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by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
The history of the Oregon Indians was similar to that of the Indians of Washington. The coast tribes seem to have been affected little or not at all by the settlements of the Spaniards in California, and those of the interior were influenced only in slightly greater measure by them through the introduction of the horse. Nor were these tribes reached so extensively by the employees of the great fur companies. Contact with such advance agents of civilization was principally along the valley of the Columbia River, and Astoria will always be remembered as bearing witness to the transient attempts of the American Fur Company to establish a permanent trading organization in this region under the American flag. As in the case of Washington, Oregon and its tribes were first brought to the acquaintance of our Eastern States in an intimate way by the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. Here also settlement was delayed until the fixation of the International Boundary line and the rush westward following upon the discovery of gold in California. From the middle of the nineteenth century onward, however, the native tribes were rapidly dispossessed, placed upon reservations, and reduced in numbers. At a later period the decrease became less marked, but it has continued nevertheless, partly as an actual extinction of the aboriginal population and partly as an absorption in the dominant race. Most of the Chinookan tribes were finally placed upon Warm Springs and Grande Ronde Reservations and on Yakima Reservation in Washington; all of the Athapascan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation, except the Umpqua, who went to Grande Ronde; the Kusan and Yakonan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation; the Salishan peoples of Oregon upon the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reserves; most of the Kalapooian peoples upon the Grande Ronde, though a few on the Siletz; most of the Molala upon the Grande Ronde; the Klamath upon Klamath Reserve; the Modoc mostly on Klamath Reserve but a few upon the Quapaw Reservation in Oklahoma; the Shahaptian tribes of Oregon upon the Umatilla Reservation; and the Northern Paiutes upon the Klamath Reservation.
Ahantchuyuk. Own name, significance unknown. Also called:
French Prairie Indians, by early settlers.
Pudding River Indians, by various authors, and adopted by Berreman (1937).
Connections.The Ahantchuyuk belonged to the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Location.On and about Pudding River, which empties into the Willamette from the east about 10 miles south of Oregon City.
Population.(See Calapooya.) Not given separately.
Alsea. A corruption of Älsé, their own name, meaning unknown. Also called:
Kûnis'tûnne, Chastacosta name.
Päifan amím, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Si ni'-te-li tunne, Naltunne name, meaning "flatheads."
Tcha yáxo amim, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Tehayesátlu, Nestucca name.
Connections.The Alsea belonged to the Yakonan linguistic stock.
Location.On Alsea River and Bay.
Chiink, on the south side of Alsea River.
Kakhtshanwaish, on the north side of Alsea River.
Kalbusht, on the lower course of Alsea River.
Kauhuk, on the south side of Alsea River.
Kaukhwan, on the north side of Alsea River at Beaver Creek.
Khlimkwaish, on the south side of Alsea River.
Khlokhwaiyutslu, on the north side of Alsea River.
Kutauwa, on the north side of Alsea River at its mouth.
Kwamk, on the south side of Alsea River.
Kwulisit, on the south side of Alsea River.
Kyamaisu, on the north side of Alsea River at its mouth.
Panit, on the south side of Alsea River.
Shiuwauk, on the north side of Alsea River.
Skhakhwaiyutslu, on the south side of Alsea River.
Tachuwit, on the north side of Alsea River.
Thlekuhweyuk, on the south side of Alsea River.
Thlekushauk, on the south side of Alsea River.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians belonging to the Yakonan stock at 6,000 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 29 Indians under this name, and that of 1930 only 9 under the entire Yakonan stock.
Connection in which they have become noted.Alsea or Alseya River, Alsea Bay and the village of Alsea, Benton County, Oreg., preserve the name of the Alsea Indians.
Atfalati. Meaning unknown. Often shortened to Fallatahs. Sometimes spelled Tuálati, or Tualatin (Berreman, 1937). Also known as:
Tualatin, Palmer in Ind. Aff. Rep., p. 260, 1859.
Wapato Lake Indians, a common name used by travelers.
Connections.The Atfalati belonged to the northern dialectic branch of the Kalapooian linguistic family.
Location.On the Atfalati plains, the hills about Forest Grove and the shores and vicinity of Wapato; they are also said to have extended as far as the site of Portland.
Villages and Bands:
Chachambitmanchal, 3 1/2 miles north of Forest Grove.
Chachamewa, at Forest Grove, 6 miles from Wapato Lake.
Chachanim, on Wapato Lake prairie.
Chachif, on Wapato Lake.
Chachimahiyuk, between Wapato Lake and Willamette River, Washington County.
Chachimewa, on or near Wapato Lake, Yamhill County.
Chachokwith, at a place of the same name north of Forest Grove, Washington County.
Chagindueftei, between Hillsboro and Sauvies Island, Washington County.
Chahelim, in Chehelim Valley, 5 miles south of Wapato Lake, Yamhill County.
Chakeipi, about 10 miles west of Oregon City.
Chakutpaliu, northeast of Hillsboro, Washington County.
Chalal, near the outlet of Wapato Lake.
Chalawai, southeast of Wapato Lake.
Chamampit, on Wapato Creek at the east end of Wapato Lake.
Chapanaghtin, north of Hillsboro, Washington County.
Chapokele, 4 miles west of Wapato Lake.
Chapungathpi, at Forest Grove, Washington County.
Chatagihl, at the upper end of Wapato Lake.
Chatagithl, at the upper end of Wapato Lake.
Chatagshish, in Washington County.
Chatakuin, 7 miles north of Hillsboro, Washington County.
Chatamnei, 10 miles north of Wapato Lake, in Washington County.
Chatilkuei, 5 miles west of Wapato Lake, in Yamhill County.
Chawayed, west of Forest Grove, in Washington County.
Population.(See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 44 Atfalati.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Atfalati is preserved in the form Tualatin by a town in Washington County.
Bannock. The Bannock came over into the eastern borders of the state between Powder and Owyhee Rivers in more recent times. (See Idaho.)
Calapooya. Meaning unknown. Also called:
Kait-ka, by the Umpqua.
Tsänh-alokual amím, by the Luckiamute Kalapuya.
Connections.The Calapooya belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Location.On the headwaters of Willamette River including McKinzie, Middle, and West Forks.
Subdivisions or Bands:
Ampishtna, east of upper Willamette River.
Tsanchifin, on the site of Eugene City.
Tsanklightemifa, at Eugene City.
Tsankupi, at Brownsville, Lynn County.
Tsawokot, north of Eugene City.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the entire Kalapooian stock at 3,000 in 1780. The Kalapooian bands on Grande Ronde Reservation numbered 351 in 1880; 164 in 1890; 130 in 1905. The census of 1910 returned 5 of the Calapooya tribe by itself, and 106 in the entire stock; and that of 1930, 45 individuals in the stock.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Calapooya tribe is of note (1) because its name has been used for all the tribes of the stock; and (2) from its later application to Calapooya River, a branch of the Willamette; Calapooya Creek, an affluent of the Umpqua; and the Calapooya Mountains.
Cayuse. Significance unknown.
Haí`luntchi, Molalla name.
Wailetpu, own name.
Connections.The Cayuse were placed by Powell (1891) in the Waiilatpuan linguistic stock along with the Molala (q. v.) but this is now recognized as a branch of the Shapwailutan family.
Location.About the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers and extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon.
History.Anciently the Cayuse are said to have had their headquarters on the Upper Grande Ronde but to have extended west later to the region of Deschutes River, where they may have met the Molala. They entered the historical arena with the expedition of Lewis and Clark and were afterward well known to explorers, hunters, and settlers. In 1838 a mission was established among them by the noted Marcus Whitman at the site of the present town of Whitman, but in 1847 smallpox carried off a large number of the tribe, and the Indians, believing the missionaries to be the cause, murdered Whitman and a number of other Whites and destroyed the mission. By 1851 they were much reduced in numbers and had become partially merged in the Nez Percé. In 1853 they joined in the treaty by which Umatilla Reservation was formed and made their homes upon it from that time forward. Their language is now nearly extinct.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Cayuse in 1780. In 1904, 404 were officially reported; the census of 1910 gave 298, while the United States Indian Office in 1923 returned 337. The census of 1930 reported 199 Cayuse and Molala, and the United States Indian Office of Cayuse alone in 1937, 370.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Cayuse were reputed one of the most warlike tribes of Washington and Oregon. Horses were early bred among them and an Indian pony came to be known to the white settlers as a "cayuse." There is a place called Cayuse in Umatilla County, Oreg.
Chastacosta. From Shista-kwusta, their own name, significance unknown. Also called:
Atcháshti ame'nmei, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Atchashti ámim, another form of the Kalapuya name.
Katuku, by the Shasta.
Wálamskni, by the Klamath.
Wálamswash, by the Modoc.
Connections.The Chastacosta belonged to the Athapascan stock.
Location.On the lower course of Illinois River, both sides of Rogue River for some distance above its confluence with the Illinois, and on the north bank somewhat farther.
Villages: Dorsey recorded the following:
Chunarghuttunne, east of the junction of Rogue River and Applegate River.
Chusterghutmunnetun, the highest on Rogue River.
Kthelutlitunne, at the junction of Rogue River and a southern affluent.
Tachikhwutme, above the mouth of Illinois River.
Tsetaame, east of the junction of Rogue River with Applegate River.
Twenty of these at least were on the north side of Rogue River. The following may be synonymous with some in the above list:
Klothchetunne, on or in the vicinity of Rogue River;
Sekhatsatunne, on the north bank of Rogue River;
Tasunmatunne, in the Rogue River country.
Drucker (1937) merely gives the "Chasta Costa (cista kwusta)" as one town near the Rogue-Illinois confluence divided into three parts called Tleattli'ntun, Tcetci'-wut, and Setla'tun.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the Chastacosta and 10 other Athapascan tribes in the vicinity at 5,600. In 1856 the remnant which was removed to Siletz Reservation numbered but 153, and the census of 1910 returned only 7. The 1930 census returned a total Athapascan population in Oregon of 504. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 30 Chastacosta in 1937.
Chelamela. Significance unknown. Also called:
Long Tom Creek Indians.
Connections.The Chelamela belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Location.On Long Tom Creek, a western tributary of the Willamette River.
Chepenafa. Significance unknown. Also called:
Api'nefu, or Pineifu, by the other Kalapuya.
Marys River Indians, the official and popular name.
Connections.The Chepenafa belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, and were sometimes regarded as a subdivision of the Luckamiut (q. v.).
Location.At the forks of St. Marys Creek, near Corvallis.
Population.(See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 24.
Chetco. Own name, meaning "close to the mouth of the stream."
Connections.The Chetco belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and differed little in culture from the other Athapascan groups immediately north of them and the Tolowa to the south.
Location.On each side of the mouth of Chetco River and about 14 miles up it as well as on Winchuck River. (See also California.)
Villages: As recorded by Dorsey (in Hodge, 1907):
Chettanne, Khuniliikhwut, Nukhsuchutun, Setthatun, Siskhaslitun, and Tachukhaslitun, on the south side of Chetco River.
Chettannene, on the north side of Chetco River.
Nakwutthume, on Chetco River above all the other villages.
Thlcharghiliitun, on the upper course of a south branch of Chetco River.
As recorded by Drucker (1937).
Hosa'tun, at the mouth of Winchuck River.
Natltene'tun, about where the modern town of Brookings stands.
Shri'choslintun, on Chetco River a little above the following.
Tcagitli'tun, on Chetco River at the mouth of the north Fork.
Tcet or Tcetko, at the mouth of Chetco River, really a town on each side.
Tume'stun, near Shri'choslintun.
Drucker adds that "the coast town Parrish calls Wishtenatan (Water man, xustene'ten) may have been affiliated more closely with Chetco River than with the Lower Rogue River group."
Population.See Chastacosta. In 1854, n year after the Chetco had been removed to the Siletz Reservation, they numbered 241. In 1861 they numbered 262. In 1977 there were only 63 on the reservation. The census of 1910 returned 9.
Connection in which they have become noted.A river and a post hamlet in Curry County, Oregon, perpetuate the name of the Chetco.
Clackamas. From their own name, Guithla'kimas, significance unknown. Also spelled Tlakimish, and called:
A'kimmash, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Gita'q!amas, by the Clatsop.
N'sekau's or Ns tiwat, by the Nestucca.
Tu'hu tane, by the Umpqua.
Connections.The Clackamas belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and to a dialectical division to which they have given their name.
Location.On Clackamas River, claiming the country on the east side of Willamette River from a few miles above its mouth nearly to Oregon City and cast as far as the Cascade Mountains. (See also Washington.)
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that the Clackamas numbered 2,500 in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark set down their probable number as 1,800. In 1851 there were 88; the 1910 census returned 40; and United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937, 81. The census of 1930 reported a total of 561 Indians in the Chinookan stock.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Clackamas is perpetuated by a river, a county, and a town in Oregon.
Clatskanie. Significance unknown. Also spelled A`látskné-i, Clackstar, Klatskanai, Tlatskanai, etc.
Connections.The Clatskanie belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.According to Gibbs (1877) the Clatskanie at one time owned the prairies bordering Chehalis River, Washington, at the mouth of Skookumchuck River, but on the failure of game, crossed the Columbia and occupied the mountains about Clatskanie River, their best-known historic seat. For a long time they exacted toll of all who passed going up or down the Columbia.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 1,600 Clatskanie in 1780. In 1851 they were reduced to three men and five women. The census of 1910 returned three. (See Chastacosta.)
Connection in which they have become noted.Like the Kwalhioqua, the Clatskanie are noted for their isolation from other branches of the Athapascan stock. Their name is preserved by Clatskanie Creek and Clatskanie town in Columbia County, Oreg.
Clatsop. From a native word meaning "dried salmon."
Connection.The Clatsop belonged to the Lower Chinook dialectic division of the Chinookan linguistic stock.
Location.The Clatsop centered about Cape Adams, on the south side of Columbia River, extending up the latter as far as Tongue Point, and southward on the Pacific coast to Tillamook Head.
Villages: As far as known these were:
Konope, near the mouth of Columbia River.
Neacoxy, the principal winter village, at the site of Seaside, at the mouth of Neacoxie Creek.
Neahkeluk, at Point Adams.
Niakewankih, south of Point Adams at the mouth of Ohanna Creek.
Neahkstowt, near the present Hammond.
Necotat, at the site of Seaside.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 300 Clatsop in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1875 the few survivors were moved to Grande Ronde Reservation, where the census of 1910 returned 26. (See Clackamas)
Connection in which they have become noted.Clatsop County and the town of Clatsop, Oreg., preserve the name.
Clowwewalla. Significance unknown. Phonetically GiLa'wewalamt. Also called:
Fall Indians, Tumwater Indians, popular names.
Willamette Indians, Willamette Falls Indians, popular names.
Connections.The Clowwewalla belonged to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock.
Location.At the falls of Willamette River.
The Clowwewalla may have included the Cushooks, Chahcowahs, and Nemalquinner of Lewis and Clark.
Population.The Clowwewalla, or a part of them, were called Cushook by Lewis and Clark, who estimated that they numbered 650 in 1805-6. On this basis Mooney (1928) estimated there might have been 900 in 1780. They were greatly reduced by the epidemic of 1829 and in 1861 numbered 13. They are now apparently extinct.
Dakubetede. Own name, significance unknown. Also called:
Applegate River Indians, from their habitat.
Ni'ckitc hitclûm, Alsea name, meaning "people far up the stream."
Ts'û-qûs-li'-qwut-me' tunne, Naltunnetunne name.
Connections.The Dakubetede belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, using a dialect identical with that of the Taltushtuntude.
Location.On Applegate River.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the Dakubetede, the Nahankhotane (part of the Umpqua), the Taltushtuntude, and the Umpqua to have numbered 3,200 in 1780. They are nowhere separately enumerated. (See Chastacosta.)
Hanis. Own name, significance unknown.
Connections.The Hanis formed one dialectic group of the Kusan linguistic family, the other being Miluk. It is probable that this stock was connected with the Yakonan.
Location.On Coos River and Bay.
Anasitoh, on the south side of Coos Bay.
Melukitz, on the north side of Coos Bay.
Population.Mooney (1828) estimates that the Hanis and the Miluk together numbered 2,000 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 1,500 Hanis. The census of 1910 returned 93 for the entire stock and that of 1930, 107, while, again for the stock, the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 55 in 1937.
Klamath. A word of uncertain origin but probably used first by Columbia River or other outside tribes. Their own name is máklaks, meaning "people," "community." They are also called:
Aígspaluma, abbreviated to Aígspalo, Aíspalu; Nez Percé name for all Indians on Klamath Reservation and in the vicinity, meaning "people of the chipmunks."
Alámmimakt ísh (from ala'mmig, "Upper Klamath Lake"), said to be the Achomawi name.
Athlámeth, Calapooya name.
Aúksiwash, in Yreka dialect of Shasta.
Dak`-ts!aam-al-ae or Dak`-ts!aew-an-a'e, "those above the lakes," by the Takelma.
E-ukshik-ni máklaks, meaning "people of the lakes," also their own name.
Makaítserk, by the western Shasta.
Plaíkni, collective name for Klamath, Modoc, and Snakes on Sprague River.
Sáyi, Northern Paiute name.
Tapáadji, Ilmawi name.
Wols, name given by the Latgawa.
Connections.Together with the Modoc (q. v.), the Klamath constituted the Lutuamian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family.
Location.On Upper Klamath Lake, Klamath Marsh, and Williamson and Sprague Rivers.
Subdivisions and Villages: These are given as follows by Spier (1930), maintaining his order:
I. a'ukckni (the Klamath marshWilliamson River group), with the following villages: mu'tcuia'ksi (near the bridge toward the eastern end of Klamath marsh), k'Etaiwa's (along the eastern side of the marsh), gupgua'ksi, (east side of Klamath marsh south of last), i'wal (along a southeastern tongue of the marsh), kla'djoksi (ibid.), du'`ilkut (on the south shore of Klamath marsh), awn'lwaskan (west of preceding). wa'ktale's (on the higher ground where Williamson River leaves the marsh), la'laks (ibid.), lobo'kstsoksi (on the bluff on the left bank of the Sprague River at the railroad bridge) called by Gatschet (1891) ktaí-tú-pakshi), an unnamed site (on the south side of Sprague River below the dam), k!otcwa'ets (about 2 miles above the dam on the south bank of Sprague River), koma'eksi (on both sides of Sprague River south of Braymill, 4 miles from Chiloquin), ka'umkan (about 6 miles above last), [Yainax] (settlements of some sort near here), hicdic- lue'lukc (west of Gearhart Mountain), bEzukse'was (on the right bank of Williamson River below the mouth of Sprague River), takalma'kcda (on the right bank of Williamson River below preceding), k'tai'di (on a flat opposite last mentioned), djigia's (below last two on both sides of river), k!o'ltawas (on both banks below preceding but principally on left bank), at'awikc (below last, principally on right bank), ya'ak (right bank below preceding), tsa'k'wi (below last, principally on right), wita'mumpsi (on a high bluff on the right bank above an eddy in the sharp bend in the river), goyEmske'Egis' or kiEke'tsus (on right bank below last), wEla'lksi (on the eastern shore of Agency Lake), lok'o'gut (on the higher land near Agency Lake by a little warm spring), tco'klalumps (overlooks the lake where the Chiloquin road meets the Agency Lake highway), "other towns may have been at ya'mzi, on the western side of Yamsay Mountain, and kokena'oke, Spring Creek, a large northern affluent of Klamath marsh."
II. kowa'cdikni, perhaps part of the first division, occupying: kowa'cdi (on Agency Lake).
III. du'kwakni (on the delta of Williamson River), affiliated most closely with the next division, and including: mo'aksda (on the left bank of Williamson River nearly a mile above the mouth), wickamdi (below the preceding on the right bank), la'wa'lstot (on the point forming the right side of the mouth of Williamson River), mo'ginkunks (on the left bank of Williamson River a quarter of a mile above the mouth), djingus (at a spring on the lake front to the east of the mouth of Williamson River).
IV. gu'mbotkni (on Pelican Bay and the marsh to the north) including: sle'tsksi (on the west side of Seven Mile Creek near its mouth), wudo'kan (in the marsh a mile from the last and east of Seven Mile Creek, iwunau'ts (on the western side of a little creek emptying into Klamath Lake 2 miles east of Recreation P. O., and extending along the marsh shore to the northern side of Pelican Bay), duno'ksi (an open space overlooking the northern end of Pelican Bay), e'o'kai (a few hundred yards up Four Mile Creek on the left bank), wa`lo'kdi (above the last mentioned on the opposite side of the creek), wak'a'k (south of the high ridge south of Odessa), gai'loks or gaila'lks (on the point south of Odessa, or more probably between Howard and Shoalwater Bays), sto'kmatc (at Eagle Point); to which should perhaps be added: e'o'kak (on Wood River, toward the mountains), and e'ukwa'lksi (on the east side of Wood River, and possibly the same site as the other).
V. iu'la`lonkni (the people of Klamath Falls (Link River) and the eastern shore of Klamath Lake), including the following villages: kEt!ai'ksi (extending southward from a promontory 2 miles or so northwest of Modoc Point), suwiaka'eks (at Modoc Point), iula'u (on the east side of Klamath Lake), diu'wiaks (at the railroad point Ouxy), kau'omot (a half mile south of the preceding on the lake shore), di'tk!aks (at a hot spring known as Barclay Spring near the last mentioned), kolwa'l (at Rattlesnake Point at Algoma), wuk!o'twas (on Buck Island in Klamath Lake), lama'tcksi (on the point east of Buck Island), k!su'nk!si (three-fourths of a mile south of the preceding on the shore of Klamath Lake), iwau'wone (on both sides of Link River at the highway bridge), iu'`lalone (at the mouth of Klamath River), weka'els (on the shore of Klamath Lake a mile west of the mouth of Klamath River), wut!ana'koks (at one end of a little marsh (now drained) on the west side of Klamath Lake), iup!a'tona (at the other end of the same marsh), woksa'lks (on the north shore of Wokas marsh near Klamath Lake), de'ktconks (on the west shore of Klamath Lake opposite Buck Island), sa'stitka'-wals (at Squaw Point).
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated the Klamath at 800 in 1780 but Spier (1930) raises this to 1,200. In 1905, including former slaves and members of other tribes more or less assimilated with them, they numbered 755. The census of 1910 returned 696. In 1923 there were 1,201 Indians under the Klamath Superintendency including Klamath, Modoc, and other Indians. In 1930, 2,034 were returned as Klamath and Modoc. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 1,912 Klamath.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Klamath is perpetuated by Klamath Lake, Klamath County, and the town of Klamath Falls, Klamath County, Oreg.; by Klamath River, Oreg. and Calif.; and by a village in Humboldt County, Calif.
Kuitsh. Significance unknown. Also called:
Ci-sta'-qwût-mê' tunne', Mishikwutmetunne name, meaning "people dwelling on the stream called Shista."
Lower Umpqua, or Umpwua, popular name.
Tu'kwil-má'-k`i, Alsea name.
Connections.The Kuitsh belonged to the Yakonan linguistic stock, though so remotely connected that Frachtenberg (1911, p. 441) thought of placing them in an independent family, the Siuslawan.
Location.On Lower Umpqua River.
Villages: According to Dorsey these were:
Population.The Kuitsh are usually classed with the Siuslaw. Mooney (1928) estimates the entire Yakonan stock at 6,000 in 1780, and by 1930 this had been reduced to 9. The Kuitsh are nowhere separately enumerated.
Latgawa. Signifying "those living in the uplands." Also called:
Walumskni, by the Klamath.
Connections.With the Takelma proper, the Latgawa constituted the Takilman linguistic family which, in turn, was probably affiliated with the Shastan stock.
Location.On Upper Rogue River eastward about Table Rock and Bear Creek and in the neighborhood of the present town of Jacksonville.
Villages: Sapir (1915) records, one village belonging to this tribe known by the tribal name and also called Latgauk.
Lohim. Significance unknown. (See Paiute, Northern.)
Connections.Reported as a band of Shoshoneans which entered Oregon at a late period.
Location.On Willow Creek, a southern affluent of the Columbia.
Population.In 1870 the number of Lohim was reported as 114, but the name has not appeared in recent official reports. They have generally been regarded as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation, and Ray's (1938) informants denied the presence of Shoshoneans here, asserting that the name was applied to Yakima.
Luckiamute, Lakmiut. Significance unknown.
Alakema'yuk, Atfalati name.
Suck-a-mier, Chelukimaukes, forms appearing in Reports of the Office of Indian Affairs.
Connections.The Luckiamute belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Location.The Luckiamute River.
Subdivisions or Bands:
Ampalamuyu, on Luckiamute River.
Mohawk, on Mohawk River.
Tsalakmiut, on Luckiamute River.
Tsamiak, near Luckiamute River.
Tsantatawa, south of Luckiamute River.
Tsantuisha, on Luckiamute River.
Population.(See Calapooya.) The number of Luckiamute was given as 28 in 1905. The census of 1910 returned only 8.
Connection in which they have become noted.This tribe has given its name to Luckiamute River, Oreg.
Miluk. Significance unknown; also called Lower Coquille.
Connections.The Miluk spoke the southern of the two dialects of the Kusan linguistic family, and were related more remotely to the Yakonan stock.
Location.At the mouth of Coquille River.
Miluk or Mulluk, on the north side of the Coquille River at the site of the present town of Randolph.
Nasumi, on the south side of Coquille River on the coast of Oregon, near the site of the present Bandon.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 in 1780 for the Miluk and Hanis together. In 1910 they numbered 93. (See Hanis.) In 1937 the population of the "Kus" Indians was given as 55.
Mishikhwutmetunne. Signifying "people who live on the stream called Mishi." Also called:
Coquille, or Upper Coquille, from their habitat.
De-d'á tené, Tutuni name, meaning "people by the northern water."
Ithalé teni, Umpqua name.
Kukwil', Alsea name (from Coquille).
Connections.The Mishikhwutmetunne belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, their relations being particularly close with the Tututni.
Location.On upper Coquille River.
Villages: The following were recorded by J. O. Dorsey (1884):
Chockreletan, near the forks of Coquille River.
Khweshtunne, next above Coquille City.
Tkhlunkhastunne, next to the Kusan people and below Coquille City.
Tthinatlitunne, at the site of Coquille.
Drucker (1937) recorded besides:
Hweshtun (perhaps partly Kusan).
Stonerutltutl, a suburb of Natgrilitun.
Tlunhoshtun, said to have come from Umpqua.
Population.(See Chastacosta.) The census of 1910 returned 15 Mishikhwutmetunne under the name Upper Coquille.
Modoc. From Móatokni, meaning "southerners." Also called:
Aígspaluma, Nez Percé name for all Indians on Klamath Reservation and in the vicinity.
La-la-cas, said to be the original name.
Lutmáwi, by a part of the Pit River Indians.
Lutuami, Ilmawi name.
Pxánai, Yreka Shasta name.
Saidoka, Shoshoni name.
Connections.With the Klamath (q. v.), the Modoc constituted the Lutuamian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location.On Little Klamath Lake, Modoc Lake, Tule Lake, Lost River Valley, and Clear Lake, extending at times as far east as Goose Lake. (See also California and Oklahoma.)
The most important bands of the Modoc are said to have been at Little Klamath Lake, Tule Lake, and in the valley of Lost River.
Agawesh, on lower Klamath Lake, Calif., and on Hot Greek.
Chakawech, near Yaneks, on Sprague River, Klamath Reservation.
Kalelk, on the north shore of Tule or Rhett Lake.
Kawa, at Yaneks on Sprague River.
Keshlakchuis, on the southeast side of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Calif.
Keuchishkeni, on Hot Creek near Little Klamath Lake, Calif.
Kumbatuash (with Klamath), southwest of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Calif., extending from the lake shore to the lava beds.
Leush, on the north side of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Oreg.
Nakoshkeni, at the junction of Lost River with Tule Lake.
Nushaltkagakni, at the headwaters of Lost River near Bonanna.
Pashka, on the northwest shore of Tule (Rhett) Lake.
Shapashkeni, on the southeast side of Little Klamath Lake, Calif.
Sputuishkeni, on Lower Klamath Lake, Calif.
Stuikishkeni, on the north side of Little Klamath Lake.
Waisha, on Lost River, 3 or 4 miles northwest of Tule Lake, and near the hills that culminate in Laki Peak.
Wachamshwash, on Lost River near Tule (Rhett) Lake, in Klamath County.
Welwashkeni, on the southeast side of Tule Lake, at Miller's Farm, Calif.
Wukakeni, on the east side of Tule Lake, Calif.
Yaneks (with Klamath and Shoshoni), along middle Sprague River, Lake County.
Yulalona (with Klamath), at the site of the present Linkville.
History.The Modoc came into contact with the Whites in comparatively late times, and acquired an unfortunate reputation from frequent conflicts with white immigrants in which atrocities were committed on both sides. In 1964 the Modoc and the Klamath together ceded their territory to the United States and retired to Klamath Reservation, but they were never contented there and made persistent efforts to return to their old country. Finally, in 1870, a chief named Kintpuash, better known to the Whites as Captain Jack, led the more turbulent element of the tribe back to the California border and refused to return. The first attempt to bring the runaways back precipitated the Modoc War of 1872-73. The Modoc retreated to the lava beds of northern California and for several months resisted all attempts to dislodge them, but they were finally overcome and Kintpuash and five other leaders hanged in October of that year. Part of the tribe was then sent to Indian Territory and placed on the Quapaw Reservation and the remainder on the Klamath Reservation.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 400 Modoc in 1780, but Kroeber (1925), with whom Spier (1930) seems to concur, allows twice as many. In 1905 there were 56 on the Quapaw Reservation and 223 on the Klamath Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 282, of whom 212 were in Oregon, 33 in Oklahoma, 20 in California, and the remainder scattered among 5 other States. In 1930, 31 were in Oklahoma. (See Klamath.) In 1937, 329 were reported.
Connections in which they have become noted.The chief claim of the Modoc to remembrance is on account of the remarkable defensive war they maintained in the lava beds of California, as above stated. A California county is named for them and places called Modoc are to be found in Phillips County, Ark.; in Emanuel County, Ga.; in Louisiana; in Ohio; and in McCormick County, S. C.; Randolph County, Ill.; and Randolph County, Ind.; also in the name of Modoc Point, Oreg.; in Scott County, Kans.; and in the name of the Modoc Lava Beds, Calif.
Molala. Derived from the name of a creek in the Willamette Valley from which one of their bands drove the original inhabitants. Also called:
Amolélish, by the Kalapuya.
Kúikni, by the Klamath.
Láti-u or La'tiwe, their own name.
Ya'-ide'sta, by the Umpqua.
Connections.Together with the Cayuse, the Molala constituted the Waiilatpuan division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. According to Cayuse tradition, the Molala formerly lived with them and were separated and driven westward in consequence of wars with hostile tribes.
Location.At an early date the Molala are believed to have been in the valley of the Deschutes River and to have been driven west, as above intimated, into the valleys of the Molala and Santiam Rivers. Either part of them subsequently went south to the head-waters of Umpqua and Rogue Rivers or they were separated from the rest in the movement above mentioned, as Berreman (1937) thinks.
Subdivisions: The following are said to have been Molala bands or settlements:
Chakankni, on the headwaters of Rogue River, northwest of Klamath Lake, absorbed later by the neighboring tribes, particularly the Klamath.
Chimbuiha, on the headwaters of Santiam River.
Mukanti, on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains.
Population.Mooney (1928) believes the Molala were still with the Cayuse in 1780, whose numbers he fixes at about 500. In 1849 the Molala were estimated at 100. In 1877 Gatschet found several families living on the Grande Ronde Reservation, and in 1881 there were said to be 20 individuals in the mountains west of Klamath Lake. The census of 1910 returned 31, all but 6 of whom were in Oregon. (See Cayuse.)
Connection in which they have become noted.The Molala are note-worthy in the first place for the uniqueness of their language, which is closely related only to Cayuse. Molalla River or Creek and a post village, both in Clackamas County, Oreg., bear the name.
Multnomah. Significance unknown. Also called:
Wappato, originally the Cree or Chippewa name of a bulbous root (Sagittaria variabilis) used as food by the Indians of the west and northwest. It means literally "white fungus." It passed into the Chinook jargon with the meaning "potato" and became applied to Sauvies Island in Columbia River, at the mouth of the Willamette, and the Indian tribes living on or near it. It was so used by Lewis and Clark, though there was little or no political connection between the numerous bands so designated.
Connections.The Multnomah belonged to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock.
Location.As above indicated, on and near Sauvies Island.
Subdivisions or Bands:
Cathlacomatup, on the south side of Sauvies Island on a slough of Willamette River.
Cathlacumup on the west bank of the lower mouth of the Willamette River and claiming as their territory the bank of the Columbia from there to Deer Island.
Cathlanaquiah, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island.
Clahnaquah, on Sauvies Island.
Claninnata, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island.
Kathlaminimin, at the south end of Sauvies Island, later said to have become associated with the Cathlacumup and Nemoit.
Multnomah, on the upper end of Sauvies Island.
Nechacokee, on the south bank of Columbia River a few miles below Quicksand (Sandy) River.
Nemalquinner, at the falls of the Willamette but with a temporary house on the north end of Sauvies Island.
Shoto, on the north side of Columbia River, a short distance from it and nearly opposite the mouth of the Willamette.
Population.Mooney (1928) gives the population of all of these bands of the Multnomah as 3,600 in 1780. Their descendants are probably included among the 315 Indians returned as Chinook by the census of 1910. (See Clackamas.)
Connection in which they have become noted.There is a county, town, and river channel of the name in Oregon. The name "Wappato" secondarily applied to the Multnomah besides its former use as a name of Sauvies Island, is given, with the spelling Sapato, to a lake and place near Portland in Oregon—the latter in Multnomah County, the former between Yamhill and Washington Counties— and to a place in the State of Washington.
Naltunnetunne. a small Athapascan tribe between the Tututni and Chetco, apparently included by later writers under the former.
Nez Percé. They extended into northeastern Oregon. (See Idaho.)
Paiute, Northern. These people occupied the southeastern part of Oregon and formerly extended far enough north to include the valley of Powder River and the upper course of John Day River of which they were dispossessed by Shahaptians. (See Nevada.)
Santiam. Significance unknown. Also called:
Aha'lpam, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Connections.The Santiam belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Subdivisions or Bands:
Chamifu, on Yamhill Creek.
Chanchampenau, east of Willamette River.
Chanchantu, location not specified.
Chantkaip, below the junction of the Santiam forks.
Population.(See Calapooya.) In 1906 there were 23 Santiam on the Grande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 9.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Santiam is perpetuated in Santiam River, a branch of the Willamette.
Shasta. The Shasta extended at least into the territory watered by Jenny Creek from their main seats in California (q. v.).
Siletz. Significance unknown. Also called:
Tsä Shnádsh amím, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections.The Siletz belonged to the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location.On Siletz River.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the population of all of the Salishan tribes of Oregon as 1,500 in 1780. They are not now separately recorded, but in the census of 1930, 72 Salishan Indians were returned from Oregon besides the Tillamook.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Siletz are of note as having been the southernmost of the Salishan linguistic family. Siletz River and a post village, both in Lincoln County, Oreg., preserve the name.
Siuslaw. Significance unknown. Also called:
K'çu-qwic'tûnne, Naltunne name.
K'qlo-qwec tûnne, Chastacosta name.
Tsaná-uta amím, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections.The Siuslaw belonged to the Siuslawan division of the Yakonan linguistic stock.
Location.On and near Siuslaw River.
Villages: Dorsey (1884) gives the following:
Kwsichichu (south of Eugene City).
Population.(See Alsea.) The census of 1910 reported 7 Siuslaw.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Siuslaw is preserved by Siuslaw River, in Lane County, Oreg.
Skilloot. The Skilloot occupied part of Oregon opposite the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See Washington.)
Snake. (See Northern Paiute under Nevada.)
Takelma. Own name, meaning "those dwelling along the river." Also called:
Kyu'-kutc hítclûm, Alsea name meaning "people far down the stream (or country)."
Lowland Takelma, of Berreman (1937).
Na-tcté tûnne, Naltunne name.
Rogue River Indians, from their habitat.
Connections.Together with the Latgawa (q. v.), the Takelma constituted the Takilman linguistic stock. It is possible that this is distantly connected with the Shastan stock of northern California.
Location.On the middle course of Rogue River from above Illinois River to about Grant's Pass and on the northern tributaries of Rogue River between these limits and the upper course of Cow Creek; also south nearly to the California boundary.
Villages: The following names were recorded by J. O. Dorsey mainly in one of the Athapascan dialects of the region:
Hashkushtun, on the south side of Rogue River.
Hudedut, at the forks of Rogue River and Applegate River.
Kashtata, on the south side of Rogue River above Leaf Creek and Galice Creek.
Kthotaime, on the south side of Rogue River.
Nakila, on the south side of Rogue River about 10 miles above Yaasitun.
Salwahka, near the mouth of Illinois River or one of its tributaries.
Seethltun, on the south side of Rogue River, the village nearest the Chastacosta.
Sestikustun, on the south side of Rogue River.
Tthowache, on the south side of Rogue River near "Deep Rock".
Yaasitun, on the south side of Rogue River.
The following names, probably covering in part the same towns, were recorded by Dr. Edward Sapir in 1906, and are enumerated from the Latgawa country downstream:
Hatil, east of Table Rock.
Gelyalk, below Table Rock.
Dilomi, near the falls of Rogue River.
Didalam, on the present site of Grant's Pass, the county seat of Josephine County.
Daktsasin or Daldanik, on Rogue River near Jump Off Joe Creek.
Hagwal, on Cow Creek.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the entire Takilman stock at 500 in 1780. Only 1 was returned under that name by the census of 1910, but under the general head of "Rogue River" the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives two bodies of Indians numbering 68 and 46 individuals, respectively.
Connection in which they have become noted.Together with the Latgawa, the Takelma are remarkable for the peculiarity of their language, accentuated by the fact that they are almost entirely surrounded by Athapascan peoples. A post village called Takilma in Josephine County, Oreg., perpetuates the name.
Taltushtuntude. Own name, meaning unknown. Also called:
Galice Creek Indians, from their habitat.
Kû-lis'-kitc hitc'lûm, Alsea name.
Connections.The Taltushtuntude belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Dakubetede but culturally had become assimilated with the Takelma.
Location.On Galice Creek.
Population.In 1856, 18 Taltushtuntude were reported living on the Siletz Reservation. Under the name "Galice Creek" 42 Indians were reported in 1937.
Tenino. Significance unknown. Also called:
Meli'-lema, own name.
Warm Springs Indians, the common official designation.
Connections.The Tenino constituted a division of the Shahaptian branch of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Subdivisions and Villages:
Kowasayee, on the north bank of Columbia River nearly opposite the mouth of the Umatilla.
Ochechote or Uchichol, on the north bank of Columbia River, the exact region being uncertain though they derive their name from a rock near the mouth of the Deschutes River.
Skinpah, on the north bank of Columbia River above the mouth of the Deschutes.
Tapanash, on the north bank of Columbia River, near the mouth of the Deschutes and a little above Celilo, the name being later extended over most of the above bands.
Tilkuni, between White and Warm Springs Reservations.
Tukspush, on John Day River, and hence called often John Day Indians.
Wahopum, on the north bank of Columbia River near the mouth of Olive Creek.
Waiam, near the mouth of the Deschutes River.
History.The Tenino were mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805. By the treaty of 1855 they gave up their lands and settled, along with other Shahaptian tribes and some Salishan tribes, on Yakima Reservations Washington. Since then they have not had separate official recognition.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 3,600 including the Atanum of the Yakima and the Tyigh. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 460 in 1937 of the Yakima and associated bands.
Connection in which they have become noted.A town in Thurston County, Wash., perpetuates the name.
Tillamook. A Chinook term meaning "people of Nekelim (or Nehalem). Also spelled Calamox, Gillamooks, Killamook, etc.
Higgahaldahu, Nestucca name.
Kyaukw, Alsea name.
Nsietshawas, so called by Hale (1846).
Si ni'-te-li, Mishikwutmetunne name for this tribe and the Alsea, meaning "flatheads."
Connections.The Tillamook were the principal tribe in Oregon belonging to the Salishan linguistic family, coastal division.
Location.The coast from the Nehalem to Salmon River.
Subdivisions and Villages:
Nehalem, on Nehalem River.
Nestucca, on Nestucca Bay and the streams flowing into it.
Salmon River, on the river of that name.
Tillamook, on Tillamook Bay and the streams flowing into it, including the following villages enumerated by Lewis and Clark:
Chishucks (at the mouth of Tillamook River), Chucktin (the southernmost Tillamook village, on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay), Kilherhursh (at the entrance of Tillamook Bay), Kilherner (on Tillamook Bay, at the mouth of a creek 2 miles from Kilherhursh), Towerquotten (on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay).
Population.See Siletz. Lewis and Clark estimated 2,200 Tillamook in 1805. In the reports of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition (1845) their number is given as 400, and by Lane in 1849 as 200. The census of 1910 returned 26, and that of 1930, 12.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Tillamook seem to have been the most powerful tribe on the coast of Oregon. A bay, and also a county and its capital in the former country of the tribe preserve the name; also a cape, Tillamook Head.
Tututni. Meaning unknown. Also called:
H'lilush, Nestucca name.
Lower Rogue River Indians, or Rogue River Indians, from their habitat.
Tálemaya, Umpqua name.
Ta-qu'-qûc-ce, Chetco name, meaning "northern language."
Connections.The Tututni belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and were related closely with the Mishikhwutmetunne.
Location.On lower Rogue River and the Pacific coast north and south of its mouth.
Villages: J. O. Dorsey (1884) gave the following villages or bands:
On the north coast of Rogue River:
Chemetunne, popularly called Joshuas, just north of Rogue River.
Kaltsergheatunne, at Port Orford.
Kosotshe, between Port Orford and Sixes Creek, perhaps earlier on Flores Creek.
Kwatami, on or near Sixes River.
Kthutetmeseetuttun, just north of Rogue River.
Kwusathlkhuntunne, said to have been at the mouth of Mussel Creek, 5 miles south of Mount Humbug.
Natutshltunne, between Coquille River and Flores Creek.
Niletunne, the first village south of the Miluk village of Nasumi, south of Coquille River.
Yukichetunne, on Euchre Creek.
On Rogue River:
Chetlesiyetunne, on the north side.
Enitunne, near the mouth of a southern affluent of Rogue River.
Kushetunne, on the north side.
Mikonotunne, on the north side 14 miles from its mouth.
Nakatkhaitunne, on the north side of Rogue River.
Targheliichetunne, on the north side.
Targhutthotunne, near the coast.
Testthitun, on the north side.
Thechuntunne, on the north side.
Thethlkhttunne, or Chastacosta, on the north side.
On or near the coast south of Rogue River:
Chetleschantunne, on Pistol River and the headlands from the coast 6 miles south of Rogue River.
Kheerghia, about 25 miles south of Pistol River.
Khwaishtunnetunne, near the mouth of a small stream locally called Wishtenatin, after the name of the settlement, that enters the Pacific about 10 miles south of Pistol River, at a place later known as Hustenate.
Natthutunne, on the south side of Rogue River.
Nuchumatuntunne, on the north side of Rogue River near the mouth.
Sentethltun, on the south side of Rogue River and perhaps at its mouth.
Skumeme, on the south side of Rogue River near its mouth.
Tsetintunne, the highest of 4 villages on a stream emptying into Rogue River near its mouth.
Drucker (1937) gives the following village names:
On Rogue River:
Gwi'sat huntun, on Mussel Creek near Sixes River and sometimes separated as the Sixes tribe.
Kusu'me, on what is now called Flores Creek.
Kwataime, a short distance north of last.
Kwuse'tun, near and possibly a suburb of Megwino'tun, on the coast.
Megwino'tun, a few miles up river.
Skame'me, between Pistol River and mouth of Rogue River; Waterman places it at Hunter's Creek.
Sukwe'me or Sukwe'tce, at mouth of Sixes River.
Tagrili'tun, a suburb of Tu'tutun.
Tce'metun or Tce'me, really two towns, one on each side of the river's mouth.
Tce'tlersh tcuntun, on Pistol River, perhaps belonging to the Chetco.
Tu'tutun, 5 to 6 miles from the river's mouth, divided into two parts called Tatre'tun, "downriver," and Na'gutretun "upriver."
Yukwi'tce or Yu'gwitce, on what is now called Euchre Creek.
Berreman (1937) makes seven major divisions as follows: Kwatami or Sixes River; Euchre Creek (Yukichetunne); Mikono tunne; Pistol River (Chetleschantunne); Joshua; Tututunne (Tututni); Kwaishtunne or Khustenete.
Population.(See Chastacosta.) In 1854 the Tututni population was 1,311. The census of 1910 returned 383, but in 1930 the United States Indian Office gave only 41 under this name, 55 under that of "Meguenodon" (see above), and 45 under that of "Joshua" (Tce'metun).
Tyigh. Significance unknown. Also spelled Attayes, Iyich, Ta-ih, Thy, Tyh, etc.
Teáxtkni, or Télknikni, Klamath name.
Tse Amínema, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections.The Tyigh belonged to the Tenino branch of the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location.The country about Tygh and White Rivers.
Subdivisions and Villages:
No names are recorded.
History.The history of the Tyigh was identical with that of the Tenino (q. v.).
Population.With the other Oregon tribes of the Tenino group, the Tyigh numbered 1,400 in 1780 according to Mooney's (1928) estimate. In 1854 they were said to number 500 and in 1859, 450; but both of these figures must be overestimates. They are not now enumerated separately from the Warm Spring Indians, placed at 550 by the census of 1910.
Connection in which they have become noted.Tygh Creek and a place called Tygh Valley in Wasco County, Oreg., bears the name of the Tyigh.
Umatilla. Significance unknown.
Connections.The Umatilla belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.
Location.On Umatilla River and the banks of Columbia River adjacent to the mouth of the Umatilla.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates this tribe and the Wallawalla together at 1,500 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 272, the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 145, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 124.
Connections in which they have become noted.An Indian reservation has received the name Umatilla, and it has also been applied to a river, a county, and a post village, all in Oregon; also to a place in Lake County, Fla.
Umpqua. Significance unknown. Also called:
Amgútsuish, Shasta name.
Cactan'-qwût-me'tûnne, Naltunne name.
Ci-cta'-qwut-me'tûnne, Tututni name, meaning "Umpqua River people."
Ci-sta'-qwût, Chastacosta name.
Etnémitane, own name (Gatschet, 1877).
Tsan Ámpkua amím, Luckiamute Kalapuya name, meaning "people on the Umpqua."
Upper Umpqua, Berreman (1937).
Yaagalá', Takelma name.
Connections.The Umpqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.On upper Umpqua River, east of the Kuitsh.
The Umpqua on Cow Creek are often spoken of separately under the name Nahankhuotana. Parker (1840) mentions a people called Palakahu which was probably an Athapascan or Yakonan tribe but cannot now be identified, and also the Skoton and Chasta, probably parts of the Chastacosta or Tututni. This is all the more likely as he includes the Kwatami band of the Tututni and the entirely independent Chilula of California. Their chief village was Hewut.
Population.(See Dakubetede.) Hale (1846) says that in his time the Umpqua were supposed to number not more than 400. In 1902 there were 84 on Grande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 109. In 1937, 43 Indians are given under this name. (See Chastacosta and Dakubetede.)
Connection in which they have become noted.Umpqua River, and the settlement of Umpqua or Umpqua Ferry in Douglas County, preserve the name.
Wallawalla. The Wallawalla extended somewhat into northeastern Oregon. (See Washington.)
Walpapi. Significance unknown. Commonly called Snakes. A part of the Northern Paiute. (See under Nevada.)
Wasco. From a native word wacq!ó, "cup or small bowl of horn," the reference being to a cup-shaped rock a short distance from the main village of the tribe; from this the tribal name Galasq'ó, "those that have the cup," is derived and variations of it frequently appear in the literature. Also called:
Afúlakin, by the Kalapuya.
Ámpxänkni, meaning "where the water is," by the Klamath.
Awásko ammim, by the Kalapuya.
Sáxlatks, by the Molala.
Connections.They belonged to the upstream branch of the Chinookan linguistic stock, their closest relatives being the Wishram on the opposite side of the river.
Location.In the neighborhood of The Dalles, in the present Wasco County.
Villages and Fishing Stations:
The following are given by Sapir (1930) in order from east to west: Hlgahacha, Igiskhis, Wasco (a few miles above the present town of The Dalles), Wogupan, Natlalalaik, Gawobumat, Hliekala-imadik, Wikatk, Watsokus Winkwot (at The Dalles), Hlilwaihldik, Hliapkenum, Kabala, Gayahisitik, Itkumahlemkt, Hlgaktahlk, Tgahu, Hliluktik, Gahlentlich, Gechgechak, Skhlalis.
Population.Morse (1822) estimated the number of Wasco at 900. The census of 1910 returned 242, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 227 in 1937. (See Clackamas and Watlala.)
Connections in which they have become noted.The Wasco were the strongest Upper Chinook tribe and that which ultimately absorbed the rest. The name is presented by Wasco County, Oreg., and a town in Sherman County in the same State; also places in Kern County, Calif., and Kane County, Ill.
Watlala. Significance of word is unknown. Also called:
Cascade Indians, the popular English name.
Gila'xicatck, by the Chinook.
Katlagakya, own name.
Shahala, from Chinook saxala, meaning "above," by Chinook.
Connections.The Watlala belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and the Clackamas dialectic group.
Location.At the Cascades of Columbia River and extending down to the mouth of the Willamette River.
Subdivisions: The following names have been applied by various writers to the Indians in this neighborhood and may be subdivisions of this tribe, or perhaps refer to the entire tribe itself:
Cathlakaheckit, at the Cascades.
Cathlathlala, just below the Cascades.
Clahclellah, near the foot of the Cascades.
Neerchokioon, on the south side of Columbia River a few miles above Sauvies, Island.
Washougal, near Quicksand River.
Yehuh, just above the Cascades.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that the Watlala and the Wasco together numbered 3,200 in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark estimated that there were 2,800. In 1812 the two first-mentioned bands were estimated to number 1,400. They are no longer enumerated separately and are probably incorporated at the present time with the Wishram and the Wasco.
Yahuskin. One of the two chief peoples in Oregon belonging to the Northern Paiute division of the Shoshonean and therefore Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. (See Nevada.)
Yamel. Significance unknown, often spelled Yam Hill. Also called:
Ycha-yamel-amim, by the Atfalati Kalapuya.
Connections.The Yamel belonged, along with the Atfalati, to the northern dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock.
Subdivisions: Gatschet (1877) records these as follows:
Andshankualth, on a western tributary of the Willamette.
Andshimmampak, on Yamhill River.
Chamifu, in the forks of Yamhill River.
Chamiwi, on Yamhill River.
Champikle, on Dallas (La Creole) Creek.
Chinchal, on Dallas Creek.
Population.(See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 5 Yamel.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Yamel, in the form Yamhill, is perpetuated by an affluent of the Willamette and by the county through which it flows.
Yaquina. Significance unknown. Also called:
Sa-ákl, Nestucca name.
Sis'-qûn-me'tûnne, Chetco name.
Tcha yákon amim, Luckiamute Kalapuya name.
Connections.The Yaquina were one of the tribes of the Yakonan linguistic stock to which they gave their name.
Location.About Yaquina River and Bay.
Villages: The following list is from J. O. Dorsey (1884):
On the north side of Yaquina River:
On the south side of the river:
Population.(See Alsea.) The census of 1910 returned 19 Yaquina.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of this tribe Yaquina, was given some scientific prominence by its use, in the form Yakonan, for a small linguistic stock in the Powellian classification. It is preserved in Yaquina River, Yaquina Bay and a town called Yaquina in Lincoln County.
Yoncalla. From Ayankeld, or Tch'Ayanke'ld, "those living at Ayankeld," own name.
Connections.The Yoncalla were the southernmost tribe of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, forming one of the three dialectic divisions.
Location.On Elk and Calapooya Creeks, tributaries of Umpqua River.
According to Gatschet (1887), there were two bands, called Chayankeld and Tsantokayu by the Luckiamute, but it seems likely that the former name (Tch'Ayanke'ld) is merely the native tribal name.
Population.(See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 11 Yoncalla.
Connection in which they have become noted.Yoncalla, a post village of Douglas County, Oreg., preserves the name.