Extract from
The Indian Tribes of North America
by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145—1953
[726 pages—Smithsonian Institution]
(pp. 529-544)

Alaska (Part 1)

Ahtenn. Signifying "Ice People." Also called:

Copper River Indians, popular name.
Intsi Dindjich, Kutchin name, meaning "men of iron."
Ketschetnaer or Kolshina, Russian name meaning "ice people."
Mednofski, Russian name meaning "copper river people."
Yellowknife Indians, by Ross (quoted by Dall, 1877).
Yullit, Ugalakmiut name.

Connections.—The Ahtena belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock. Physically they are said to bear a close resemblance to the Koyukukhotana. (See Koyukan.)

Location.—In the basin of Copper River.


According to Allen (1887):

Miduusky, on Copper River from its mouth to Tazlina River, and its branches.
Tatlazan, above the Tazlina.

According to Hoffman (ms.):

Ikherkhamut, near the mouth of Copper River.
Kangikhlukhmut, at the head of Copper River.
Kulchana, about headwaters of the Kuskokwim and extending probably into the valley of Copper River, but Osgood (1936) calls this "an erroneous generalized extension of the Ahtena people."
Kulushut, on Copper River next above the Ikherkhamut.
Shukhtutakhlit, on Copper River next above the Kangikhlukhmut.
Vikhit, next below the Kulchana (?).


Alaganik, with Ugslakmiut near the mouth of Copper River.
Batzulnetas, near upper Copper River where the trail for Tanana River begins.
Liebigstag, on the left bank of Copper River, latitude 61- 57' N., longitude 145- 45' W.
Miduuski, on the east bank of Copper River below the mouth of Tonsina Creek.
Skatalis, near the mouth of Copper River, probably the original Alaganik.
Skolai, on Nizina River near the mouth of Chitistone River, latitude 61- 21' N., longitude 143- 17' W.
Slana, at the confluence of Slana and Copper Rivers.
Titlogat, probably of the Kulchana division. (Osgood above.)
Toral, on Copper River at the mouth of Chitina River.

History.—The mouth of Copper River was discovered by Nagaieff in 1781, but expeditions into the interior met with such consistent hostility on the part of the natives that for a long time they were a simple record of failure. The attempts of Samoylof in 1796, Lastochkin in 1798, Klimoffsky in 1819, and Gregorief in 1844 all ended in the same way. Serebrannikof ventured up the river in 1848, but his disregard for the natives cost him his life and the lives of three of his companions. In 1882 after the cession of Alaska to the United States, a trader named Holt ascended as Iar as Taral but on a subsequent visit he was killed by the natives. In 1884 Lt. Abercrombie explored a part of the river, and in 1885 a thorough exploration of the whole region was made by Lt. Allen, who visited the Ahtena villages on Copper River and on its principal tributaries. From that time on intercourse between the river people and Whites has been increasingly intimate.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated 500 Ahtena for the year 1740. Petroff (1884) placed their numbers in 1880 at not more than 300. Allen (1887) gave 366 on the river and its branches. The census of 1890 returned 142, and that of 1910, 297. In 1920 the total native population of Alaska speaking Athapascan dialects was 4,657; in 1930, 4,935.

Aleut. A name of unknown origin but traced with some plausibility to the Chukchi word aliat, meaning "island," which is supposed to have been bestowed upon the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands through a misunderstanding. Also called:

Takhayuna. Knaiakhotana, name according to Petroff (1884).
U-nung'un, own name, according to Dall (1886).

Connections.—The Aleut constituted the only widely divergent branch of the Eskimauan linguistic stock, the remainder of the tongues of that family being closely related.

Location.—On the Aleutuian Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the western part of Alaska Peninsula.


There were two main subdivisions distinguished by difference in dialect: (1) the Atka, on Andreanof, Rat. and Near Islands; and (2) the Unalaska on the Fox and Shumagin Islands and Alaska Peninsula.


I. Atka Division

Attu, on Holt Bay (Chichagof Harbor ?), Attu Island.
Korovinski, at Korovin Bay, on Atka Island.
Nazan, on Atka Island.
Unalga, on Unalga Island, Andreanof group;
The following ruined places on the single island of Agattu: Agonakagna. Atkulik Atkigvin, Hachimuk, Hamnulik, Hanilik, Hapkug, Higtiguk, Hilksuk, Ibin, Imik, Iptugik, Isituchi, Kakuguk, Kamuksusik, Kaslukug, Kigsitatok, Kikchik, Kikun, Kimituk, Kitak, Kuptagok, Magtok, Mukugnuk, Navisok, Siksatok, Sunik, Ugiatok, Ugtikun, Ugtumuk, Ukashik.

II. Unalaska Division:

Akutan, on Akutan Island, close to Unalaska Island.
Avatanak, on Avatanak Island, between Unalsska and Unimak Islands.
Belkofski, near the end of Alaska Peninsula.
Biorka, on Piorka Island near Unalaska.
Chernofski, on Unalaska Island.
Eider, on Captain Bay, Unalaska Island.
Iliuliuk, on Unalaska Island.
Kashiga, on Unalaska Island.
Korovinski, on Korovin Island.
Makushin, on Makushin Bay, Unalaska Island.
Mashlk, at Port Moller, Alaska Peninsula.
Morzhovoi, at the end of Alaska Peninsula, formerly at the head of Morzhovoi and later on Traders Cove which opens into Isanotski Bay.
Nateekin, on Nateekin Bay, Unalaska Island.
Nikolaief, on Alaska Peninsula north of Belkofski.
Nikolski, on Unmak Island.
Pavlof, at Selenie Point, Pavlof Bay, Alaska Pensinsula.
Pogromni, near Pogromni volcano, on the north shore of Unimak Island.
Popof, at Pirate Cove, Popof Island, one of the Shumagins.
Saint George, on St. George Island, Pribilof group.
Saint Paul, on Saint Paul Island, Pribilof group.
Sannak, on Sannnk Island.
Unga, on Unga Island, Shumagin group.
Vossnessenski, on Vossnessenski Island, in the Shumagin group.

Villages reported by later writers:

Agulok, on Unalaska Island.
Akun, on Akun Island, between Unalaska and Unimak.
Artelnof, on Akun Island.
Beaver, on Unalaska Island.
Chaliuknak, on Beaver Bay, Unalaska Island.
Ikolga, on Unalaska Island.
Imagnee, on Summer Bay, Unalaska Island.
Itchadak, on one of the east Aleutian Islands.
Kalekhta, on Unalaska Island.
Kutchlok, on Unalaska Island.
Riechcsni, on Little Bay, Akun Island in the Krenitzin group.
Seredka, on Seredka Bay in Akun Island.
Sisaguk, on Unimak Island.
Takamitka, on Unalaska Island.
Tigalda, on Tigalda Island, one of the east Aleutians.
Totchikala, on Unalaska Island.
Tulik, on Umnak Island, near a volcano of the same name.
Ugamitzi, on Unalaska Island.
Uknodok, on Hog Island, Captains Bay, Unalaska.
Veselofski, at Cape Cheerful, Unalaska.

History.—The Aleut became known to the Russians immediately after the voyages of Chirikoff and Bering in 1741, the discovery of the islands themselves being attributed to Mikhail Nerodchikof, September 1745. Though the natives at first resisted the exactions of the foreign traders with courage, their darts were no match for firearms, and they were not only cruelly treated themselves but were forced into the service of their masters as allies in attacks upon more distant peoples. It is said they were soon reduced to one tenth of their former numbers. In 1794-1818 the Russian Government interfered to protect them from exploitation, and their condition was somewhat improved, but most of the improvement they experienced at Russian hands was due to the noted missionary Veniaminoff, who began his labors in 1824. Through his efforts and those of his fellow missionaries of the Greek Church, all of the Aleut were soon converted, and they were to some extent educated. In 1867 they, with the rest of the population of Alaska, passed under the control of the United States.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1740 there were 16,000 Aleut. Veniaminoff (1840) gave the Atka population as 750 in 1834 and the Unalaska population as 1,497. In 1848 Father Shaiesnekov enumerated 1,400 all told, a figure which was reduced to 900 as a result of the smallpox epidemic of that year. Dall (1877) estimated that there were about 2,000, and according to the census of 1890 there were 1,702, including 734 mixed-bloods. The census of 1910 returned 1,451. The native Alaskan population speaking Eskimauun dialects was 13,698 in 1920 and 19,028 in 1930.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The name of the Aleut is perpetuated in that of the Aleutian Islands, and from their language is derived the word Alaska, applied to Alaska Territory, and to Alaska Peninsula, which such a large number of the Aleut inhabit.

Dihai-kutchin. Signifying "Kutchin farthest downstream."

Connections.—The Dihai-kutchin were a band or tribe of the Kutchin division of the Athapascan linguistic stock. They are added to Osgood's (1936) list of true Kutchin tribes on the authority of Robert McKennan (1935).

Location.—The Dihai-kutchin lived about the north fork of Chandalar River, and the Middle and South Forks of the Koyokuk River, Alaska.

Population.—The Dihai-kutchin were never numerous and are now extinct as a separate body of Indians.

Eskimo. All of the coast lands of Alaska from Kayak Island near the mouth of Copper River to the Canadian boundary on the Arctic coast were fringed with Eskimo settlements except the upper end of Cook Inlet and that part of Alaska Peninsula which, with the Aleutian Islands, was occupied by the cognate Aleut. (See Aleut and Canada.)

Haida. A part of this tribe settled on Prince of Wales and Dall Islands early in the eighteenth century and are locally known as Kaigani. (See Haida under Canada.) The Kaigani population in 1910 numbered 530; in 1920, 524; and in 1930, 588.

Han. Signifying "those who dwell along the river."

Connections.—Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—The Yukon River drainage between latitude 64 and 66 N., in east central Alaska and Yukon Territory, Canada.


Katshikotin or Eagle group (about the village of Eagle on Yukon River), including Johnny's Village and probably also Charlie's Village or Tadush (near the mouth of Kandik River) Takon of Nuklako (centering at the confluence of the Klondike and Yukon Rivers), and perhaps a third, Fetutlin (near the mouth of Forty Mile Creek.).

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 200 Han in 1740.

Ingalik. Name given by the Eskimo but widely used as applied to these Indians.

Connections.—The Ingalik were one of the western-most divisions of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—Between Anvik and Holy Cross on the lower Yukon River, including the drainage of the Anvik River and the region southeast to the Kuskokwim River, including its drainage above Georgetown.


Osgood (1934) makes the following subdivisions:

(1) Anvik-Shageluk group, centering around the villages bearing these names.
(2) Bonasila group, centering around the village of the same name.
(3) Holy Cross-Georgetown group, centering around the villages bearing those names.
(4) McGrath group, the people of the drainage of the upper Kuskokwim River; this group somewhat arbitrarily constructed.

Villages Reported in this Area

Akmiut, a little above Kolmakof on Kuskokwim River.
Anvik, at the junction of Anvik and Yukon Rivers.
C'hagvagchat, near the headwaters of Anvik River.
Inselnostlinde, on Shageluk River.
Intenleiden, on the east bank of Shageluk River.
Khugiligichakat, on Shageluk River.
Khunanilinde, near the headwaters of Kuskokwim River.
Koserefski, on the left bank of the Yukon near the mouth of Shageluk Slough, later an Ikogmiut Eskimo village.
Kuingshtetakten, on Shageluk River.
Kvigimpainag, on the east bank of the Yukon River, 20 miles from Kvikak.
Nnpai, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Palshikatno, on Innoko River.
Tigshelde, on Innoko River.
Tlegoshitno, on Shageluk River.
Vagitchitchate, near the mouth of Innoko River.

Population.—(See Ahtena.)

Koyukon. A contraction of Koyukukhotana, "people of Koyukuk River."

Connections.—The Koyukon belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—On the drainage of the Yukon River south of the mouth of the Tanana to about latitude 63 N., including the drainage of the Innoko River north of the latitude named, and of the Koyukuk River in west central Alaska.


Kaiyuhkhotana, on Yukon River between the Anvik and Koyukuk, including the drainage of Innoko River north of latitude 63 N.
Koyukukhotana, the drainage of the Koyukuk River.
Yukonikhotana, the drainage of Yukon River south of the mouth of the Tanana to the mouth of the Koyukuk.


(1) Kaiyuhkhotana villages:

Anilukhtakpak, on Innoko River.
Chinik, on the east bank of Yukon River at the junction with the Talbiksok.
Iktigalik, on Unalaklik River.
Innoka, on Tlegon River.
Ivan, on the divide between Unalaklik and Yukon Rivers.
Kagogagat, on the north hank of Yukon River at the mouth of Medicine Creek.
Kaiakak, on the west bank of Yukon River.
Kaltag, on the left bank of Yukon River.
Khogoltlinde, on Yukon River.
Khulikakat, on Yukon River.
Klamaskwaltin, on the north hank of Yukon River near the mouth of Kaiyuh River.
Kunkhogliak, on Yukon River.
Kutul, on Yukon River 50 miles above Anvik.
Lofka, on the west bank of Yukon River.
Nulato, on the north bank of Yukon River about 100 miles from Norton Sound.
Taguta, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below the mouth of the Kaiyuh.
Takaiak, east of Yukon River near Nulato.
Talitui, on Tlegon River.
Tanakot, on the right bank of Yukon River near the mouth of Melozi River.
Terentief, on the Yukon below Koyukuk River.
Tutago, on Yukon River at the mouth of Auto River.
Wolasatux, on the east bank of Yukon River on a small stream north of Kaiyuh River.

(2) Koyukukhotana villages:

Batza, on Batza River.
Bolshoigor, on Yukon River 25 miles above the mouth of Koyukuk River.
Dotle, on Koyukuk River.
Hussliakatna, on the right bank of Koyukuk River, 2 miles above the south end of Dall Island.
Kakliaklia, on Koyukuk River at the mouth of Ssukloseanti River.
Kaitat, on an island in Yukon River not far from its junction with Koyukuk River.
Kanuti, on Koyukuk River in latitude 66- 18 N.
Kautas, on Koyukuk River.
Kotil, at the junction of Kateel River with Koyukuk River.
Koyukuk, near the junction of Koyukuk and Yukon Rivers.
Mentokakat, on the left bank of Yukon River 20 miles above the mouth of Melozi River.
Nohulchinta, on the South Fork of Koyukuk River 3 miles above the junction.
Nok, on the west bank of Koyukuk River near its mouth.
Notaloten, on Yukon River 20 miles above the mouth of Koyukuk River.
Oonignchtkhokh, on Koyukuk River.
Soonkakat, on the left bank of the Yukon River below Nulato.
Tnshoshgon, on Koyukuk River.
Tlialil, on Koyukuk River.
Tok, on an island at the junction of Koyukuk River with the Yukon.
Zakatlatnn, on the north bank of Yukon River, in longitude 156- 30 W.
Zogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.
Zonagogliakten, on the east bank of Koyukuk River.

(3) Yukonikhotsna villages:

Chentansitzan, on the north bank of Yukon River 30 miles below the mouth of Melozi River.
Medvednaia, on the south side of Yukon River.
Melozikakat, on Melozikakat River.
Noggai, on Yukon River.
Nowi, on the south side of Yukon River at the mouth of Nowikakat River.
Tohnokalong, on the north bank of Yukon River in longitude 154- 25 W.
Tuklukyet, on the north bank of Yukon River 15 miles below the mouth of Tozi River.

History.—Russian influences began to penetrate the country of the Koyukon after the establishment of the Russian settlement of Kodiak before any settlements had been made on the Kuskokwim or Yukon. In 1538 the most important Russian settlement on the lower Yukon was made at Nulato, and this was the center of one of the very few native uprisings. The post was attacked by neighboring Indians in 1851 and most of the inmates butchered. With American ownership in 1867 the influences of civilization began to increase, and the current was swollen still further by the discovery of gold, though this last was hardly to the advantage of the aborigines. (See Ahtena.)

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 1,500 Koyukon in the year 1740. In 1890, 940 were returned.

Kutcha-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell on the flats," called Yukon Flats Kutchin by Osgood (1936). They have also been called as follows, but the Eskimo terms are applicable to any Kutchin:

Fort Indians, Ross (MS).
Ik-kil-lin. Gilder quoted by Murdoch (1892).
Itchali, 11th Census, Alaska, p. 154.
It-ka-lya-ruin, Dall (1877, p. 30); Nuwukmiut Eskimo name.
Itkpe'lit, Petitot (1876, Vocab., p. 42).
Itku'dlin, Murdoch (1892).
Lowland people, Whymper (1868, p. 247).
Na-Kotchpo-tschig-Kouttchin, Petitot (1891, p. 361).
O-til'-tin, Dawson (1888, p. 202B).
Youkon Louchioux Indians, Ross (MS.).

Connections.—The Kutcha-kutchin were a tribe belonging to the Kutchin division of the northern section of the Athapascan linguistic family.

Location.—Along the valley of the Yukon from the widening of the river a few miles above Circle to about Birch Creek below Fort Yukon.


One at Fort Yukon and one at Senati, on the middle Yukon.

History.—The history of all the Kutchin tribes had best be treated in one place. They were first brought into contact with Europeans when Alexander Mackenzie met some of them in 1789 during his descent of the river which bears his name. This became more intimate with the establishment of the first Fort Good Hope in 1847. Until Alaska passed into the hands of the United States practically all of the relations which the Kutchin tribes had with Europeans were through the Hudson's Bay Company. Since then influences from the west have been more potent. The discovery of gold in the Klondike region and the rush which followed marked the opening of a new era for these people, but one in which the bad for a long time outweighed the good.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 500 of these Indians in 1740. The Kutcha-kutchin and the Tranjikkutchin may be put together as Kutchin in the census of 1910, which enters 359. The Hudson's Bay Co.'s census of 1858 gave 842 Kutchin belonging to six tribes as resorting to Fort Yukon. Osgood (1936), who quotes this, believes that the entire Kutchin population at that date might be set down at 1,200. (See Ahtena.)

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Kutchin tribes were noted for their greater energy and more warlike character, as compared with neighboring Athapascans, and for a peculiar three-caste system in their social organization.

Nabesna. From the name of Nabesna River, the meaning of which is unknown.

Connections.—The Nabesna belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family.

Location.—In the entire drainage area of the Nabesna and Chisana Rivers, including the tributaries of the Tanana River, which they form at their confluence, as far down as the Tok River; the upper White River, including its tributaries the Beaver and the Snag, and the headwaters of the Ladue; together an area roughly enclosed between latitude 61- 31 and 63- 30 N. and longitude 141- 30 and 143- 30 W. (Dr. Robert C. McKennan through Osgood, 1936).


According to McKennan (1935), including the following "extremely fluid bands:"

(1) Ranged about Last Tetling Lake and the Tetling River.
(2) Ranged about the mouth of the Nabesna River.
(3) Ranged from the head of the Nabesna through the upper Chisana River to the White.
(4) Ranged from Scottie Creek to the Snag.

The first of these evidently includes the Nutzotin of earlier writers with their villages of Nandell near Wagner Lake and Tetling, and the third the Santotin. Khiltats, at the mouth of Nabesna River, must have belonged to the second division.


Allen (1887) mentions the village of Khiltats at the mouth of the
Nabesna River.

History.—White contact with these people was made in 1885 and a settlement established at Chisana in 1913.

Niska. This is a tribe of the Chimmesyan linguistic family which was just beyond the boundaries of Alaska to the southeast and at times hunted over some of its territory. It belonged properly to British Columbia. (See Canada.)

Natsit-kutckin. Signifying "those who dwell off the flats [i. e., Yukon River]." Also called:

Gens du Large, by Ross (MS), from which came the name of
Chandelar River.
Natche'-Kutehin, by Dall (1877, p. 430).
Neyetse-kutchi, by Richardson (1851, vol. 1, p. 399).
Tpe-ttckie-dhidie-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891).

Connections.—The Natsit-kutchin were one of the tribes of the Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—On Chandelar River.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated 200 Natsit-kutchin as of the year 1740. The census of 1910 returned 177. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

Tanaina. Own name, meaning "people" exclusive of Eskimo and Europeans. Also called Knaiakhotana.

Connections.—The Tanaina belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—According to Osgood (1934): "The drainage of Cook Inlet north of Seldovia (59- 20 N. lat.), the north half of Iliamna Lake and its drainage, including Clark Lake. Since contact, possibly slight incursions have been made into territory formerly occupied by the Eskimo, notably Seklovia Bay and portions of Iliamna Lake."


Osgood (1936) gives the following:

(1) Lower Inlet (Seldovia and Kachemak Bay).
(2) Middle Inlet (Tustamena, Skilak, and Kenai Lakes and the adjacent coast).
(3) Upper Inlet (Knik arm of Cook Inlet and its drainage).
(4) Susitns (Susitna River and drainage).
(5) Tyonek (west coastal region of Cook Inlet).
(6) Iliamna (region of the north part of Iliamna Lake and its drainage).
(7) Clark Lake (the region about Clark Lake).


Chinila, on the east side of Cook Inlet near the mouth of Kaknu River.
Chuitna (not given by Osgood), on Cook Inlet at the mouth of Chuit River.
Eklutna, at the head of Knik Arm.
Iliamna, near the mouth of the Iliamna River.
Kasilof, on the east coast of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kasilof River.
Kasnatchin, at Anchor Point, Kenai Peninsula.
Kenai, on the east side of Cook Inlet at the mouth of Kaknu River.
Kilchik (not noted by Osgood), on Lake Clark.
Knakatnuk, opposite Nitak on the west side of Knik Arm, at the head of Cook Inlet.
Knik, near the mouth of Knik River.
Kultuk, on the east side of Cook Inlet near Nikishka.
Kustatan, on the west side of Cook Inlet below Tyonek.
Nikhkak, on Lake Clark.
Nikishka, near East Foreland at the head of Cook Inlet.
Ninilchik, on the east coast of Cook Inlet south of the mouth of Kasilof River.
Nitak, on the east side of Knik Bay at the head of Cook Inlet and near Eklutna.
Skilak, on the south side of Skilak Lake, Kenai Peninsula.
Skittok, on Kaknu River and forming part of the Kenai settlement.
Susitna, on Susitna River, Cook Inlet.
Titukilsk, on the east shore of Cook Inlet and near Nikishka.
Tyonek, on the west side of Cook Inlet.
Zdluiat, on the east side of Knik Bay south of Nitak.

History.—Cook Inlet received its name from Captain Cook who entered it in May 1778, but all of the natives met by him seem to have been Eskimo. The Russian settlement of Kodiak in 1784 marked an important event for the history of the region because the Russians, assisted by Aleut hunters, at once began to exploit the animal wealth of the neighboring region, and Cook Inlet was a principal scene of their activities. In July 1786, Portlock and Dixon went to the very head of Cook Inlet and must have had dealings with the Tanaina because they met with considerable success in their trading operations. Captain Douglas visited the inlet in 1788. Russian ownership gave place to ownership by the United States in 1867, but Cook Inlet was exploited relatively little until the railroad line was built from Seward to Fairbanks and skirted the head of the inlet for many miles. The Tanaina Indians were one of the last groups in Alaska to receive attention from ethnologists.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 1,200 Tanaina in 1740. In 1818, 1,471 natives were enumerated in Cook Inlet. In 1825 Baron Wrangell returned 1,299. Veniaminoff (1840) gave 1,628 and in 1860 the Holy Synod returned 937. In 1869 Halleck and Colyer returned the grossly exaggerated estimate of 25,000. The census of 1880 returned 614 and that of 1890, 724. Mooney estimated 890 in 1900. (See Ahtena.)

Alaska (Part 2)

Named from the Tanana River.

Connections.—The Tanana belonged to the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic family. They were formerly erroneously classed among the Kutchin tribes.

Location.—"The drainage of the lower Tanana River below the Tok River, the region about the confluence of the Tanana and Yukon, and the region along the latter river above the confluence." [Osgood, 1936.]

Subdivisions and Villages

Clatchotin, on Tanana River.
Huntlatin, on Tanana River.
Minchumina Lake people, around the lake of that name.
Nuklukayet, a rendezvous for various tribes, on the north bank of the Yukon just below the mouth of the Tanana.
Nukluktana, on Tanana River just below Tutlut River.
Tatsa, on Yukon River.
Tolwatin, on Tanana River.
Tozikakat, north bank of the Yukon at the mouth of Tozi River.
Tutlut, at the junction of Tutlut and Tanana Rivers.
Weare, at the mouth of Tanana River.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimates a possible population of 500 in 1740 including the Nabesna. Richardson (1851) cut this estimate to 100. Dall (1870) made it 500, Petroff (1884), 300-700, Allen (1887) 600, the census of 1890, 373. In 1900, 370 were given and by the census of 1910, 415. (See Ahtena.)

Tennuth-kutchin. Meaning "middle people." Also called:

Birch Creek Kutchin, Osgood (1934, p. 172).
Birch River Indians, Whymper (1868, p. 255).
Gens de Bouleaux, Dall (1870 p. 431).

Connections.—The Tennuth-Kutchin were a tribe of the Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan stock.

Location.—In the region of Birch Creek.

Population.—Mooney (1929) estimated that there were about 100 Tennuth-Kutchin in 1740. They have long been extinct having been swept away in 1863, according to Dall (1870), by an epidemic of scarlet fever. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)

Tlingit (literally Lingi't). Signifying "people," in their own language. Also called:

Kolushan, a name given to them as a linguistic family by Powell (1891), originally a Russian or Aleut term referring to the labrets worn by their women.

Connections.—The Tlingit were originally constituted into one linguistic stock by Powell, but show resemblances to the Athapascan dialects and to Haida which have induced Sapir (1915) to class the three together as the Na-dene. The exact nature of the relationship is still disputed.

Location.—All of the coast and islands of Alaska from Yakutat Bay inclusive southward with the exception of the southern ends of Prince of Wales and Dall Islands and Annette Island, though these latter have been alienated from them only in comparatively recent times.

Subdivisions and Villages

Auk, on Stephens Passage and Douglas and Admiralty Islands, including the following villages:
Anchguhlsu, opposite the north end of Douglas Island.
Tsantikihin, on the site of the present Juneau.

Chilkat, about the head of Lynn Canal, including these villages:
Chilkoot, on the northeast arm of Lynn Canal.
Deshu, at the head of Lynn Canal.
Dyea, at the modern place of the same name.
Katkwaahltu, on Chilkat River about 6 miles from its mouth.
Klukwan on Chilkat River 20 miles from its mouth.
Skagway at the site of the modern town of that name at the head of Lynn Canal.
Yendestake, at the mouth of Chilkat River.

Gonaho, at the mouth of Alsek River.

Hehl, on Behm Canal.

Henya or Hanega, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island between Tlevak Narrows and Sumner Strait, including the following villages:
Klawak, on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Shakan, a summer village on the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Tuxican, on a narrow strait on the northwest coast of Prince of Wales Island.

Huna, on Cross Sound, encamping in summer northward beyond Lituya Bay, with these villages:
Akvetskoe, a summer village on Lituya Bay.
Gaudekan, the chief town, now usually called Huna, in Port Frederick on the north shore of Chichagof Island.
Hukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound between the mainland and Chichagof Island.
Klughuggue, given by Petroff (1884) as a town on Chichagof Island but probably identical with one given by Krause (1885) on the opposite mainland, and perhaps the same as Tlushashakian.
Kukanuwu, on the north side of Cross Sound.
Tlushashakian, on the north side of the west entrance to Cross Sound.

Hutsnuwu, on the west and south coasts of Admiralty Island, with these villages:
Angun, north of Hood Bay, Admiralty Island.
Killisnoo, on Killisnoo Island near Admiralty Island.
Nahltushkan, on Whitewater Bay, on the west coast of Admiralty Island.

Kake, on Kupreanof Island, the designation being sometimes extended to cover Kuiu and Sumdum, and including a village of the same name.

Kuiu, on Ruiu Island, with a village of the same name in Port Beauclerc.

Sanya, about Cape Fox, their village being called Gash, at Cape Fox.

Sitka, on the west coasts of Baranof and Chichagof islands, with these villages:
Old Sitka, a summer camp on Baranof Island.
Sitka, site of the modern town.
Tluhaiyikan, as indicated by the native word straight opposite Mount Edgecombe.
Silver Bay, a summer camp.

Stikine, on Stikine River and the neighboring coasts, with these villages:
Kahltcatlan, a place called also Old Wrangell.
Katchanaak, on the site of modern Wrangell.
Shakes' Village, on Etolin Island.

Sumdum, at Port Houghton, the village and location being the same.

Taku, on Taku River and Inlet, Stevens Channel, and Gatineau Channel, with the following villages:

Sikanasankian, on Taku Inlet.
Takokakaan, at the mouth of Taku River, as the name itself implies.

Tongass, at the mouth of Portland Canal, on the north side, with a village of the same name on Tongass Island, Alexander Archipelago.

Yakutat, principally about Yakutat Bay but extending westward in later times to the mouth of Copper River, including these villages:
Chilkat, a village or group of villages on Controller Bay.
Gutheni, north of Dry Bay.
Hlahayik, on Yakutat Bay behind an island called Hlaha which gave it the name.
Yakutat, on Yakutat Bay.

History.—According to native tradition, some Tlingit families came into their present territories from the coast further south while others entered from the interior. In 1741 Chirikoff and Bering discovered the Tlingit country, and they were soon followed by other Russian explorers as well as by explorers and traders from Mexico, England, France, and New England. Among the noteworthy events of this period was the visit of La Perouse to Lituya Bay in 1786 and the tragic loss of two of his boats loaded with men in the tide rips at its entrance. In 1799 the Russians built a fort near the present Sitka. In 1802 the Sitka Indians rose upon this post, killed part of its inmates, and drove the rest away, but 2 years later Baranoff drove them from their fort in turn and established on its site a post which grew into the present Sitka, the capital successively of Russian America and Alaska Territory until 1906. Russian rule was so harsh that there were frequent outbreaks among the natives so long as the territory remained under their control. In 1836 to 1840 occurred a terrible epidemic of smallpox, brought up from the Columbia River, which swept away hundreds of Indians. In 1840 the Hudson's Bay Company took a lease from the Russian American Company of all their lands between Cape Spencer and latitude 54-40 N. In 1867 the Tlingit were transferred with the rest of the Alaskan people to the jurisdiction of the United States and since then they have been suffering ever more rapid transformation under the influences of western civilization.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000 Tlingit in 1740. Veniaminoff (1840) gave 5,850 for the year 1835, and an enumeration made by Sir James Douglas 4 years later showed 5,455 exclusive of the Yakutat. In 1861 Lt. Wehrman of the Russian Navy reported 8,597 as the result of a census. Petroff (1884) in the census of 1880 gave 6,763, but the census of 1890 showed only 4,583, not counting the Tlingitized Ugalakmiut. The census of 1910 returned 4,426; that of 1920, 3,895; and that of 1930, 4,462.

Connection in which they have become noted.—The Russian capital and the first American territorial capital Sitka was on Tlingit land, as is the later and present territorial capital Juneau. The ports of this tribe, especially those in the Chilkat country, figured prominently in the great Klondike rush.

Tranjik-kutchin. Signifying "one who dwells along the river [i.e., the Black River]." Also called:

Black River Kutchin, by Osgood (1936).
Cache River People, by Cadzow (1925).

Connections.—The Tranjik-kutehin belonged to the Kutchin group of tribes of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Location.—In the country around Black River.

History.—(See Kutcha-kutchin.)

Population.—(See Kutcha-kutchin.)

Tsimshian. The home of the Tsimshian is on Skeena River, British Columbia, and the coast to the southward. In 1887, however, Rev. William Duncan, missionary of the Church of England at Metlakatla, 15 miles south of Port Simpson, having become involved in difficulties with his superiors, moved to Annette Island, Alaska, with the greater part of the Indians who had been under his charge. A grant of land was subsequently obtained from the United States Government, and the Tsimshian have continued in occupancy. The census of 1910 reported 729; that of 1920, 842; and that of 1930, 845. (See Canada.)

Vunta-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell among the lakes." Also called:

Crow River Kutchin, by Osgood (1934, p. 173), from a stream in their country.
Gens des Rats, by Dall (1877, p. 31).
Rat People, by Dall (1869, p. 261).
Zjen-ta-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891, p. 361), meaning "muskrat people," a name probably based on a legend, though a tributary of the Porcupine is called Rat River.

Connections.—The Vunta-kutchin are one of the group of Kutchin tribes belonging to the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic family.

Location.—On the middle course of Porcupine River and the country to the northward, including Old Crow Creek.

Population.—Mooney (1928) estimated that the Vunta-Kutchin together with the Tukkutih-kutchin, and "Tutcone-kutchin" comprised a population of 2,200 in 1670, but they had been reduced to 1,700 in 1906 and the census of 1910 returned only 5 under this name by itself. (See Kutcha-kutchin.)