuñi. After approaching within sight of one of the Zuñi pueblos, Fray Marcos returned to Mexico with such glowing accounts of the "Kingdom of Cibola" that the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was fitted out the next year. The first Zuñi Indians were encountered near the mouth of Zuñi River, and the Spaniards later carried the Zuñi pueblo of Hawikuh by storm, but it was discovered that the Indians had already moved their women and children, together with the greater part of their property, to their stronghold on Taaiyalone Mesa. Thither the men also escaped. The invaders were bitterly disappointed in respect to the riches of the country, and, after the arrival of the main part of the army, they removed to the Rio Grande to go into winter quarters. Later, Coronado returned and subjugated the Zuñi.
In 1580 the Zuñi were visited by Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado, and in 1583 by Antonio de Espejo, the first to call them by the name they commonly bear. By this time one of the seven original pueblos had been abandoned. In 1698, the Zuñi were visited by Juan de Oñate, the colonizer of New Mexico. The first Zuñi mission was established by the Franciscans at Hawikuh in 1629. In 1632 the Zuñi murdered the missionaries and again fled to Taaiyalone Mesa, where they remained until 1635. On August 7, 1670, the Apache or Navaho raided Hawikuh, killed the missionary, and burned the church. The mission was not reestablished, and it is possible that the village itself was not rebuilt. In 1680 the Zuñi occupied but three villages, excluding Hawikuh, the central mission being at Halona, on the site of the present Zuñi pueblo. They took part in the great rebellion of 1680 and fled to Taaiyalone Mesa, where they remained until their reconquest by Vargas in 1692. From this time on the people were concentrated in the single village now known as Zuñi, and a church was erected there in 1699. In 1703 they killed the missionary and again fled to their stronghold, returning in 1705. A garrison was maintained at Zuñi for some years after this, and there were troubles with the Hopi, which were finally composed in 1713. The mission continued well into the nineteenth century, but the church was visited only occasionally by priests and gradually fell into ruins. In recent years the United States Government has built extensive irrigation works and established a large school, where the younger generation are being educated in the ways of civilization.
Population.In 1630 the Zuñi population was estimated at 10,000, probably much too high a figure; and in 1680, at 2,500. In 1760 it was given as 664; in 1788, 1,617; in 1797-98, 2,716; in 1805, 1,470; in 1871, 1,530; in 1889, 1,547; in 1910, 1,667; in 1923, 1,911; in 1930, 1,749; in 1937, 2,080.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Zuñi have become widely known (1) from their association with the "Kingdom of Cibola"; (2) from the size of the pueblo and the unique character of the language spoken there; and (3) from the close study made of them by Cushing, Mrs. Stevenson, Kroeber, and others. The name Zuñi is borne by a detached range of mountains in the northwestern part of New Mexico. Besides Zuñi post village in McKinley County, N. Mex., there is a place named Zuñi in Isle of Wight County, Va.