Washington extract from
John Reed Swanton's
The Indian Tribes of North America

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(Washington) Extract from

The Indian Tribes of North America

by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145—1953
[726 pages—Smithsonian Institution]
(pp. 412-451)

Washington


The State of Washington was occupied by a great number of Indian tribes formerly very populous, particularly those along the coast. There are few traditions regarding migrations and those which we have apply almost entirely to the interior people. After the Whites came it was unlikely that the Indians would move eastward in the face of the invasion and impossible for them to move westward; hence we do not have to trace various stages of long migrations due to displacement by the Whites and the overland retreat which followed, so marked in the history of the eastern Indians. Contrary to an older view, which held that Salishan tribes formerly extended to the lower Columbia and were driven north by Shahaptians, pushed forward in turn by Shoshonean peoples, it seems that the relative positions of Salishans and Shahaptians has been unchanged for an uncertain period of time and that, as a matter of fact, the Shoshoneans have been pushed southward although this movement was very recent. The Athapascan Kwalhioqua must represent a comparatively late invasion although that may not have been so recent as their anomalous position would lead one to suppose. There is also evidence of a much earlier movement when the Salishans came down upon the coast. The earliest European to meet any of the peoples of Washington was probably Juan de Fuca, a Greek navigator sailing under the Spanish flag, who, in 1592, visited the straits which now bear his name. Other Spanish explorers followed, and were later succeeded by English and Americans. The continual resort of trading vessels to Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver Island served to distribute European commodities and had a considerable influence among the tribes of Washington. In the latter part of the eighteenth century traders of the Hudson Bay and Northwest Companies made their appearance, but the Washington peoples first come squarely out upon the stage of history with the descent of the Columbia by Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. These pioneers gave the first general description of the region, enumerated the aboriginal peoples found in occupancy, and attempted estimates of their numbers. For some time afterward the territory was dominated by representatives of British companies and the land was claimed by England, while the only attempt to exploit it on the part of Americans, the settlement of Astoria, was soon abandoned. Following upon the acceptance of the 49th parallel of latitude as the International Boundary, however, and still more the discovery of gold in California and the opening up of the "Oregon trail," settlers from the Eastern States began to pour in in numbers. It was thereafter inevitable that friction should develop between the newcomers and the aborigines. There were wars with the Nez Perc, Yakima, and other tribes, but the Indians suffered less in this way than from European diseases, particularly the smallpox, which began their ravages before Lewis and Clark appeared, from spirituous liquors, and from a general dislocation of their aboriginal adjustments. The destruction was greatest in the Columbia Valley, which as the main artery of travel and trade was peculiarly exposed to epidemics, and within a few years the greater part of the once teeming populations of the lower valley were practically wiped out of existence. Roman Catholic missions sprang up at an early date in the eastern part of the territory, and were soon followed by those of Protestant denominations, notable among which was that conducted among the Cayuse by Marcus Whitman (1838-47). As in other parts of the United States, the Indians gradually parted with their lands and were placed upon reservations, though in most cases they were not removed so far from their original homes as in the eastern parts of the Union.

The above sketch will show enough of the history of most of the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in certain cases (i.e., in connection with the Cayuse, Chilluckittequaw, Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See Ray, 1932, and Spier and Sapir, 1930.)

Cathlamet. Significance unknown. Also called:

Guasmas, or Guithlamethl, by the Clackamas.
Kathlamet, own name.
Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook.

Connections.The Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The dialect to which they have given their name was spoken as far up the Columbia River as Ranier.

Location.On the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point.

Villages:

Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point.
Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget Island and near the mouth of Alockman Creek.
Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles below Puget Island.
Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the Columbia River.
Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite Ilo'humin.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1849 Lane reported 58. They are now extinct as a separate group.

Connection in which they have become noted.The capital of Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates the name of the Cathlamet.

Cathlapotle. Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'p!oLX.) River."

Connections.The Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and were placed by Spier (1936) in the Clackamas division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman (1937) apparently with the Multnomah.

Location.On the lower part of Lewis River and the southeast side of the Columbia River, in Clarke County.

Villages: The main village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth of Lewis River, but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi, opposite the mouth of Willamette River.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780; Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806.

Connection in which they have become noted.Lewis River was once known by the name of Cathlapotle.

Cayuse. The Cayuse were located about, the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers, extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon. (See Oregon.)

Chehalis. Meaning "sand," the name derived originally, according to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays Harbor. Also called:

Atchixe'lish, Calapooya name.
Ilga't, Nestucca name.
Lower Chehalis, name used by Spier (1927).
Staq-tbe, Puyallup name.

Connections.The Chehalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, being most intimately related to the Humptulips, Wynoochee, and Quinault.

Location.On the lower course of Chehalis, River, especially on the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later times the Chehalis, occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay that had formerly been held by the Chinook.

Villages:

Chehalis (Gibbs, 1877), on the south side of Grays Harbor near Westport, in country earlier occupied by the Chinook.
Chiklisilkh (Gibbs), at Point Leadbetter, Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by Chinook.
Hlakwun (Curtis, 1907-9), near Willapa on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook.
Kaulhlak (Curtis), at the head of Palux River, earlier in Chinook country.
Klumaitumsh (Gibbs and Boas personal information), given doubtfully as the name of a former band or village on the south side of Grays Harbor at its entrance.
Nai'yasap (Curtis), on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by Chinook.
Nickomin (Swan 1857 and Boas, personal information), on North River which flows into Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook.
Noohooultch (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor.
Noosiatsks (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor.
Nooskoh (Gibbs), on a creek opposite Whishkah River.
Qyan (Gairdner, 1841), on the north point of Grays Harbor.
Talal (Gibbs), at Ford's Prairie on the Chehalis River near Centralia, and therefore far outside of the Chehalis territory proper.
Willapa, on Willapa River and in earlier Chinook country.

The following villages were originally occupied by Chinook but seem to have shifted in population or language or both so as to become Chehalis: Hwa'hots, Nutskwethlso'k, Quela'ptonlilt, Quer'quelin, Tske'lsos.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated a population of 1,000 in the year 1780 for the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the Cowlitz, the Humptulips, and related tribes, but the number had sunk to 170 by 1907. However, the census of 1910 gives 282 for the same group exclusive of the Cowlitz. In 1923 the United States Indian Office returned 89, and in 1937, 131.

Connections in which they have become noted.A river, county, and city in Washington preserve the name of the Chehalis. There is a Chehalis in Minnesota but its name probably has no connection with that of the Washington tribe.

Chelan. The name is derived from Chelan Lake.

Connections.An interior Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee dialect and separated tentatively from that tribe by Spier (1927).

Location.At the outlet of Lake Chelan.

Population.No data.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Chelan is shared not only by the lake above mentioned but by Chelan Falls, a range of mountains, a county, and two post villages, Chelan and Chelan Falls.

Chilluckittequaw. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock.

Location.As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at White Salmon Landing.
Nanshuit (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at the present Underwood.
Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River Labiche (Hood River ?) to the Cascades.
Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about 1/2 mile west of a long, high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg.) and at the same time about a mile above White Salmon Landing, an apparent inconsistency.
Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, 1/2 mile from the last; in 1905 the site of the Burket Ranch.

Historical Note.According to Mooney (1928) a remnant of the Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River until 1880 when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 3,000 for this tribe in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the figure at 1,400, besides 800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200.

Chimakum. Significance of the name is unknown. Also called:

Aqoklo, own name.
Port Townsend Indians, popular name.

Connections.The Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.) together constituted the Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in turn was probably connected with the Salishan stock.

Location.On the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend.

History.The Chimakum were constantly at war with the Clallam and other Salish tribes and, being inferior in numbers, suffered very much at their hands. They were included in the Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in 1890, Boas was able to find only three individuals who could speak their language, and then but imperfectly.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census of 1910 enumerated 3.

Connection in which they have become noted.Attention was called to the Chimakum in early days by their warlike character and the uniqueness of their language.

Chinook. From Tsink, their Chehalis name. Also called:

Ala'dshush, Nestucca name.
Flatheads, a name shared with a number of other tribes in the region from their custom of deforming the head.
Thlla'h, Clackama name.

Connections.The Chinook belonged to the Lower Chinook division of the Chinookan family.

Location.On the north side of the Columbia River from its mouth to Grays Bay (not Grays Harbor), a distance of about 15 miles, and north along the seacoast to include Willapa or Shoalwater Bay. Ray (1938) makes a separate division to include the Shoalwater Chinook but it will be more convenient to treat them under one head. It is understood that they differed not at all in dialect.

Towns: (As given by Ray (1938), except as otherwise indicated)

Clamoitomish (Sapir, 1930), in Grays Bay.
Hakelsh, at the mouth of Smith Creek on the northeast shore of Willapa Bay.
Hwa'hots, at a former settlement called Bruceport about 3 miles north of the mouth of Palix River.
Ini'sal, on Naselle River where it enters the arm of Willapa Bay.
Iwa'lhat, at the mouth of Wallicut River, which bears its name in a corrupted form.
Kalawa'uus, on the peninsula At Oysterville Point.
Killaxthokle (Lewis and Clark, 1905-6), probably on Willapa Bay.
Kwatsa'mts, on Baker Bay at the mouth of Chinook River, north side of the Columbia.
Lapi'lso, on an island in an arm of Willapa Bay below the mouth of Naselle River.
Ma'hu, at the mouth of Nemah River below the present town of Nemah.
Mo'kwal, at the mouth of Deep River on Grays Bay.
Nahume'nsh, on the west side of North River at its mouth on the north shore of Willapa Bay.
Namla'iks, at Goose Point.
Na'mstcats, at a site now called Georgetown between Tokeland and North Cove.
Nokska'itmithls, at Fort Canby on Cape Disappointment.
No'skwalakuthl, at Ilwaco, named after its last chief.
Nu'kaunthl, at Tokeland, named after its chief.
Nu'patstcthl, at the site of Nahcotta, on the peninsula opposite the mouth of Nemah River.
Nutskwethlso'k, on Willapa Bay west of Bay Center.
Nuwi'lus, on the site of Grayland on the coast.
Quela'ptonlilt (Swan, 1857), at the mouth of Willapa River.
Querquelin (Swan), at the mouth of Querquelin River, which flows into Palix River from the south near the mouth of the latter.
Se'akwal, on the north bank of the Columbia a short distance below Mo'kwal.
Tokpi'luks, at the mouth of Palix River.
Tse'yuk, at Oysterville on the peninsula north of Nahcotta.
Tske'lsos, on Willapa River between South Bend and Raymond.
Ya'kamnok, at Sandy Point 3 miles south of Goose Point, the extreme north point at Bay Center.

History.Though the Chinook had been known to traders for an indefinite period previously, they were first described by Lewis and Clark, who visited them in 1805. From their proximity to Astoria and their intimate relations with the early traders, they soon became well known, and their language formed the chief Indian basis for the Chinook jargon, first employed as a trade language, which ultimately extended from California to Alaska. In the middle of the nineteenth century they became mixed with the Chehalis with whom they ultimately fused entirely, dropping their own language. The Chinook of later census returns are composed of a number of other tribes of the same stock.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 800 of these Indians in 1780, "including the Chinook and Killaxthokl." In 1805 Lewis and Clark gave 400 on Columbia River alone. In 1885 Swan states that there were 112. They are now nearly extinct though Ray (1938) discovered three old people still living as late as 1931-36.

Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Chinook tribe became famous (1) because of intimate dealings between the Chinook and British and American traders, (2) on account of the extension of their name to the related tribes now classed in the Chinooks stock, (3) because the name was also extended to the Chinook jargon or Oregon Trade Language known throughout the entire Northwest, (4) because of its application to the Chinook or Pacific wind, and (6) from its application to towns in Pacific County, Wash., and Blaine County, Mont.

Clackamas. Placed on both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to groups living on the Oregon side. (See Oregon.)

Clallam. Meaning "strong people." Also spelled Nu-sklaim, S'Kal-lam, Tla'lem.

Connections.The Clallam were a tribe of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock most closely connected with the Songish.

Location.On the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end of Vancouver Island.

Villages:

Elwah, at the mouth of Elwah River.
Hoko, at the mouth of Hoko Creek.
Huiauulch, on the site of modern Jamestown, 5 miles east of Dungeness.
Hunnint or Hungi'ngit, on the cast side of Clallam Bay, this town and Klatlawas together were called Xainat by Erna Gunther (1927).
Kahtai, at Port Townsend, occupied after the destruction of the Chimakum.
Kaquaith (or Skakwiyel), at Port Discovery.
Klatlawas, the Tlatlawai'is of Curtis (1907-9), on the west side of Clallam Bay; see Hunnint.
Kwahamish, a fishing village on the Lyre River.
Mekos, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C.
Pistchin, on Pysht Bay.
Sequim or Suktcikwii, on Sequim Bay or Washington Harbor.
Sestietl, Upper Elwah.
Stehtlum, at new Dungeness.
Tclanuk, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C.
Tsako, at the former mouth of Dungeness River.
Tsewhitzen, on Port Angeles Spit, 2 or 3 miles west of the old town of Stehtlum.
Yennis, at Port Angeles or False Dungeness.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 Clallam in 1780. In 1854 Gibbs estimated 800. In 1855, 926 were reported. In 1862 Eells estimated 1,300 but gave 597 in 1878. In 1881 he reduced this to 485. In 1904, 336 were returned. By the census of 1910, 398 were reported; by the United States Indian Office in 1923, 535, and in 1937, 764.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Clallam is perpetuated by its application to a bay, a county, a river, and a precinct in the State of Washington.

Clalskanie. (See Oregon.)

Columbia or Sinkiuse-Columbia. So called because of their former prominent association with Columbia River, where some of the most important bands had their homes. Also called:

Bo'tcaced, by the Nez Perc, probably, meaning "arrows" or "arrow people."
Isle-de-Pierre, a traders' name, perhaps from a place in their country or for a band of the tribe.
Middle Columbia Salish, so called by Teit (1928) and Spier (1930 b).
Papsp'lu, Nez Perc name, meaning "firs," or "fir-tree people."
.sa'ladebc, probably the Snohomish name.
Sinkiuse, the name applied to themselves and most other neighboring Salish tribes, and said to have belonged originally and properly to a band which once inhabited Umatilla Valley.
Suwa'dabc, Snohomish name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people," or "interior people."
.swa'dab.c, Twana name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people."
.swa'namc, Nootsak name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people."
Ti'attluxa, Wasco Chinook name.
.tskowa'xts
Enux or .skowa'xtsEnEx, applied by themselves, meaning has something to do with "main valley."

Connections.The Sinkiuse-Columbia belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Wenatchee and Methow.

Subdivisions or Bands: (According to Teit, 1930)

.nkee'us or .s.nkeie'usox (Umatilla Valley).
Stata'ketux, around White Bluffs on the Columbia.
.tskowa'xts
Enux or .skowa'xtsEnEx, also called Moses Columbia or Moses Band after a famous chief (Priest's Rapids and neighboring country).

Curtis (1907-9) gives the following: "Near the mouth of the sink of Crab Creek were the Sinkumkunatkuh, and above them the Sinkolkolumnuh. Then came in succession the Stapi'sknuh, the Skukulat'kuh, the Skohchnuh, the Skihlkintnuh, and, finally, the Skultaqchi'mh, a little above the mouth of Wenatchee River."

Spier (1927) adds that the Sinkowarsin met by Thompson in 1811 might have been a band of this tribe.

Location and History.The Sinkiuse-Columbia lived on the east side of Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to the neighborhood of Point Eaton. Later a reservation was created for them known as Columbia Reservation. In 1870 Winans placed them "on the east and south sides of the Columbia River from the Grand Coulee down to Priest's Rapids." They are now under the jurisdiction of Colville Agency and one band, the Moses-Columbia Band, is in the southern part of Colville Reservation.

Population.The Sinkiuse-Columbia are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 800 in 1780, but were probably considerably more numerous as Teit (1927) considers that this tribe and the Pisquow together must have totaled something like 10,000 before the smallpox reached them. In 1905, 355 were reported; in 1908, 299; and in 1909, perhaps including some others, 540 were returned. The census of 1910 gave 52.

Colville. The name is derived from Fort Colville, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Kettle Falls, which was in turn named for the London governor of the company at the time when the post was founded, i.e., in 1825. Also called:

Basket People, by Hale (1846).
Chaudire, French name derived from the popular term applied to them, Kettle Falls Indians.
Kettle Falls Indians, as above.
Slsxuyilp, Okanagon name.
Skuylpi, by other Salish tribes.
Whe-el-po, by Lewis and Clark, shortened from above.

Connections.The Colville belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock and to that branch of the latter which included the Okanagon, Sanpoil, and Senijextee.

Location.On Colville River and that part of the Columbia between Kettle Falls and Hunters.

Villages and Subdivisions: (From Ray, 1932)

Kakalapia, home of the Skakalapiak (across from the present town of Harvey, at the point where the ferry now crosses).
Kilumaak, home of the Skilumaak (opposite the present town of Kettle Falls, about 1 1/2 miles above Nchumutastum).
Nchaliam, home of the Snchalik (about 1 1/2 miles above the present town of Inchelium).
Nchumutastum, home of the Snchumutast (about 6 miles above Nilamin).
Nilamin, home of the Snilaminak (about 15 miles above Kakalapia).
Nkuasiam, home of the Snkuasik (slightly above the present town of Daisy, on the opposite side of the river).
Smichunulau, home of the Smichunulauk (at the site of the present State bridge at Kettle Falls).

History.The history of the Colville was similar to that of the neighboring tribes except that Kettle Falls was early fixed upon as the site of an important post by the Hudson Bay Company and brought with it the usual advantages and disadvantages of White contact.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Colville at 1,000 as of 1780, but Lewis and Clark placed it at 2,500, a figure also fixed upon by Teit (1930). In 1904 there were 321; in 1907, 334; and in 1937, 322.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Colville was applied to an important Indian Reservation and later to a town, the county seat of Stevens County, Wash., but the original, of course was not Indian.

Copalis. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Copalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor.

Population.Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5 individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Copalis is perpetuated in that of Copalis River, and in the post villages of Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing, Grays Harbor County, Wash.

Cowlitz. Significance unknown. Also called:

Nu-so-lupsh, name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis.

Connections.The Cowlitz belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet shared some peculiarities with the inland tribes.

Location.Most of the lower and all the middle course of Cowlitz River. Later they were divided between Chehalis and Puyallup Reservations.

Towns: Ray (1932) gives: Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south of Kelso, and Manse'la, on site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.)

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Cowlitz, along with the Chehalis, Humptulips, and some other tribes, at 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they and the Upper Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were 127 on Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including other tribes.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Cowlitz is perpetuated by Cowlitz River and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier; and by Cowlitz County, Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and some small towns in the same region.

Duwamish. A place name.

Connections.The Duwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Subdivisions and Villages: (According to Smith, 1940)

A. The Duwamish River from its mouth up to and including the Black and Cedar Rivers, with the following villages:

Dsidsila'letc, at Yesler Way and Jackson St., Seattle.
Duwe'kwulsh, at Maple Valley.
Kati'lbabsh, at the present town of Renton.
Sakwe'kwewad, on Cedar River about 2 miles from Renton.
Skwa'lko, where the Black and White Rivers join to form the Duwamish.
Tkwabko', at south end of Lake Washington.
Tola'ltu, below Duwamish Head, Seattle.
Tupa'thlteb, at the mouth of the easternmost estuary of the Duwamish.
Tuduwa'bsh, at the mouth of the Duwamish River.

B. From where the Black River flows into the Duwamish to the junction of the White and Green Rivers, including these villages:

Stak and Tcutupa'lhu, on the east bank of the White River between its junction with the Black River and the mouth of the Green River.

C. The Green River villages:

Ila'lkoabsh, at the junction of the Green and White Rivers.
Su'sabsh, on Suise Creek.
Perhaps several groups of houses: (1) on the upper Green River, including Tskoka'bid (at the bend now spanned by the highway bridge about 4 miles east of Auburn); (2) on the north bank of the Robert Wooding Place; (3) on the Du Bois Place, and (4) at the mouth of Newaukum Creek.

D. The White River village, Sbalko'absh (on White River near a small stream at the southeast corner of the present Muckleshoot Reservation and to the east on Boise Creek).

E. The Lake Washington people, including the Thluwi'thalbsh (at Union Bay), the Sammamish (at the mouth of Sammamish River), and the peoples of Salmon Bay. In 1856 they were removed to the eastern shore of Bainbridge Island but as the place lacked a fishing ground they were shortly afterward taken to Holderness Point, on the west side of Eliot Bay, which was already a favorite place for fishing. They are now under the Tulalip School Superintendency.

Population.The Duwamish were estimated by Mooney (1928), with the Suquamish and other tribes, at 1,200 in 1780. About 1856 they are variously given at from 64 to 312 The census of 1910 returned 20.

Connections in which they have become noted.The Duwamish will be remembered mainly as one of the tribes formerly located on the site of Seattle, and one of the two of which the Indian who gave his name to that city was chief. The name Duwamish itself is preserved in Duwamish River and in the name of a small town.

Hoh. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Hoh spoke the Quileute language and were often considered part of the same tribe, constituting one division of the Chimakuan linguistic stock and more remotely connected with the Salishan family.

Location.On Hoh River on the west coast of Washington.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 500 in the Hoh and the Quileute together in 1780. In 1905 the Hoh numbered 62.

Connection in which they have become noted.The name Hoh is preserved in that of the Hoh River.

Humptulips. Said to signify "chilly region."

Connections.The Humptulips belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, being connected most closely with the Chehalis.

Location.On the Humptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor, including also Hoquiam Creek and Whiskam River.

Villages:

Hli'mumi (Curtis, 1907-9), near North Cove.
Hoquiam, on Hoquiam Greek.
Hooshkal (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.
Kishkallen (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.
Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877).
Kplelch (Curtis), at the mouth of North River.
Kwapks (Curtis, 1907-9), at the mouth of North River.
Mo'nilumsh (Curtis), at Georgetown.
Nooachhummik (Gibbs), on the coast north of Grays Harbor.
Nookalthu (Gibbs), north of Grays Harbor.
Nu'moihanhl (Curtis), at Tokeland.
Whishkah, on Whishkah River.

These are placed under the Humptulips only on account of their locations as described.

Population.See Chehalis. In 1888 according to Olsen 18 Humptulips were reported. In 1904 there were 21.

Connection in which they have become noted.Humptulips River and a village in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Humptulips Indians.

Kalispel. The Kalispel extended over into the eastern edge of the State from Idaho (q. v.).

Klickitat. From a Chinook term meaning "beyond" and having reference to the Cascade Mountains. Also called:

Awi-adshi, Molala name.
Lk'-a-tatt, Puyallup name.
Mhane, Umpqua name.
Mi-lauq'-tcu-wn'-ti, Alsea name, meaning "scalpers."
Mn-an'-ne-qu' tnne, Naltunnetunne name, meaning "inland people."
Qw'lh-hwai-pm, own name, meaning "prairie people."
Tlak'tat, Okanagon name.
Tse la'kayat amm, Kalapuya name.
Tuwanxa-ike, Clatsop name.
Wahnookt, Cowlitz name.

Connections.The Klickitat belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Possibly the Atanum or Atanumlema should be added to the Klickitat. Mooney (1928) reports that their language was distinct from, though related to, both Klickitat and Yakima.

The following villages are mentioned:

Itkilak or Ithlkilak, at White Salmon Landing, which they occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw.
Nanshuit (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), at Underwood.
Shgwaliksh, not far below Memaloose Island.
Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), said to be about 1/2 mile west of a long high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg., and about 1 mile above White Salmon Landing but the exact location seems to be in doubt.
Wiltkun (exact location unknown).

History.The original home of the Klickitat was somewhere south of the Columbia, and they invaded their later territory after them Yakima crossed the river. In 1805 Lewis and Clark found them wintering on Yakima and Klickitat Rivers. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Willamette tribes following upon an epidemic of fever between 1820 and 1830, the Klickitat crossed the Columbia and forced their way as far south as the valley of the Umpqua but were soon compelled to retire to their old seats. They were active and enterprising traders, profiting by their favorable location to become middlemen between the coast tribes and those living east of the Cascades. They joined in the Yakima treaty at Camp Stevens, June 9, 1855, by which they ceded their lands to the United States, and most of them settled upon the Yakima Reservation.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that the Klickitat, including the Taitinapam, numbered 600 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark placed their total population at about 700. The Census of 1910 returned 405.

Connections in which they have become noted.The Klickitat were early distinguished from other tribes of central Washington owing to their propensity for trading. The name is perpetuated in that of a small affluent of the Columbia and in the name of the county, and a post village in the county.

Kwaiailk. Meaning unknown. Also called:

Kwu-teh-ni, Kwalhioqua name.
Nu-so-lupsh, by Sound Indians, referring to the rapids of their stream.
Stak-ta-mish, a name for this and other inland tribes, meaning "forest people."
Upper Chehalis, common name.

Connections.The Kwaiailk belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family but a part of them were associated with the inland tribes by certain peculiarities of speech. Their nearest relatives seem to have been the Cowlitz and Chehalis.

Location.On the upper course of Chehalis River.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Cloquallum, on Cloquallum River.

Population.In 1855, according to Gibbs (1877), the Kwaiailk numbered 216 but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz. (See Chehalis.)

Kwalhioqua. From their Chinook designation, meaning "a lonely place in the woods." Also called:

Axwe'lapc, "people of the Willapa," by the Chinook and Quinault Indians.
Gila'qulawas, from the name of the place where they usually lived.
Owhillapsh or Willapa, applied to this tribe erroneously.
Tkulhiyogoa'ikc, Chinook name.

Connections.The Kwalhioqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.On the upper course of Willopah River, and the southern and western headwaters of the Chehalis. Gibbs (1877) extends their territory eastward of the Cascades, but Boas (1892) doubts the correctness of this.

Subdivisions:

Suwal, on headwaters of the Chehalis.
Wela'pakote'li, on Willapa River.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 200 in 1780; Hale (1846) gives about 100, but in 1850 it is said that only 2 males and several females survived, which indicates that an error had been made by one or the other.

Connection in which they have become noted.The Kwalhioqua were distinguished almost solely by the fact that they belonged to the great Athapascan group yet were the only tribe of that stock in the State of Washington in historic times, having become entirely isolated from their relatives.

Lummi. Significance unknown. Also spelled H-lum-mi, Nuh-lum-mi, and Qtlumi. Also called:

Nukhlsh, by the Skagit, who also included the Clallam in the designation.

Connections.The Lummi belonged to the coastal district of the Salishan linguistic family and spoke, according to Boas (1911), the same dialect as the Songish of Vancouver Island.

Location.On the upper part of Bellingham Bay and about the mouth of Nooksack River. Formerly the Lummi are said to have resorted at times to a group of islands east of Vancouver Island. They were finally placed on Lummi Reservation.

Villages: (According to Stern, 1934)

Elek, near the upper end of Bellingham Bay.
Hwetlkiem, near the upper and of Bellingham Bay west of Nooksack River.
Kwakas, on the north side of Nooksack River.
Momli, near the mouth of Nooksack River.
Skalisan, north of Point Francis and opposite Lummi Island.

The following fishing stations are also cited:

Hoholos, a point on Orcas Island south of Freeman Island.
Hwitcosang, in Upright Channel south of Shaw Island.
Hwtcihom or Bee Station, north of Sandy Point.
Skalekushan or Village Point, on Lummi Island.
Skolete, on Lopez Island opposite Lopez.
Tceltenem, Point Roberts.
Tlkwoloks, on Orcas Island.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Lummi at 1,000 in 1780, including the Samish and Nooksack. In 1905 there were 412; according to the census of 1910, 353; according to the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 505; and according to that for 1937, 661.

Connection in which they have become noted.Lummi River, Washington preserves the name.

Makah. Meaning "cape people." Also called:

Ba-qa-o, Puyallup name.
Cape Flattery Indians, from their location.
Classet, Nootka name, meaning "outsiders."
Kwe-net-che-chat, own name, meaning "cape people."
Tla'asath, Nootka name, meaning "outside people."

Connections.The Makah belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family.

Location.About Cape Flattery, claiming the coast east as far as Hoko River and south to Flattery Rocks, besides Tatoosh Island. Later they were confined to the Makah Reservation.

Villages:

Winter towns:

Baada, on Neah Bay.
Neah, on the site of the old Spanish fort, Port Nuez Gaona, Neah Bay.
Waatch, at the mouth of Waatch Greek, 4 miles from Neah Bay.

Summer villages:

Ahchawat, at Cape Flattery.
Kehsidatsoos, location unknown.
Kiddekubbut, 3 miles from Neah Bay.
Tatooche, on Tatoosh Island, off Cape Flattery.

Population.Together with the Ozette, the Makah were estimated by Mooney (1928) to number 2,000 in 1780, a figure evidently based on that given by Lewis and Clark in 1805. In 1905 there were 435, the census of 1910 gave 360, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 425, including the people of Ozette. In 1937, 407 were returned besides the Ozette Indians.

Connection in which they have become noted.The Makah and the Ozette are peculiar as the only tribes of the Nootka group and the Wakashan stock in the United States.

Methow. Meaning unknown. The Battle-le-mule-emauch of Ross (1847, p. 290).

Connections.The Methow spoke a dialect belonging to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On Methow River. A detached band called Chilowhist wintered on the Okanogan River between Sand Point and Malott.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that this band and the Columbia Indians, or rather Moses' band of Columbia Indians, numbered 800 in 1780. In 1907 there were 324.

Connection in which they have become noted.Methow River and Valley and a post village perpetuate the name of the Methow Indians.

Mical. Significance unreported.

Connections.The Mical were a branch of the Shahaptian tribe called Pshwanwapam.

Location.On the upper course of Nisqually River.

Population.No separate data.

Muckleshoot. From the native word o'kelcul, significance unknown.

Connections.The Muckleshoot belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.On White River, their territory extending from Kent eastward to the mountains, but it seems also to have included Green River.

Subdivisions: The following names appear applied to bands in their territory:

Sekamish, on White River.
Skopamish, on upper Green River.
Smulkamish, on upper White River.

Smith (1940) adds Dothliuk, at South Prairie below where Cole Creek enters South Prairie Creek, an affluent of Carbon River.

Population.The Muckleshoot are probably included in the 1,200 "Nisqually, Puyallup, etc." estimated by Mooney (1928) as in existence in 1780. The Skopamish numbered 222 in 1863 and the Smulkamish about 183 in 1870. Mooney estimated a total of 780 in 1907 for the group above given. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 194 Indians of this tribe.

Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Muckleshoot is preserved in that of Muckleshoot Indian Reservation.

Neketemeuk. A supposed Salishan tribe placed by Teit's informants at an early period near and above the Dalles. Ray (1932), however discredits the existence of an independent tribe of this name.

Nespelem, a division of the Sanpoil (q. v.).

Nez Perc. The Nez Perc occupied territory in the extreme southeastern part of the state. (See Idaho.)

Nisqually. From Skwale'absh, the native name of Nisqually River. Also spelled Quallyamish, and Skwalliahmish. Also called:

Askwalli, Calapooya name.
Ltsxe'als, Nestucca name.
Suketi'kenuk, Sukoti'kenuk, by Columbia Indians along with all other coast people, meaning "people of the other side," with reference to the Cascades.
Tse Skua'lli ami'm, Luckamiut Kalapooian name.

Connections.They gave their name to one dialectic division of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On Nisqually River above its mouth and on the middle and upper courses of Puyallup River.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Basha'labsh, on Mashell Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the town on a highland below Eatonville on Mashell Creek.
Sakwi'absh, Clear Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the main settlement on a hill near the junction of Clear Creek and the Nisqually River.
Sigwa'letcabsh, on Segualitcu River, the main settlement where Dupont Creek enters the Sqwualitcu River.
Tsakwe'kwabsh, on Clarks Creek and neighboring Puyallup River, the main settlement where Clarks Creek empties into Puyallup River, but seems to have included also Skwa'dabsh, at the mouth of a creek entering Wappato Creek above the Wappato Creek village.
Sta'habsh, where the Stuck River enters the Puyallup.
Tsuwa'diabsh, on what is now the Puyallup River above its junction with the Carbon, and just below the site of the Soldiers' Home.
Tuwha'khabsh, above Ortig where Vogt Creek enters the Carbon River.
Yisha'ktcabsh, on Nisqually Lake, the principal settlement being at the mouth of a sizable creek.
Yokwa'lsshabsh, on Muck Creek and the neighboring parts of Nisqually River, the main settlement located where Muck Creek enters Nisqually River, and a division on Clover Creek.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 3,600 Nisqually of whom, in 1907, between 1,100 and 1,200 survived. About 1,100 were returned in the census of 1910, but the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives only 62, evidently a minor tribe which gave its name to the larger body.

Connection in which they have become noted.The memory of the Nisqually tribe, or cluster of bands, has been preserved in the name of Nesqually or Nisqually River, and in the post village of Nisqually in Thurston County.

Nooksack. Meaning "mountain men." Also spelled Nooksak and Nootsak.

Connections.The Nooksack belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Hill-Tout (1902) says they separated from the Squawmish of British Columbia and speak the same dialect.

Location.On Nooksack River, Whatcom County. (See also Canada.)

Population.In 1906, 200 Nooksack were officially returned, but Hill-Tout (1902) states that in 1902 there were only about 6 true male members of the tribe. The census of 1910 gives 85 under this name, and the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 returned 239. (See Lummi.)

Connection in which they have become noted.Nooksack River and Nooksack town in Whatcom County, Washington, preserve the name.

Ntlakyapamuk. The southern bands of this tribe hunted over in the territory now embraced in Washington. (See Canada.)

Okanagon. From the native term Okana'qen, Okanaqe'nix, or Okina'qen. The name is derived from some place on the Okanogan River, near Okanogan Falls at the mouth of the Similkameen, where is said to have been the headquarters of a large band of the tribe and is even given as the place of origin of the entire tribe. Also called:

Aknuq'la'lam or KokEnu'k'ke, by Kutenai (Chamberlain, 1892).
Isonkuali, own name, meaning "our people."
Kank.'utla'atlam, Kutenai name, meaning "flatheads" (Boas, 1911).
K
Enake'n, by Tobacco Plains Band of Klickitat.
Otc
Enake', OtcEna.qai'n, or UtcEna'.qai'n, by the Salish and their allies.
Soo-wan'-a-mooh, Shuswap name.
.Soq
Enaqai'mEx, Columbia name.
Tcutzwa'ut, Tcitxa'ut, Tsawa'n
Emux, or OkEna.qai'n, Ntlakyapamuk names.
W
Etc.naqei'n, Skitswish name.

Connections.The Okanagon belonged to the interior division of the Salishan stock, but their closest relatives were the Sanpoil, Colville, and Senijextee.

Location.On Okanagan River above the mouth of the Similkameen to the Canadian border and in British Columbia along the shores of Okanagan Lake and in the surrounding country; in later times they have displaced an Athapascan tribe and part of the Ntlakyapamuk from the Similkameen Valley. (See also Canada.)

Subdivisions and Villages: The Similkameen Okanagon were divided into three bands, the Okanagon proper into four; with the villages belonging to each, they are as follows:

Upper Similkameen Band:

Ntkaihelok (Ntkai'xelx), about 11 miles below Princeton, north side of Similkameen River.
Snazaist (Snzi'st), on the north shore of Similkameen River, a little east of Twenty-mile Creck and the town of Hedley.
Tcutcuwiha (Tcutcuw
'xa) or Tcutcawiha (Tcutcawi'xa), on the north side of Similkameen River, a little below the preceding.

Ashnola Band:

Ashnola (Acnu'lx), on the south side of Similkameen River, near the mouth of Ashnola Creek.
Nsrepus (Nsre'pus) or Skanek, .sa'n
Ex, a little below the Ashnola, but on the north side of Similkameen River.

Lower Similkameen Band:

KekerEmyeaus (KekerEmye'aus), across Similkameen River from Keremyeus.
Keremyeus (Ker
Emye'us), on the north side of Similkameen River, near Keremeos.
Nkura-elok (Nkurae'lx), on the south side of Similkameen River and about 4 miles below Ker
Emyeaus.
Ntleuktan (Ntleuxta'n), on the south side of Similkameen River, opposite Skemkain.
Skemkain (Skemquai'n), a short distance below Nkuraelok.
Smelalok (Smela'lox), on the south side of Similkameen River, about 10 miles below Nsrepus.

To the villages listed above must be added the following old Similkameen village sites in Washington:

Hepulok (Xe'pulx).
Konkonetp (Ko'nkonetp), near the mouth of Similkameen River.
Kwahalos (Kwaxalo's), a little back from Similkameen River, below Hepulok.
Naslitok (Na.sli'tok), just across the International Boundary in Washington.
Skwa'nnt, below Kwahalos.
Tsakeiskenemuk (Tsakei'sx
EnEmux), on a creek along the trail between Keremeous and Penticton.
Tseltsalo's, below Kwahalos.

Douglas Lake Band:

Kathlemik (Ka.'lEmix), near Guichons, at the mouth of the Upper Nicola River, where it falls into Nicola Lake.
Komkonatko (Komkona'tko) or Komkenatk (Komk
Ena'tkk), at Fish Lake on the headwaters of the Upper Nicola River.
Kwiltcana (Kwiltca'na) at the mouth of Quilchene Creek.
Spahamen (Spa'xam
En) or Spahamen (Spa'xEmEn), at Douglas Lake.

Komaplix or Head of the Lake Band:

Nkamapeleks (Nkama'pElEks) or Nkomapeleks (Nkoma'pElEks), near the head of Okanagan Lake, about 8 miles north of Vernon.
Nkekemapeleks (Nkekema'p
ElEks), at the head of Long Lake, a little over a mile from Vernon.
Nkokosten (Nxok.o'st
En), a place near Kelowna, and also a general name for the district around there and Mission.
Skelaunna (Sk
Ela'un.na), at Kelowna, near the present town.
Sntlemukten (Sntl
Emuxte'n), (Black Town), a little north of the head of Okanagan Lake.
Stekatelkeneut (Stekatelxene'ut), a little above Mission (?) on Long Lake opposite Tselotsus.
Tseketku (Tse'k
Etku), at a small lake a little north of Black Town.
Tselotsus (Ts
Elo'tsus), at the narrows of Long Lake.
Tskelhokem (Tsx
Elho'qEm), near the lower end of Long Lake about 19 miles south of Vernon.

Penticton Band:

Penticton (Penti'ktEn), Penticton, near the foot of Okanagan Lake.
Stekatkothlkneut (St
Ekatkolxne'ut) or Stekatethlkeneut (StEkatElxEne'ut), on the opposite side of Long Lake from Mission.

Nkamip Band:

Nkamip (Nkami'p), on the east side of the upper end of Osoyoos Lake.
Sci'yus, near Haynes or the old customhouse just north of the American line.
Skohenetk (Sxoxene'tku
u), at the lower end of Dog Lake.

To the villages listed above must be added the following names of old village sites on Okanagan River south of the Canadian line:

Milkemahituk (MilkEmaxi-tuk) or Milkemihituk (MilkEmixi'tuk), a general name for the district around the mouth of Similkameen River and of the river itself.
Okinaken (Okina'qen), an old name for Sathlilk.
Sathlilk (Sah'lxu), near the mouth of Similkameen River.
SmElkammin (Smelkammi'n), thought to be the old name of a place at the mouth of Similkameen River.

History.The history of the Okanagon differed little from that of the Ntlakyapamuk and other neighboring tribes except that they were affected by the fact that a part of them were on the south side of the International Boundary. During the last two centuries, however, there has been a steady movement of the tribe northward, where they have displaced the Shuswap, who once hunted down to the head of Okanagan Lake and in the hinterland on the east side of it down to the latitude of Penticton. They have also displaced the Stuwik(?) and the Ntlakyapamuk in the Similkameen Valley.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 2,200 Okanagon in 1780. Teit (1900) gives the population as between 2,500 and 3,000. In 1905, according to the Canadian and United States Departments of Indian Affairs, there were 1,516 Indians belonging to this tribe, including 824 in Canada and 692 in the United States. In 1906 the numbers were given as 824 and 527, respectively.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name of the Okanagon in the form Okanogan has been given to a county, a town in that county, a precinct, and a river in the State of Washington, and in the form Okanagan to a lake and a town in British Columbia.

Ozette. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Ozette were a southern branch of the Makah and belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family.

Location.On the Ozette Lake and Ozette River in Clallam County.

Villages:

Ozette, at Flattery Rocks.
Sooes, 4 miles south of the Makah village of Waatch.

Population.(See Makah.) A single Ozette Indian was reported in 1937.

Connections in which they have become noted.An island, a lake, a river, and a village are named Ozette after them.

Palouse. Significance unknown. Also called:

Pallotepellows, by Lewis and Clark in 1806.
.spalu'.sox, so called by Sinkiuse, said to be from a place name.

Connections.The Palouse belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Nez Perc.

Location.In the valley of Palouse River in Washington and Idaho and on a small section of Snake River, extending eastward to the camas grounds near Moscow, Idaho. The Palouse were included in the Yakima treaty of 1865 but have never recognized the treaty obligations and have declined to lead a reservation life.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Almotu, on the north bank of Snake River about 30 miles above the mouth of Palouse River.
Chimnapum, on the northwest side of Columbia River near the mouth of Snake River and on lower Yakima River.
Kasispa, at Ainsworth, at the function of Snake and Columbia Rivers, Wash.
Palus, on the north bank of Snake River just below its junction with the Palouse.
Sokulk or Wanapum, on Columbia River above the mouth of Snake River.
Tasawiks, on the north bank of Snake River, about 15 miles above its mouth.

History.The Palouse are said to have separated from the Yakima.

Population.Estimated by Mooney (1928) at 5,400 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark gave 1,600. In 1854 they were said to number 500. The census of 1910 returned 82.

Connection in which they have become noted.Palouse or Pelouse River, in Idaho and Washington, and the city of Palouse in Whitman County, Washington, preserve the name of the Palouse Indians.

Pshwanwapam. Meaning "the stony ground." Also called Upper Yakima.

Connections.The Pshwanwapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family and probably were most closely connected with the Yakima.

Location.On the upper course of Yakima River.

Puyallup. From Pwiya'lap, the native name of Puyallup River.

Connections.The Puyallup belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.At the mouth of Puyallup River and the neighboring coast, including Carr Inlet and the southern part of Vashon Island.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Esha'ktlabsh, on Hylebos Waterway.
Kalka'lak, at the mouth of Wappato Creek.
Klbalt, at Glencove.
Puyallup or Spwiya'laphabsh, on Commencement Bay and Puyallup River as far up as the mouth of Clarks Creek, including the main settlement of the same name at the mouth of Puyallup River.
Sha'tckad, where Clay Creek empties into the Puyallup River.
Sko'tlbabsh, on Carr Inlet, including a Sko'tlbabsh settlement on Carr Inlet above the town of Minter.
Skwapa'bsh, on the south part of Vashon Island and the land west of the Narrows, including a town of the same name at the mouth of a stream at Gig Harbor.
Skwlo'tsid, at the head of Wollochet Bay.
Steilacoom, on Steilacoom Creek and the neighboring beach, the main village on the present site of Steilacoom.
Tsugwa'lethl, at Quartermaster Harbor.
Tule'lakle, at the head of Burley Lagoon, Carr Inlet.
Twa'debshab, at the mouth of a creek formerly entering Commencement Bay and now covered by Tacoma.

Population.(See Nisqually.) The report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 322 Puyallup.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Puyallup is preserved by a river, an Indian reservation, a glacier, an important town in Pierce County, and in the ridge called Puyallup Cleaver.

Queets or Quaitso. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Queets belonged to the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family and were most intimately related to their neighbors to the south, the Quinault.

Location.On Queets River and its branches.

Population.Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated that the Queets numbered 250. They then occupied 18 houses. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 they and the Quinault together numbered 1,500, but Olson (1936) regards this figure as too high. Olson prints an estimate of 82 as their present population, including 23 males over 18, 32 females over 14, and 16 children between 6 and 16. In 1909 there were 62.

Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Queets is perpetuated in that of Queets River.

Quileute. Meaning unknown.

Connections.Together with the Hoh and Chimakum, the Quileute constituted the Chimakuan linguistic family which is possibly more remotely related to Wakashan and Salishan.

Location.On Quilayute River, on the west coast of Washington. They are now on the Quileute and Makah Reservations.

Population (including the Hoh).Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were of the Quileute and the Hoh 500 Indians. Olson (1936) quotes a figure of 64 in 1888. The census of 1910 returned 303 and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937 gave 284.

Connection in which they have become noted.The town of Quillayute in Clallam County, preserves the name of the Quileute and it was formerly that of Soleduck River. Otherwise the tribe is particularly noted on account of the uniqueness of its language, which was spoken by no other known tribes except the Hoh and Chimakum (q. v.).

Quinault. A corruption of kwi'nail, the name of the largest settlement situated at the present site of the village (Taholah) at the mouth of the Quinault River.

Connections.The Quinault belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.The valley of Quinault River and the Pacific coast between Raft River and Joe Creek.

Subdivisions:

Lewis and Clark mention a division or associated band called Calasthocle.

Towns: (Olson's (1936) list modified phonetically)

A'alatsis, 3 miles below Lake Quinault.
Djagaka'lmik, 1/2 mile above Nosklako's.
Djekwe'ls, on the north bank of Quinault River about 400 yards above Thlathle'-lap).
Gutse'lps, 6 miles below Lake Quinault.
Hagwi'shtap, about 1 1/2 miles above Cook Creek.
He'shnithl or Kuku'mnithl, on the south bank of Quinault River about 500 yards above Pini'lks.
Kwakwa'h, not far from Hagwi'shtap.
Kwakwa'nikatctan, 4 miles below Lake Quinault.
Kwatai'tamik, 3 miles above Kwakwa'h.
Kwatai'tumik, on the south bank about 500 yards above Kwi'naithl.
Kwikwa'la, perhaps 1/2 mile above Sunuksunu'ham.
Kwi'naithl, at present site of Taholah.
Lae'lsnithl, on north bank a mile or less above Heshnithl.
La'lshithl, perhaps a mile above Djagaka'lmik on Quinault River.
Ma'atnithl, 1 mile below the fork of upper Quinault River.
Magwa'ksnithl, 300 yards above Kwikwa'la.
Me'tsugutsathlan, on south bank of Quinault River at its mouth.
Nago'olatcan, not far from Nossho'k.
Negwe'thlan, at the mouth of Cook Creek.
Nokedja'kt or Thla'a'lgwap, on south bank a few hundred yards above Tonans.
Nomi'lthlostan, just above Kwakwa'h.
No'omo'thlapsh, at mouth of Moclips River, which bears his name in a corrupted form.
No'omo'thlapshtcu, not far above Magwa'ksnithl.
No'skathlan, a few miles above Kwi'naithl, on the north bank of Quinault River.
Noskthlako's, on south bank of Quinault River perhaps 1 mile above No'skathlan.
Nossho'k, not far above Nokedja'kt.
No'sthluk, not far from Djekwe'ls.
Pina'alathl, located where the upper Quinault River enters Lake Quinault.
Pini'lks, close to La'lshithl.
Pino'otcan tci'ta, on the upper Quinault below Ma'anithl.
Po'iks, on the upper Quinault above Finley Creek.
Pote'lks, 1 mile above Tsimi'sh.
Sunuksunu'ham, not far from Nomi'lthlostan.
Tamo'ulgutan, just below No'omo'thlapshtcu.
Tci'tano'sklakalathl, at the outlet of Lake Quinault.
Thlathle'lap, at the mouth of Quinault River and on the north bank.
To'nans, less than 1/2 mile above He'shnithl.
Tsi'i'sh, 2 miles above Magwaksnithl.

Population.Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated 800 Quinault proper and 200 Calasthocle. Mooney (1928) estimated 1,500 in 1780 including the Quaitso, but Olson (1936) suggests 800 and regards that as too high if anything. This would reduce Mooney's figure considerably since the Quaitso were a much smaller tribe. A tabulation recovered by Olson but believed to be from some Indian agent gave 95 Quinault in 1888. The Indian Office figure for the two tribes in 1907 was 196. The census of 1910, however, returned 288, presumably including the Quaitso. In 1923 the Indian Office returned 719 on the Quinault Reservation, perhaps representing several tribes, but that for 1937 gave 1,228 of the Quinault alone.

Connection in which they have become noted.Quinault Lake and River and a small town, all in Grays Harbor County, preserve the name of the Quinault.

Sahehwamish. Meaning unknown but evidently that of a locality.

Connections.The Sahehwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On the innermost inlets of Puget Sound as indicated by the positions of the subdivisions given below.

Subdivisions:

Elo'sedabsh, on Medicine Creek and the lower reaches of Nisqually River, including a main settlement at the mouth of Nisqually River and Tuda'dab, at the mouth of McAllister or Medicine Creek.
Sahehwamish or Sahe'wabsh, on Shelton Inlet, including the main settlement of Sahe'wabsh, at Arcadia, and a village opposite the town of Shelton.
Skwaysithlhabsh, on Mud Bay or Eld Inlet.
Statca'sabsh, on Budd Inlet, with its principal settlement at Tumwater.
Tapi'ksdabsh, with its main settlement on Oyster Bay or Totten Inlet below the town of Oyster Bay.
Tutse'tcakl, on South Bay or Henderson Inlet, between the creek at the head and that on the south.

Population.The group to which this tribe belonged is estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200 in 1780, and he gives 780 for the year 1907.

Samish. Signification unknown.

Connection.The Samish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.On Samish Bay and Samish Island, Guemes Island, and the northwest portion of Fidalgo Island. The Samish were later placed on Lummi Reservation.

Villages:

Atse'ked, on the south side of the slough at Edison on Samish Bay.
Dikwi'bthl.
Gunguna'la, on Guemes Island facing west toward Cypress Island.
Hwaibathl, at Anacortes.
Kwalo'l, at Summit Park on Fidalgo Bay.
Nukhwhaiimikhl, on the southwest side of Guemes Island.

The name of the last village listed above is from Gibbs (1877) and may be another name for Gunguna'la, and Gibbs' Aseakum is perhaps Atse'ked.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the Samish tribe, together with the Lummi and Nooksack, at 1,000 in 1780. No later estimate is given.

Connection in which they have become noted.Samish River, Samish Bay, Samish Island, and a post hamlet on Bellingham Bay perpetuate the name of the Samish Indians.

Sanpoil. A native word in spite of its French aspect; meaning unknown. Also called:

Hai-ai'-nima, by the Yakima.
Ipoilq, another Yakima name.
Nesilextci'n, .n.selixtci'n, by Sanpoil, and probably meaning "Salish-speaking."
N'poch-le, a shortened form of the name.

Connections.The Sanpoil belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were related most closely to its eastern section.

Location.On Sanpoil River and Nespelem Creek and on the Columbia below Big Bend. They were later placed on Sanpoil and Colville Reservations.

Subdivisions and Villages: The Nespelim of Nespelem Creek were often given independent status. Ray gives the following villages and camps:

Nespelim villages:

Haimisahun, a summer settlement of the Suspiluk, on the north bank of Columbia River about a half mile above the mouth of Nespelem River.
Masmasalimk, home of the Smasmasalimkuwa, approximately a mile and a half above Skik.
Nekuktshiptin, home of the Snekuktshiptimuk, at the site of the present Condon's Ferry, on the north side of the river.
Nspilem, home of the Snspiluk, on the lower Nespelem from the falls to the mouth of the river.
Salkuahuwithl, home of the Salkuahuwithlau, across the river from the present town of Barry.
Skik, home of the Skik, about a mile above Salkuahuwithl on the same side of the river.
Skthlamchin, fishing grounds of the Salkuahuwithlau, across the river from the mouth of the Grand Coulee.

Sanpoil villages:

Enthlukaluk, about a mile and a half north of the mouth of the river.
Hahsulauk, home of the Shahsulauhuwa, near Plum.
Hulalst, home of the S-hulalstu, at Whitestone, about 8 miles above Npuiluk.
Hwatsam, a winter camp, about 3 miles above Snukeilt.
Kakamkam, on the islands in the Sanpoil River a short distance above the mouth.
Kathlpuspusten, home of the Kathlpuspustenak, about a mile above Plum, on the opposite side of the river.
Ketapkunulak, on the banks of the Columbia just east of the Sanpoil River.
Naak, home of the Snaakau, about a mile below Plum but on the north side of the river.
Nhohogus, fishing grounds of the S-hulalstu.
Npokstian, a winter camp, about 2 miles above Hwatsam.
Npuiluk, home of the Snpuiluk, at the mouth of Sanpoil River, made up of the following camps: Snkethlkukwiliskanan, near the present landing of the Keller ferry; a branch of the last called by the same name, several hundred yards north of the first between the cliff and the Sanpoil River, on the west side; Kethltselchin, on the first bench above the Columbia, west of the Sanpoil River.
Nthlahoitk, a winter camp of the Snpuiluk, about halfway between Skthlamchin and Naak.
Saamthlk, home of the Saamthlk, on the opposite side of the river from Kathlpuspusten.
Skekwilk, on the west side of Sanpoil River about a mile above the mouth.
Snputlem, on the east bank of Sanpoil River, about an eighth of a mile above the mouth.
Snukeilt, home of the Snukeiltk, on the west side of Columbia River about 1/2 mile above the mouth of Spokane River
Tkukualkuhun, home of the Stkukualkuhunak, at Rodger's Bar just across the river from Hunters.
Tsaktsikskin, a winter camp of the Snpuiluk, about a half mile below Naak.
Wathlwathlaskin, home of the Swathlwathlaskink, 1/2 mile up the river from Nthlahoitk.

Temporary camp sites of the Sanpoil on Sanpoil River; beginning with the first temporary camp beyond Npuiluk:

Enluhulak, about 3 miles above the mouth of the river.
Ksikest, on the west side of the river about halfway between the Columbia river and Keller.
Aklaiyuk, 1/2 mile above Ksikest.
Snkloapeten, a short distance below Keller.
Pupesten, at the present site of Keller.
Nmhoyam, about a quarter of a mile north of Keller.
Nhwiipam, a mile above Alice Creek on the east side of the river.
Seaachast, at Alice Creek.
Achhulikipastem, about half a mile north of Alice Creek.
Nloklokekuelikten, about 2 miles south of Cash Creek.
Nhatlchinitk, on the west side of the river at Cash Creek.
Snthulusten, on the east side of the river at the foot of a cliff, about 1/4 mile above Cash Creek.
Nlupiam, 1 1/2 miles above Snthulusten, on the same side of the river.
Slakumulemk, directly across the river from Nlupiam.
Nklakachin, on the east side of the river, at Thirty-mile Creek.
Malt, 1/2 mile above Thirty-mile Creek.
Lulukhum, at Devil's Elbow.

The following possible camp sites are higher up:

Akthlkapukwithlp, 8 miles below West Fork.
Kthliipus, at the present site of Republic.
Tkwiip, near the creek at West Fork.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 800 Sanpoil in 1780 but Ray (1932) raises this to 1,600-1,700, and considers that there were about 1,300 immediately following the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1905 the United States Indian Office returned 324 Sanpoil and 41 Nespelim; in 1910 the census gave 240 and 46; in 1913, as the result of a survey, the Office of Indian Affairs returned 202 and 43.

Connection in which they have become noted.Sanpoil River, a northern tributary of the Columbia, perpetuates the name of the Sanpoil. Nespelem River is named for the subgroup, and a town.

Satsop. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Satsop belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, and have usually been classed with the lower Chehalis.

Location.On Satsop River, a branch of the Chehalis.

Population.The population of the Satsop is usually given with that of the Chehalis (q.v.), but in 1888 a census of the Satsop alone, obtained by Olson (1936), gave 12.

Connections in which they have become noted.Satsop River and a village called Satsop in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Satsop.

Semiahmoo. Significance unknown. Also called:

Birch Bay Indians, from a place occupied by them.

Connections.The Semiahmoo belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.About Semiahmoo Bay in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia.

Population.In 1843 the Semiahmoo numbered 300; in 1909 there were 38 in British Columbia; none were enumerated on the American side of the line.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name of the Semiahmoo is preserved in Semiahmoo Bay and a township in Whatcom County, Wash.

Senijextee. Significance unknown. Also called:

Lake Indians, a popular name for them because they lived on the Arrow Lakes.

Connections.The Senijextee belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Sanpoil.

Location.On both sides of the Columbia River from Kettle Falls to the Canadian boundary, the valley of Kettle River, Kootenay River from its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, B. C. The Lake Indians on the American side were placed on Colville Reservation.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at 500 in 1780. In 1909 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 342 on Colville Reservation. The census of 1910 identifies them with the Colville and returns 785.

Sinkaietk. Significance unknown; an Anglicized form of their own name.

Connections.The Sinkaietk are sometimes classed with the Okanagon, and called Lower Okanagon, both constituting a dialectic group of interior Salishan Indians.

Location.Okanagan River from its mouth nearly to the mouth of the Similkameen.

Subdivisions:

Kartar, from the foot of Lake Omak to the Columbia River.
Konkonelp, winter sites, from about 3 miles above Malott to the turn of the Okanagan River at Omak.
Tonasket, from Riverside upstream to Tonasket.
Tukoratum, winter sites, from Condon's Ferry on the Columbia to the mouth of the Okanagan River and up the latter to about 4 miles above Monse, Wash. Ray (1932) mentions four villages belonging to the Kartar and Tukoratum Bands.

Population.Included with the Okanagon (q.v.).

Sinkakaius. Meaning "between people."

Connections.The Sinkakaius belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock and were composed largely of people from the Tukoratum Band of Sinkaietk and the Moses Columbia people.

Location.Between Columbia River and the Grand Coulee in the latitude of Waterville.

Skagit. Significance unknown. Also called:

Hum-a-luh, own name, meaning "the people."

Connections.The Skagit belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On Skagit and Stillaguamish Rivers except about their mouths.

Subdivisions and Villages: (Smith, 1941)

Base'lelotsed, on Skagit River from Van Horn to roughly 3 miles above Rockport and Sauk River almost to the mouth of Suiattle, including the village of Tca'gwalk, at the mouth of Sauk River.
Baska'dsadsiuk, on the south bank of Skagit River from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a village opposite Hamilton.
Baske'kwiuk, on Skagit River above Rockport, including a village at Marble Mount at the mouth of the Cascade River.
Baslo'halok, on the north bank of the Skagit from Hamilton to Birdsview, including a settlement at Hamilton.
Duwa'ha, on the mainland drainages from South Bellingham to Bayview including part of Lake Whatcom, Lake Samish and Samish River, including the village of Batsla'thllaos, at Bayview on Padilla Bay.
Nookachamps, on Skagit River from Mount Vernon to Sedro Woolley and Nookachamps River drainage including Big Lake, including a village back of Mount Vernon just below the concrete bridge, and Tsla'tlabsh on Big Lake.
Sauk, on Sauk River above the confluence of the Suiattle River, including a settlement on Sauk prairie above Darrington.
Sba'leuk, on Skagit River from above Birdsview to above Concrete, including a village at Concrete.
Sikwigwi'lts, on Skagit River from Sedro Woolley to below Lyman, including a village on the flats near Sedro Woolley.
Stillaguamish, on Stillaguamish River from Arlington up, including villages at Arlington and Trafton.
Suiattle, on Suiattle River, including a village not far about the mouth of Suiattle River.
Tcubaa'bish, on Skagit River from Lyman to below Hamilton, including Day Creek drainage, and including a village at the mouth of Dry Creek.

Population.The Skagit population is given by Mooney (1928), with the Swinomish and some other tribes, as 1,200 in 1780. Bibbs (1877) estimated there were 300 Skagit proper in 1853. The census of 1910 returned 56 under this name. In 1923 the United States Indian Office entered 221 "Swinomish" in their returns, including evidently the Skagit and some other tribes; in 1937 it gave an estimate of 200 Skagit.

Connection in which they have become noted.Skagit River, which flows into Puget Sound, Skagit County, and a post hamlet preserve the name of the Skagit Indians.

Skilloot. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Skilloot belonged to the Clackamas dialectic division of the Chinookan linguistic family.

Location.On both sides of Columbia River above and below the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See also Oregon.)

Subdivisions and Villages:

Cooniac (at Oak Point on the south side of Columbia River, below the mouth of the Cowlitz, in the present Columbia County, Oregon) was their principal village in later times. The Hullooetell, reported to Lewis and Clark as a numerous nation north of Columbia River on Cowlitz and Lewis Rivers, may have been a subdivision, although perhaps Salishan. The Seamysty, at the mouth of Cowlitz River before 1835, were undoubtedly a Skilloot band and the Thlakalama and Tlakatlala of Boas (1901, and personal information 1905), at the mouth of Kalama river, about 3 miles above Oak Point, had best be added.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Skilloot at 3,250 in 1780 including 250 Tlakalama. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give 2,500 and in 1850 Lane places the Skilloot population at 200. They have now entirely disappeared as an independent group.

Skin. Taken from a town name.

Connections.The Skin belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock.

Location.On Columbia River from the Dalles to a point about 75 miles above.

Villages:

Ka'sawi, on the Columbia opposite the mouth of Umatilla River.
Skin, opposite the mouth of Deschutes River.
Uchi'chol, on the north bank of the Columbia in Klickitat County.
Waiya'mpam, about Celilo.

Eneeshur is used by Lewis and Clark for part of the above people, perhaps all of them.

Population.Mooney (1928) includes the skin in a group under the general name Tapanash, which he estimates to have numbered 2,200 in 1780.

Snohomish. Meaning unknown but evidently the name of a place. Also called:

Ashnuhumsh, Kalapuya name.

Connections.The Snohomish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On the lower course of Snohomish River and on the southern end of Whidbey Island.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Sdugwadskabsh, the south portion of Whidbey Island, including villages opposite Mukilteo on Whidbey (Negua'sx) Island and at Newell on Useless Bay.
Skwilsi'diabsh, from Preston Point, above Everett, to the southern tip of Camano Island, including a village at Marysville and Tcatcthlks opposite Tulalip on Tulalip Bay.
Snohomish, Port Gardner Bay and Snohomish River as far up as Snohomish, including Tctlaks at Everett on the south side of the mouth of Snohomish River and Hibolb on the north side of its mouth.
Tukwetlbabsh, on Snohomish River from Snohomish to Monroe, including villages at Snohomish at the mouth of Pilchuck Creek and below Monroe 2 miles from the confluence of the Skykomish and the Snoqualmie.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated the population of the Snohomish, the Snoqualmie, the Tulalip, and some others at 1,200 in 1780. In 1850 there were 350 Snohomish. The census of 1910 gives 664, evidently including other bands, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 667 in 1937.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name of the Snohomish is perpetuated in Snohomish River, Snohomish County, and a city in that county.

Snogualmie. From the native word sdo'kwalbiugu.

Connections.The Snoqualmie belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.On Snoqualmie and Skykomish Rivers.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Skykomish, on Skykomish River above Sultan, and on the same below Goldbar.
Snoqualmie, on Snoqualmie River, including villages at Cherry Valley, on Snoqualmie River opposite the mouth of Tolt River; at Fall City; and below Snoqualmie Falls.
Stakta'ledjabsh, on Skykomish River as far up as Sultan, including Sultan Creek, including villages above Monroe at the mouth of Sultan Creek and on Sultan Creek 4 miles above its mouth.

Population.(See Snohomish.) The population of the Snoqualmie alone was reported as 225 in 1857.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name of the Snoqualmie is perpetuated by Snoqualmie River and a town upon it in King County.

Spokan. Phonetically Spoke'.n or spo.qe'in); said by some to signify "Sun people," though this origin is doubtful. Also called:

Lêcle'cuks, Wasco name probably intended for this tribe.
Lar-ti-e-lo, by Lewis and Clark in 1806.
S
Enoxami'naEx, by the Okanagon, from their principal division.
S
Entutu' or SEnoxma'n, by the Upper Kutenai from the Salish names for the Middle and Little Spokan respectively.

Connections.The Spokan belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreilles, Sematuse, and Salish.

Location.On the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers, southward to, and perhaps, including Cow Creek, and northward to include all of the northern feeders of the Spokane. (See also Idaho and Montana.)

Subdivisions:

The Lower Spokan (about the mouth and on the lower part of Spokane River, including the present Spokane Indian reserve), the Upper Spokan or Little Spokan (occupying the valley of the Little Spokane River and all the country east of the lower Spokane to within the borders of Idaho), the South or Middle Spokan (occupying at least the lower part of Hangmans Creek, extending south along the borders of the Skitswish).

History.Like so many other tribes of the Columbia region, the Spokan enter the arena of history with the appearance of Lewis and Clark in their territory in 1805. Teit (1930) thinks it possible that the several bands were once so many distinct tribes which have become fused in course of time, but of this there is no certainty. The Lower and most of the Middle Spokan, and part of the Upper Spokan, were finally placed under the Colville Agency; the rest are on the Flathead Reservation in Montana.

Population.Moody (1928) estimated that about 1780 there might have been 1,400 Spokan, but Teit's figures would raise this to something like 2,500. In 1806 Lewis and Clark thought there were 600 but they may have included only one of the three divisions. In 1905 the United States Indian Office gave 277 Lower Spokan and 177 Middle and Upper Spokan under the Colville Agency and 135 on the Flathead Reservation; in 1909 it gave 509 all together under the Colville Agency and 138 on the Flathead Reservation. The United States Census of 1910 returned 643 all told; the Indian Office Report for 1923, 669; and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 847.

Connections in which they have become noted.The fame of the Spokan will rest in the future mainly upon the importance of the Washington city of Spokane. Their name is also attached to a river in Idaho and Washington, and to the county of which Spokane is the metropolis. It has also been applied to post hamlets in Custer County, S. Dak.; in Christian County, Mo.; and in Trumbull County, Ohio; also to Spokane Bridge, Spokane County, Wash.

Squaxon or Squakson. Their own name.

Connections.The Squaxon belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.On North Bay, Puget Sound.

Villages:

On North Bay at the mouth of Coulter Creek and at Allyn at the mouth of Mason Creek.

Population.With the Skokomish and Toanho (Twana), Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,000 Squaxon in 1780. In 1909 there were 98 under this name, and in 1937, 32.

Suquamish. From a native place name.

Connections.—They belonged to the Nisqually branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their closest connections being with the Duwamish. The famous Seattle was chief or both tribes.

Location.On the west side of Puget Sound, according to Paige (1857) claiming the territory from Applegate Cove to Gig Harbor.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Saktabsh, on Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, and southern Blakely, Blakely Island, with villages at Bremerton and on Eagle Harbor.
Suquamish, on Liberty Bay, at Port Madison, and on the northern part of Blakely Island, with villages at Suquamish, above Poulsbo, and at Point Monroe.

Population.(See Duwamish.) The Suquamish numbered 441 in 1857, 180 in 1909, and 307 in 1910, according to the census of that year. The United States Indian Office returned 204 "Susquamish" Indians in 1910, probably meaning this tribe. In 1937 it returned 168 "Suquamish."

Connection in which they have become noted.The name Suquamish is applied to a town in Kitsap County, Wash.

Swallah. A name applied by Eells (1889). Also called:

Swalash, by Mallet (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1877, p.198).

Connections.The Swallah belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

Location.On Orcas Island and San Juan Island and the group to which they belong.

Villages:

Hutta'tchl, on the southeast end of Orcas Island
Klala'kamish, on the east side of San Juan Island.
Lemaltcha, on Waldron Island.
Stashum, on Waldron Island.

Swinomish. A place name.

Connections.The Swinomish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, and are sometimes called a subdivision of the Skagit.

Location.On the northern part of Whidbey Island and about the mouth of Skagit River.

Subdivisions and Villages:

Ho'baks, on the upper end of Penn's Cove, not far from San de Fuca, Batsa'dsali at Coupeville, Ba'asats between Coupeville and Snaklem Point west of Long Point, and Tcubaa'ltced on the north side of Snaklem Point about 4 miles from Coupeville.
Kikia'los, on Skagit Bay from the South Fork of Skagit River to the north tip of Camano Island, with a village at the mouth of Carpenter Creek between Conway and Fir, and another called Atsala'di at Utsalady on Camano Island.
Kwa'dsakbiuk, on the lower reaches of Stillaguamish River and Port Susan, with a village at the mouth of the Stillaguamish.
Skagit, on Whidbey Island, from Oak Harbor south to Snaklem Point, with a village at Oak Harbor.
Skwada'bsh, on the North Fork of the Skagit River and the eastern part of Whidbey Island lying north of Oak Harbor, with Skwi'kwikwab at the mouth of the North Fork of the Skagit, and Tcotab on a point across Skagit Bay.
Swinomish (on southern Padilla Bay, Swinomish Slough which joins Padilla Bay and Skagit Bay, Skagit Bay from Sullivan Slough north, and the southeast portion of Fidalgo Island), with the following villages: Kale'kut (not far from Whitney at the highway bridge), Sde'os (near Lone Tree Point), Shuptada'tci (on Swinomish Slough 3 miles from La Conner), and another village (on Sullivan Slough just east of La Conner).

Population.The Swinomish are usually enumerated with the Skagit (q.v.). The Skagit and Swinomish together numbered 268 in 1909. in 1937 there were 285 Swinomish reported.

Taidnapam. Also called Upper Cowlitz.

Connections.The Taidnapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family.

Location.On the headwaters of Cowlitz river and perhaps extending over into the headwaters of the Lewis River.

Population.Mooney estimates the population of the Taidnapam and Klickitat together at 600 in 1780, but extinct as independent tribes by 1907.

Twana. Said to signify "a portage," referring to that between the upper end of Hoods Canal and the headwaters of Puget Sound. Also called:

Tu-a'd-hu, own name
Skokomish, from the name of a principal division.
Wi'lfa Ampa'fa ami'm, Luckiamute-Kalapuya name.

Connections.The Twana constituted one dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan stock.

Location.On both sides of Hoods Canal. Later they were placed on Skokomish Reservation.

Subdivisions and Villages: Eels (1877) gave the following:

Kolsid, on Quilcene and Dabop Bays.
Skokomish, around Annas Bay and the drainage area of Skokomish River.
Soatlkobsh, on both sides of the canal from Seabeck and Oak Head to Port Gamble and Squamish Harbor opposite.

Smith (1941) lists the following villages:

Habha'b, at Eldon on the Canal at the mouth of the Hammerhammer River.
Li'liwap, at Lilliwap on the Canal.
Skoko'bsh, at the mouth of the Skokomish River.
Tule'lalap, at the east branch of the Canal at the mouth of Mission Creek.
Two towns at Duckabush and Brinnon.

Population.—Mooney (1928) gives the Twana, Skokomish, and Squaxon together a population of 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 they were estimated to total about 265. The census of 1910 gave 61 Twana and 195 Skokomish, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs returned 206 Skokomish in 1937.

Wallawalla. Meaning "little river"; called Walula by Spier (1936).

Connections.The Wallawalla language belongs to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock and is very closely related to the Nez Percé.

Location.On the lower Wallawalla River, except perhaps for an area around Whitman occupied by Cayuse, and a short span along the Columbia and Snake Rivers near their junction, in Washington and Oregon. They are now on Umatilla Reservation, Oregon.

Population.Mooney (1928) gives 1,500 for the Wallawalla and the Umatilla together in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 1,600 but they included other bands now known to be independent. The census of 1910 gave 397, the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1923, 628, and that for 1937, 631, the two last evidently including some other peoples.

Connections in which they have become noted.The name Wallawalla is perpetuated in that of the city of Walla Walla, Wash.; Walla Walla County; Walla Walla River, which flows through Oregon and Washington; and appears in the name of a small place in Illinois.

Wanapam. Significance unknown.

Connections.The Wanapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock and were connected closely with the Palouse.

Location.In the bend of Columbia River between Priest Rapids and a point some distance below the mouth of Umatilla River, and extending east of the Columbia north of Pasco.

Subdivisions:

They seem to have included two branches, the Chamnapum and Wanapam proper.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimates their population as 1,800 in 1780.

Watlala. The Watlala occupied the north side of Columbia River from the Cascades to Skamania and perhaps to Cape Horn, but a larger territory on the south side. (See under Oregon.)

Wauyukma. Significance unknown.

Connections.They belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family and were very closely related to the Palouse.

Location.On Snake River below the mouth of the Palouse.

Population.Unknown but probably included with the Palouse, which Mooney (1928) estimates to have numbered 1,800 in 1780.

Wenatchee (Wina't:ca). So called by the Wasco, and it has become a popular name for them. Also called:

Awena'tchela, by the Klickitat, meaning "people at the coming- out or source," said to refer to the fact that they occupied the country at the heads of the rivers or above the Yakima.
Pisquow, from .s.npeskwau'zux, their own name, variants of which appear in the appellations given them by other Salish tribes in the neighborhood.
Tso'kwob.c, by the Snohomish.

Connections.The Wenatchee belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Sinkiuse-Columbia Indians.

Subdivisions:

Sinia'lkumuk, on the Columbia between Entiat Creek and Wenatchee River.
Sinkumchi'muk, at the mouth of the Wenatchee.
Sinpusko'isok, at the forks of the Wenatchee, where the town of Leavenworth now stands.
Sintia'tkumuk, along Entiat Creek.
Stske'tamihu, 6 miles down river from the present town of Wenatchee.

Minor divisions mentioned are the following:

Camiltpaw, on the east side of Columbia River.
Shanwappom, on the headwaters of Cataract (Klickitat) and Tapteel Rivers.
Siapkat, at a place of this name on the east bank of Columbia river, about Bishop Rock and Milk Creek, below Wenatchee River.
Skaddal, originally on Cataract (Klickitat) River, on the west bank of Yakima River and later opposite the entrance to Selah Creek.

Location.On Methow and Wenatchee Rivers and Chelan Lake. The Wenatchee are now under the Colville Agency.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated there were 1,400 Wenatchee in 1780, but Teit (1928) considers this considerably too low. The four bands of this tribe mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805 totaled 820. The census of 1910 gave 52.

Connection in which they have become noted.Wenatchee River, Lake Wenatchee, and Wenatchee Mountain preserve the name, as also the town of Wenatchee, county seat of Chelan County.

Wishram. From Wu'cxam, the name given them by the Yakima and Klickitat Indians. Also called:

E-che-loot, by Lewis and Clark in 1806, from their own name.
Ila'xluit, their own name and from this called Tlakluit.

Connections.They belonged to the Chinookan stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Wasco.

Location.On the north side of Columbia River in Klickitat County.

Villages:

Atatathlia itcagitkok, on a small island near Celilo Falls, or more likely Ten-Mile Rapids.
Chalaitgelit, a short distance east of The Dalles.
Gawilapchk, a winter village below The Dalles.
Gawishila, a fishing station above The Dalles.
Hladakhat, about 10 miles below The Dalles.
Hliluseltshlikh, below Big Eddy.
Kwalasints, opposite The Dalles.
Nayakkhachikh, a winter village below Gawilapchk.
Niukhtash, at Big Eddy.
Shabanahksh, 1 mile below Wishram (?).
Shgwaliksh, perhaps Klickitat, about 12 miles (?) below The Dalles.
Shikeldaptikh, about a half mile below The Dalles.
Shkagech, below Crate's Point.
Shkonana, opposite Crate's Point
Shkukskhat, below The Dalles.
Tsapkhadidlit, a wintering place below Nayakkhachikh.
Waginkhak, below The Dalles and the lowest Tlakluit town on the river.
Wakemap, above Wishram.
Wasnaniks, below Skukskhat.
Wayagwa, above The Dalles, the easternmost town.
Wishram (properly called Nixlúidix
.), about 5 miles above The Dalles.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 1,500 Wishram, but Spier and Sapir (1930) suggest 1,000 about 1800. The latter figure is the one given by Lewis and Clark in 1806. The census of 1910 returned 274, and in 1937, under the designation "Upper Chinook," the United States Office of Indian Affairs gave 124.

Connection in which they have become noted.A town in Klickitat County preserves the name of the Wishram.

Wynoochee. Significance of word is unreported.

Connections.The Wynoochee were closely connected with the Chehalis Indians and belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

Location.On the Wynoochee, an affluent of Chehalis River.

Yakima. Meaning "runaway." also called:

Cuts-sáh-nem, by Clark in 1805 in Lewis and Clark Journals (1904-5).
Pa` kiut`lema, own name, "people of the gap."
Shanwappoms, from Lewis and Clark in 1805.
Stobshaddat, by the Puget Sound tribes, meaning "robbers."
Waptai'lmin, own name, "people of the narrow river." Both of their names for themselves refer to the narrows in Yakima River at Union Gap where their chief village was formerly situated.

Connections.The Yakima belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family.

Location.On the lower course of Yakima River.

Subdivisions: (As given by Spier (1936), quoting Mooney and Curtis)

Átanum-lema, on Atanum Creek.
Nakchi'sh-hlama, on Naches River, and hence possibly Pshwa'nwapam.
Pisko, about the mouth of Toppenish Creek.
Se'tas-lema, on Satus Creek.
Si'-hlama, on Yakima River above the mouth of Toppenish Creek.
Si'la-hlama, on Yakima River between Wenas and Umtanum Creeks.
Si'mkoe-hlama, on Simcoe Creek.
Tkai'waichash-hlama, on Cowiche Creek
Topinish, on Toppenish Creek.
Waptailmin, at or below Union Gap.

It is quit possible that under the term Yakima several distinct tribes were included.

History and Location.The Yakima are mentioned by Lewis and Clark under the name of Cutsahnim, but it is not known how many and what bands were included under that term. In 1855 the United States made a treaty with the Yakima and 13 other tribes of Shapwailutan, Salishan, and Chinookan stocks, by which these Indians ceded the territory from the Cascade Mountains to Palouse and Snake rivers and from Lake Chelan to the Columbia. The Yakima Reservation was established at the same time and upon it all the participating tribes and bands were to be confederated as the Yakima Nation under the leadership of Kamaiakan, a distinguished Yakima chief. Before this treaty could be ratified, however, the Yakima War broke out, and it was not until 1859 that its provisions were carried into effect. The Palouse and certain other tribes have never recognized the treaty or come on the reservation. Since the establishment of the reservation, the term Yakima has been generally used in a comprehensive sense to include all the tribes within its limits, so that it is now impossible to estimate the number of true Yakima.

Population.Mooney (1928) estimated the Yakima proper at 3,000 in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark give an estimated population of 1,200 to their Cutsahnim (see above). The census of 1910 gives 1,362 "Yakima," and the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923, 2,939, but as already stated, this name now covers many people beside the true Yakima tribe. In 1937 the population of the same body of Indians was given as 2,933.

Connections in which they have become noted.The Yakima first attained prominence on account of the extension of their name over a number of related, and some unrelated, peoples as above mentioned, and its use to designate the Yakima Reservation. It has attained greater permanence as the designation of a branch of Columbia River, a county in Washington, and a town in the same County and State.