You've come in the "back door"
to the deep files area of the Northern Plains Archive Project web site.
(This textual information is actually a lot more useful in its geographic context.)
Click this button if you would like to see the Canada text together with the tribal locations in 1640. (This will also let you see the locations of neighboring tribal groups in the surrounding area. Click on any tribe to view the information about them. In the very near future maps of the area in the 1760's and 1880's will also be available.) Set your resolution to at least 1024 by 768 for the best view.
Click this button to see just the text aboutCanadian tribes.
Click this button to come in the "Front Door" of the Archive Project and make the whole experience available. By entering the "Deep Map Demo," zooming out and navigating to the area of interest, you can access the complete set of tribal information (not to mention making a lot of other cool stuff available). You also might want to check the books available in the Publications Department of the Archive Gift Shop, available from the Home Page.
by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Algonkin. Significance uncertain, but Hewitt (Hodge, 1907) suggests Micmac algoomeaking or algoomaking, "at the place of spearing fish or eels [from the bow of a canoe]." It was applied originally to one band, the Weskarini.
Connections.The Algonkin were the easternmost division of the Chippewa group of the Algonquian linguistic stock.
Location.On Ottawa River but particularly its northern tributaries.
Abitibi, about Lake Abitibi.
Barriθre, about Barriθre and Kakabong Lakes.
Dumoine, on Dumoine River and Lake, Ontario.
Kichesipirini, on Allumette Island in Ottawa River and hence often called Algonkins of the Island.
Kipawa, on Kipawa River, Maganasibi River, and the north bank of Ottawa River opposite Mattawa.
Lac des Quinze, Lac des Quinze and to the north and east.
Maniwaki or River Desert, from the upper course of the Riviθre Liθvre to Black River.
Ononchataronon, between St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers and near Montreal.
Sagaiguninini, southwest of Ottawa River in 1640, perhaps not of this group, as nearly all the other bands are on or northeast of the Ottawa River.
Timiskaming, on and near Lake Timiskaming.
Weskarini, on the north side of Ottawa River below Allumette Island and on Gatineau River.
Egan, Maniwaki township, Ottawa County, Quebec.
Hartwell, in Ottawa County, Quebec.
Isle aux Tourtes, mission, for Algonkin, and Nipissing, probably on Ottawa River but soon removed to Oka.
History.The Algonkin were encountered by the French when that nation first settled Canada and became firmly attached to them. In the war between the French and Iroquois many bands were driven out of their country, some uniting with the Ottawa. while others fled to the north and east and drifted back into their old territories on the cessation of hostilities. They have since continued in the same region though suffering steady modification in culture and manner of life from contact with Europeans.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1600 there were 6,000 in the Algonkin and Ottawa bands combined. In 1884, 3,874 were returned from Quebec Province and eastern Ontario. The total population of the bands recognized as Algonkin in 1900, but including a few Iroquois, was 1,536.
Connection in which they have become noted.The principal claim of these people to notoriety rests on the fact that they, or rather one of their bands, first bore the name Algonkin from which the name of the great Algonquian linguistic stock was derived, as well as a multitude of names of places and terms of various sorts.
Arapaho. This tribe probably occupied Canadian territory in prehistoric times in southern Saskatchewan and perhaps in southern Manitoba. (See Wyoming.)
Assiniboin. A tribe of the Siouan linguistic family which separated from the Dakota in the late prehistoric period, living first, it is thought, about Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods but, from about 1675, on Assiniboin and Saskatchewan Rivers west of Lake Winnipeg. Their lands extended southward to the Missouri and a part of the tribe were finally placed on reservations in Montana. (See Montana.)
Atsina. These were a branch of the Arapaho and were popularly known as Gros Ventres, or, in order to distinguish them from another tribe so called, Gros Ventres of the Plains. They were sometimes known as Fall Indians from the circumstance that they were supposed formerly to have lived at the falls of the Saskatchewan Rivers near the junction of its north and south branches. (See Montana.)
Bellabella. An Indian corruption of the word Milbank taken back into English. Also called:
Elk.ba'sumH, Bellacoola name.
He'iltsuq, own name.
Milbank Sound Indians, popular name.
Connections.Dialectically the Bellabella were closely related to the Kwakiutl south of them and more remotely to the Nootka of the west coast of Vancouver Island and Cape Flattery, Washington, the whole constituting the Wakashan linguistic family.
Location.The coast of British Columbia from Rivers Inlet to Douglas Channel inclusive.
Kitamat, on Douglas Channel.
Kitlope, on Gardiner Canal.
Bellabella proper, embracing the Kokaitk on the north shore of Milbank Sound, Oealitk on the south shore of Milbank Sound, and the Oetlitk on the middle section of Milbank Sound.
China Hat, on Tolmie Channel and Mussel Inlet.
Nohuntsitk, at the lower end of Wikeno Lake.
Somehulitk, at the north end of Wikeno Lake.
Wikeno, on Rivers Inlet.
The Wilkeno had the following, all with one possible exception, on Rivers nlet: Niltala, Nuhitsomk, Somhotnechau, Tlaik, Tsiomhau, Wikeno.
History.Bodega and Maurelle passed along the coast occupied by the Bellabella in 1775, and they were immediately afterward visited by English and American explorers and traders. The Hudson's Bay post of Fort McLoughlin was established in their territory in 1833, but the foundation of Victoria in 1843 probably had greater influence on the lives of these people. The traders were soon followed by missionaries and permanent white settlers.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 2,700 Indians of the Bellabella group. In 1906 there were 862.
Connection in which they have become noted.These people are interesting as exhibiting an apparent replacement of a patrilineal system of descent by a matrilineal system.
Bellacoola. A name applied by the Kwakiutl; significance unknown. Phonetic form of name Bi'lxula. Also called:
Tallion Nation, from the name of a town, in early reports of the Canadian Indian Office.
Connections.They are an isolated body of Indians belonging to the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.On North Bentinck Arm, South Bentinck Arm, Dean Channel and River, and Bella Coola River, B. C.
At the present time there are but two bodies of Bellacoola: The Kimsquit, on Dean Inlet; and the Bella Coola, at the mouth of Bella Coola River. Older writers speak of the Nuhalk, which was the name of Bella Coola Valley; Taliomk, at the head of South Bentinck Arm, abandoned about 20 years ago; and the Noothlakamish, reported by Tolmie and Dawson (1884) on North Bentinck Arm.
Villages: (as given by McIlwraith)
Aimats, north of Anutskwakstl near the Peisela River.
Aketi, on the south side of Dean River about 1 mile from the sea.
Anutlitlk, near the mouth of Dean River, still occupied.
Anutskwakstl, an eastern extension of Tlokotl.
Aseik, on a stream flowing into a bay at the southwest end of South Bentinck Arm.
Asenane, on the shore of a bay on the south side of Bella Coola River.
Asktlta, at Salmon House on Upper Dean River.
Atlklaktl, near the south bank of Peisela River about 1/4-mile from the sea.
Ikwink, on Dean River 28 miles from the sea.
Kadis, on the east side of South Bentinck Arm, about 1/4-mile from Nuik River.
Kameik, on the west bank of Necleetsconnay about 3/4-mile from the sea.
Kankilst, on the east side of South Bentinck Arm "slightly north of the island opposite the hot springs on the west side of the fiord."
Koapk, on the east side of the mouth of a creek entering the head of South Bentinck Arm from the south.
Komkutis, the upper (eastern) continuation of Stskeitl.
Kwiliutl, on the north side of the Atnarko a few hundred yards above the forks.
Nuekmak, near some stagnant pools on the north side of Bella Coola River a short distance above Snoφnikwilk;.
Nuhwilst, on the shore of Dean Channel six miles from Satsk.
Nuiku, on a raised mound on South Bentinck Arm south of the mouth of Nuik River.
Nukaakmats, on the north shore of Bella Coola River about a mile above Tsilkt.
Nukits, on the south side of Bella Coola River 11 1/4 miles from the sea.
Nuskapts, on the south bank of Dean River about 25 miles from the sea.
Nuskek, on the shore of North Bentinck east of the creek that flows into it at Green Bay.
Nuskelst, on the north side of Bella Coola River opposite the mountain of the same name.
Nutal, on the bank of Dean River at the bottom of the canyon.
Nutltleik, 200 yards from Bella Coola River on a creek flowing in from the north and about 31 miles from the sea.
Nutskwatlt, on the south side of Dean River about 1 1/4-miles from the sea.
Okmikimik, at the present village of Hagensburg 11 miles from the sea.
Ososkpimk, on the north shore of Bella Coola River about 1/2- mile above Aimats.
Satsk, at the mouth of the Kimsquit River.
Senktl, on the south side of Bella Coola River opposite Tciktciktelpats.
Setlia, on the east side of South Bentinck Arm about 1/4-mile from its junction with North Bentinck.
Siwalos, on the north side of Dean River about 35 miles from the sea, where the trail to the interior left the river valley.
Skomeltl, on the south side of Bella Coola River about 3 miles from the sea.
Snoφnikwilk, on a curving promontory on the south bank of Bella Coola River about 4 miles from the sea.
Snutele, on the south bank of Bella Coola River above Nukaakmats.
Snutlelelatl, on the north side of the Atnarko about 10 miles from the forks.
Stskeitl, on the south bank of Bella Coola River about 1/4-mile from the sea.
Stuik, on the point between the Atnarko and Whitewater Rivers, which join to form the Bella Coola.
Talio, on the west side of the mouth of the river, last location, which was frequently changed.
Tasaltlimk, on the shore of North Bentinck Arm west and north of the mouth of the Necleetsconnay.
Tciktciktelpats, some distance from the north bank of the Bella Coola River, the river course having changed.
Tlokotl, above Atlklaktl on Peisela River.
Tsaotltmem, on the east side of South Bentinck Arm about 4 miles from Kankilst.
Tsilkt, on the north shore of Bella Coola River above Tsomootl.
Tsomootl, the upper continuation of Skomeltl.
Boas (1898) gives also the following names, most of which are probably synonyms for some of the above: Koatlna, Nusatsem, Osmakmiketlp, Peisela, Sakta, Selkuta, Slaaktl, Sotstl, Tkeiktskune, Tskoakkane.
History.Alexander Mackenzie entered the country of the Bellacoola after crossing the Rocky Mountains in 1793 at about the same time that they began to have dealings with vessels of European explorers and traders. The rest of their history has been the usual one of modification in customs, missionization, supervision by Indian Office officials, and at least temporary decline.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,400 Bellacoola in 1780; in 1902 only 311 were returned.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Bellacoola are noted particularly for their isolated position, a Salishan island among Kwakiutl Indians, for their peculiar cosmologic system recorded by Boas (1897), and as having given their name to Bella Coola River.
Beothuk. Probably from a native word signifying "man," or "human being." Also called:
Macquaejeet or Ulno, mequaegit, Micmac name, signifying "red man," and evidently a translation of the popular English name.
Ulnobah, Abnaki name.
Connections.While certain Algonquian elements are to be found in the remnants of the Beothuk language which have been preserved, the greater part of it is so different that these Indians have been placed in an independent linguistic stock, the Beothukan.
Location.When first brought to the knowledge of Europeans, the Beothuk seem to have occupied all of the island of Newfoundland except possibly the northernmost extremity.
History.The Beothuk were probably first met by Europeans under John Cabot in 1497, and from that time forward were frequently visited by explorers and fishermen. Differences having arisen between them and the French, they were gradually reduced in numbers, and the Micmac, who had settled meanwhile in the southern part of the island, drove them north until they were confined to some territory near Exploits River. In 1810 Sir Thomas Duckworth issued a proclamation for their protection, but in 1827 when Carmack's expedition, conducted on behalf of the Beothuk Institution for the civilization of the native savages, made a careful search for them, not one was encountered. The last of them may have crossed the Strait of Belle Isle to unite with the Algonquian Indians of Labrador. (See Hodge, 1907) article on Beothukan family.)
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the total Beothuk population in 1600 to have been 500.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Beothuk were noted for their great use of red ocher, from which came the name usually bestowed upon them by Europeans; for their linguistic distinctiveness; and for the mystery surrounding their connections with other tribes and their ultimate fate.
Carriers. The name was derived from a native custom whereby a widow was obliged to carry about with her in a basket for 3 years the ashes of her deceased husband. Also called:
Atlashimih, Bellacoola name.
Takulli, by several Athapascan tribes, and said to mean "people who go upon the water."
Connections.The Carriers spoke an Athapascan dialect.
Location.Around Eutsuk, Francis, Babine, and Stuart Lakes and the headwaters of the Fraser River as far south as the neighborhood of Quesnel.
Subdivisions: The lists collected by different investigators vary to some extent. The following names are adapted from Morice (1906):
Tautin, on Fraser River about old Fort Alexander.
Naskotin, in Chentsithala and Nesietsha villages, on Fraser River near the mouth of Blackwater.
Tanotenne, at the junction of Stuart and Nechako Rivers.
Ntshaautin, on Blackwater River and upper Nechaco River.
Natliatin, inhabiting Natleh and Stella, at either end of Fraser Lake.
Nikozliautin, on the southern half of Stuart Lake and on Pintce River, in two villages, Nakraztli at the outlet of Stuart Lake, and Pintce on Stuart Lake at the mouth of Pintce River.
Tatshiautin, at the head of Stuart Lake and on Tachi River and Thatlah, Tremblay, and Connolly Lakes, in the following villages: Kezche on Tachι River, Sasthut on Connolly Lake, Tachy at the mouth of Tachι River, Tsisli at the mouth of Tatlah River, Tsisthainli on Lac Trembleur, Yucuche at the head of Stuart Lake and on the portage between it and Sabine Lake, and probably Saikez south of Nechaco River.
Nataotin, on middle Babine River and Babine lake, in two towns: Lathakrezla (on the north side of Babine Lake) and Neskollek (on Babine Lake).
Hwotsotenne, on Bulkley River, hunting as far as Francis Lake, and occupying the following villages:
Hagwilget, on Bulkley River 3 miles southeast of Hazleton.
Hwotat, on the east side of Babine Lake near its outlet.
Keyerhwotket, on Bulkley River.
Lachalsap, on Bulkley River.
Tsechah, on Bulkley River.
Tselkazkwo, on Bulkley River.
Dawson (1880 b) makes the people of Kezche distinct from the Tatshiautin under the name of Kustsheotin, the people of Tachy distinct from the rest of the Tatshiautin under the name Tatshikotin, and the people of Stella distinct from the other Natliatin under the name Stelatin.
History.The Carriers were visited in 1793 by Alexander Mackenzie when on his way from Athabaska Lake to the Pacific Ocean. When Fort McLeod was built in the Sekani country by Simon Fraser in 1805, it served for a time as a trading point for the Carriers, but in 1806 Fort St. James was established in their own country, near the outlet of Stuart Lake. Missionary work was begun among them in 1843 by the Roman Catholic priest, Father Demers, and proved very successful. After that time white traders, miners, and settlers came in increasing numbers, and finally the country was penetrated by the Canadian transcontinental railroad to Prince Rupert.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that the Carrier tribe numbered 5,000 in 1780. It was given as 2,625 in 1839. Morice (1889) gave an estimate of 1,600, while the Canadian Office of Indian Affairs reported 1,551 in 1902 and 1,614 in 1909.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Carriers attracted attention at an early period on account of the peculiar custom to which they owe their name. Later they were particularly commended to the attention of ethnologists as furnishing an excellent illustration of the manner in which cultures spread on account of the mixture of coastal and interior features, and for the very thorough studies of them made by Rev. A. G. Morice.
Chilcotin. More phonetically rendered Tsilkotin, meaning "people of young man's [Chilcotin] river."
Connections.The Chilcotin belong to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.Chiefly in the valley of Chilcotin River.
Subdivisions: In later years a distinction has grown up between the reservation Chilcotin and those who have continued their aboriginal customs at a distance from the reservations, the latter being called the "Stone Chilcotin" or "Stonies." The former Morice (1889) divides into the Tlathenkotin (in Tlothenka village on Chilcotin River) Tleskotin (in the village of Tlesko on Chilcotin River near its junction with Fraser River), and Toosey (near Williams Lake Agency).
History.Alexander Mackenzie (1801) passed through their territory in 1793, and Fort Chilcotin was established among them in 1829. To employees of the Hudson's Bay Company soon succeeded miners and more permanent settlers.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 2,500 Chilcotin. In 1906 they were placed at 450.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Chilcotin is perpetuated by Chilcotin River, Chilko River, and Chilko Lake.
Chippewa or Ojibwa. Bands of this immense tribe extended from Lake Nipissing westward along the north shore of Lake Superior, and in later times they settled in southern Manitoba, in the northern part of the present States of Minnesota and North Dakota and along the southern shore of Lake Superior. The Saulte Ste. Marie was considered by them their ancient center of dispersion. Northward they reached the upper course of Albany River. (See Minnesota.)
Chipewyan. From a Cree word meaning "pointed skins," referring to the pointed parkas or shirts which they wore. Also called:
Montagnais, French name.
Mountaineers, English name.
Yatcheι-thinyoowuc, Cree name, meaning "strangers."
Connections.The Chipewyan formed a dialectic division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.The boundaries of this group of Indians have changed considerably but in general their territory lay north of Churchill River, between Great Slave Lake and Slave and Athabaska Rivers on the west and Hudson Bay on the east.
Subdivisions: The principal subdivisions seem to have been as follows:
Athabaska, between Lake Athabaska and Great Slave Lake and in the territory eastward.
Desnedekenade, along Slave River, near Fort Resolution.
Etheneldeli or Caribou-Eaters, mainly about Lakes Caribou, Axe, and Brochet.
Thilanottine, in later times on the shores of Lacrosse Lake and between Cold Lake and Fort Locha.
The Tatsanottine or Yellow Knives, sometimes considered a subdivision, Jenness (1932) believes to have been independent. It is doubtful whether the distinction represented by these divisions was more than temporary. (See the section on History.)
History.Petitot (1876 a) states that the Chipewyan tribe was living on Peace River in 1718, that after the Cree had obtained guns they drove the Etchaottine or Slaves from their hunting grounds along Slave River, but that they were attacked in turn by the Chipewyan and expelled from the country, the Chipewyan taking their places. Jenness wholly discredits this tradition, however, and gives the following summary of events bearing on the relative position of Chipewyan and Cree tribes during this period: He thinks that when the fur-trading posts were established on Hudson Bay the Chipewyan already occupied the country from the Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabaska eastward . . . but that the intense fusion resulting from the fur trade obliterated the old subdivisions into tribes or bands and broke down also dialectic differences. Then the Cree pushed northward and seized the country between Lake Athabaska and Great Slave Lake [the Slave River], driving the Beaver up the Peace River [the Beaver and Cree together driving the Sekani into the Rockies] and confining the Chipewyan or Northern Indians to the territory designated by Hearne. Then came the smallpox epidemic that decimated both Cree and Chipewyan, but particularly the Cree, who were forced to withdraw a little from Chipewyan territory, allowing the latter to reoccupy Lake Athabaska, the Slave River, and the southern and eastern shores of Great Slave Lake, though a few Cree still lingered on Lake Athabaska and on the Slave River. This was the condition in Mackenzie's day, who defines the territory of the Chipewyans as extending from 100- 110 W. by 60- 65 N., although his unpublished MS. and that of Roderic Mackenzie make them the principal inhabitants of Lake Athabaska, especially its eastern end. The establishment of posts on Lake Athabaska broke the Chipewyans up into two groups, an eastern that still traded at the posts on Hudson Bay, and a western that traded at Lake Athabaska. Subsequently the Cree recovered a little and penetrated this western country in greater numbers, so that today there are practically no Chipewyans near the Mackenzie River except at Fond du Lac, at the east end of Lake Athabaska, and at Fort Resolution and around the south shores of Great Silver Lake. is occupied by Cree, is also Fort Chipewyan; and the Cree dwell all along the Peace River up to Peace River Landing, and have a large colony at Hudson Hope. [Jenness.]
The Athabaska division consisted simply of those Chipewyan who chose to trade at Lake Athabaska. The Athabaska or "Athapuskow" Indians of Hearne (1795) were Cree.
Population.Alexander Mackenzie (1801) estimated that there were about 400 Athabaska Chipewyan, and Mooney (1928) that there were 3,500 Chipewyan in all, including 1,250 Caribou-eaters, in 1670. In 1906 there were 2,420, of whom 900 were Caribou-eaters.
Connection in which they have become noted.From one of their Chipewyan bands, the Athabaska, has come the term Athapascan selected by Powell (1891) for the designation of the linguistic stock to which the Chipewyan belong, although, curiously enough, the name does not appear to be Athapascan at all.
Comox. Significance unknown; so called by the Lekwiltok. Also called:
Ηatlo'ltx, own name.
Connections.The Comox constituted a dialetic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.On the east coast of Vancouver Island including both sides of Discovery Passage, between the Puntlatch and Kwakiutl.
Clahoose, on Toba Inlet.
Comox, on both sides of Discovery Passage between Chancellor Channel and Cape Mudge.
Eλksen, about Oyster Bay.
Homalko, on the east side of Bute Inlet.
Kaδke, on the southeast coast of Valdes Island.
Kakekt, at Cape Lazo.
Sliammon, on Malaspina Inlet.
Tatpoφs, on the eastern part of Valdes Island.
History.The Comox were visited by Europeans somewhat later than the Cowichan (q. v.), otherwise their history has been the same.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 400 Comox on Vancouver Island and 1,400 on the mainland. In 1906 he gives 59 and 265 respectively.
Connection in which they have become noted.An important port on Vancouver Island is named after the Comox.
Cowichan. Significance unknown.
Connections.The Cowichan were one of the principal dialectic groups of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. They were closely connected with the Salishan Indians, who occupied the valley of Fraser River from its mouth nearly to Spuzzum. (See Stalo.)
Location.On the southeast coast of Vancouver Island between Nanoos Bay and Saanich Inlet.
Clemclemalats, in Cowichan Valley.
Comiakin, in Cowichan Valley.
Hellelt, on Chimenes River.
Kenipsim, in Cowichan Valley.
Kilpanlus, in Cowichan Valley.
Koksilah, in Cowichan Valley.
Kulleets, on Chimenes Bay.
Lilmalche, on Thetis Island.
Malakut, on Saanich Inlet.
Penelakut, on Kuper and Galiano Islands.
Quamichan, in Cowichan Valley.
Siccameen, on Oyster Bay.
Somenos, in Cowichan Valley.
Tateke, on Valdes Island, southeast of Vancouver Island and north of Galiano Island.
Yekolaos, on Thetis Island.
History.These people (the Cowichan) may have been visited by Juan de Fuca in 1592 and were certainly met by several later expeditions to the northwest coast by Spaniards, English, and Americans. Early in the nineteenth century Hudson's Bay Company traders began to come into the country, and, most important for the history of the native people, was the founding of Victoria in 1843. The rush of miners came a few years later and the subsequent history of the Cowichan has been that of most tribes subjected to continuous contact with Europeans, though they have never been driven entirely out of their ancient territories.
Population.Mooney's (1928) estimate of the Vancouver Island Cowichan for the year 1780 is 5,500 as against a population of 1,298 in 1907.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Cowichan has been given to a lake, river and valley on Vancouver Island.
Cree. Contracted from Kristinaux, the French form of Kenistenoag, given as a name they applied to themselves. Also called:
Ana, Annah, Ennas, Eta, various forms of an Athapascan word, meaning "foes."
Iyiniwok, or Nehiyawok, own name, meaning "those of the first race."
Nathehwy-within-yoowuc, meaning "southern men" (Franklin, 1823).
Nehiyaw, Chippewa name.
O'pimmitish Ininiwuc, meaning "men of the woods."
Shahe', Hidatsa name.
Saie'kuun, Siksika name.
Sha-i-yι, or Shi-ι-ya, Assiniboin name, meaning "enemies."
Shi-e-α-la, Dakota name.
Southern Indians, by the Hudson Bay traders.
Connections.The Cree are one of the type people of one of the two greatest divisions of the Algonquian linguistic family.
Location.When the Cree first came to the knowledge of Europeans they extended from James Bay to the Saskatchewan, the Tκte de Boule of the upper Ottawa forming a detached branch. For their later extensions see History below.
A major distinction is usually drawn between the Paskwawininiwug (Plains Cree) and Sakawininiwug (Woodland Cree). The former are subdivided into the Sipiwininiwug (River Cree) and Mamikininiwug (Lowland Cree).
Hayden (1862) gives the following band names, nearly all said to have been derived from the name of a chief: Apistekaihe, Cokah, Kiaskusis, Mataitaikeok, Muskwoikakenut, Muskwoikauepawit, Peisiekan, Piskakauakis, Shemaukau, Wikyuwamkamusenaikata.
These are probably identical in part with the following bands of Plains Cree given by Skinner (1914): Katepoisipi-wiinϋk (Calling River (Qu'Appelle) Band) also called Kagiciwuinuwuk (Loud Voices Band, from their famous chief), Wabuswaianϋk (Rabbit Skins), Mδmδkitce-wiinuϋk (Big Gizzard People), Paskokopa- wiinuϋk (Willow People), Nutimi-iniuϋk (Poplar People), Cipi-winiuϋk (River People), Saka-winouϋk (Bush People), Masnipiwiniuϋk (Painted or Pictured People), "Little Dogs," (Piapot's Band), Asinskau-winiuϋk (Stone People), Tcipoaian-winiuϋk (Chipewyan People), Niopwδtϋk (Cree-Assiniboine), Sakbwatsϋk (Bush Assiniboine). Skinner (1914) expresses uncertainty as to whether the names of the last three were nicknames due to intimacy between the bands so designated and the foreign tribes mentioned, or whether the tribes themselves were of mixed ancestry.
For the following names of bands of the Woodland Cree I am indebted to Dr. John M. Cooper (personal information): Barren Ground Cree (on the west side of James Bay at its entrance), Fort Albany Band (on the lower course of Albany River), Kesagami Lake Band (at the southern end of James Bay), Moose Factory Band (the Monsoni proper), on the lower course of Moose River, Northern Tκte de Boule (at the head of St. Maurice River), Southern Tκte de Boule (on the middle course of St. Maurice River). This list is incomplete, leaving out of consideration particularly the bands later formed toward the west, though two of these latter were the Sakittawawininiwug (Cree of Cross Lake) and the Ayabaskawininiwug (Athabaska Lake Cree). It must not be supposed that any of these have had a connected history from early times They represent, for the most part, the later rearrangement following on the establishment of trading posts. However, the location of some of them was no doubt determined in the first instance by that of the old bands or by the same geographic advantages originally responsible for them. (See section on History.)
History.The Cree were known to French traders and missionaries as early as the first half of the seventeenth century, and about the end of that century they rose to a position of importance owing to the use made of them as guides and hunters in the prosecution of the fur trade. The English first came in contact with them through the posts of the Hudson's Bay Company established in their territory on Hudson Bay beginning in 1667 and for a time there was great rivalry between the French and English for their favor and patronage. At an early period the Cree formed an alliance with the Assiniboin, who wished to be on good terms with them so that they could have access to the Hudson Bay posts where they could obtain guns and powder to assist them in their wars with their kindred, the Dakota. This alliance also enabled the Cree to push southward as far as Red River and territories of the present United States. Acquisition of rifles and the impetus given by the fur trade also induced them to undertake adventurous journeys to the west and north. A party of Cree reached the delta of the Mackenzie River just before Sir Alexander Mackenzie and other Cree bands were raiding the Sekani up the Peace River into the Rocky Mountains at the same time. Today there are many of the Cree descendants in the north and west, around Little Slave Lake, at Hudson Hope on Peace River, along the Lower Peace, and on Lake Athabaska and Slave River down to Great Slave Lake. The trails they blazed in their raids were followed by Mackenzie and other fur-traders. There is a little band among the Sarsi, and they have mingled their blood with every Plains tribe, even including the Blackfeet. (For much of this information I am indebted to Mr. D. Jenness, formerly Chief of the Anthropological Division of the National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.)
Their later history has been closely bound up with the activities of the Hudson's Bay and Northwest Fur Companies, and though Europeans and European influence have steadily filtered into their country, the utility of the Cree in the promotion and preservation of the fur trade has prevented that displacement and depletion so common among the tribes of the United States.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 20,000 Cree at the period of first white contact, including 5,000 Monsoni and related peoples in 1600 and 15,000 Cree proper and Maskegon in 1670. This agrees very closely with another estimate for the year 1776. At the present day they are supposed to number all told about 10,000.
Connection in which they have become noted.The principal claim of the Cree to notoriety has been in connection with the activities of the Hudson's Bay Company and the fur trade.
Crow. A tribe of the Siouan linguistic family which may have lived on the north side of the International Boundary in late prehistoric times in the region indicated on the map, though this is uncertain. (See Montana.)
Dakota. A well-known tribe of the same family as the Crow. As already noted, the Assiniboin branched from them in prehistoric times, but some bands of Dakota, notably that of Sitting Bull, resorted to Canadian territory at a later period. (See South Dakota.)
Eskimo. Said to be from Abnaki Algonquian Esquimantsic, or possibly from its Chippewa equivalent Ashkimeq, signifying "eaters of raw flesh." This may be described as the traditional Interpretation, but Dr. Thalbitzer, an eminent authority on the Eskimo, believes it to have been derived from a term applied to them by the French missionaries, signifying "the excommunicated ones" (Thalbitzer, 1950), from which he also derives the place name Escoumains. Also called:
A'lvayκ'lIlIt, Chukchi name, meaning "those of alien language."
Anda-kpoen, Kutchin name.
Ara-k'e, Bastard Loucheux (Kutchin) name.
En-na-k'e, Kawchodinne name, meaning "enemies."
En-na-k'iι, Slave name, meaning "enemies."
Eshkibod, Chippewa form given by Baraga.
Husky, by Hudson's Bay Company employees.
Innuit, Innuin, etc., own name, meaning "people."
Kaladlit, name adopted for themselves by Greenland Eskimo, said to be a corruption of Skandinavian Skraeling.
Nottaway, term used by most Algonquian people for all enemies, meaning "snakes."
Ot'el'nna, Montagnais name.
Seymςs, term used by sailors of the Hudson's Bay Company's ships, and derived from a native term of greeting, said to be Seymo or Teymo.
Skraellingar, Scandinavian name, meaning "small people."
Ta-kutchi, Kutchin name, meaning "ocean people."
Tcieck-rϊnen, Seneca name, meaning "seal people."
Ultsehaga, Kenai name, meaning "slaves."
Connections.The Eskimo constituted one linguistic stock, the dialects of which were in general very close together, but the Aleut (q.v.) of Alaska formed a somewhat divergent group. Chiefly on physical grounds they are usually set apart from all other aborigines of America.
Location.The Eskimo are known to have extended anciently from Mingan opposite Anticosti Island, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, around the entire northeastern and northern coasts of Canada to the Alaskan boundary except for the southwest coast of Hudson Bay, and to have occupied Baffin Land and many of the other Islands of the Arctic Archipelago, both sides of Smith Sound, and the entire west coast and most of the east coast of Greenland. In later times they retired from northeastern Greenland, from the north coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and from part of the west coast of Hudson Bay. Their occupancy of the Mingan section of Labrador appears to have been brief. They fringed the coast of Alaska almost completely to Copper River and in part a little beyond, and had settled along the north coast of Siberia. (See also Alaska.)
Subdivisions: The Eskimo were subdivided into a very large number of local groups always changing, and any list of these is highly conventional. The following is believed to include the most important names and is based upon the best authorities available. The enumeration is from east to west, except for Greenland, omitting of course those territories occupied in early historic times and now abandoned.
I. Labrador Eskimo:
Aivitumiut, about Rigolet.
Avitumiut, about Hopedale.
Chuckbuckmiut, in Saglek Bay.
Itivimiut, on the east coast of Hudson Bay.
Kanithlualukshuamiut, on George River.
Kigiktagmiut, on the Belcher Islands and other islands off the east shore of Hudson Bay.
Killinunmiut, at Cape Chidley.
Koksoakmiut, between Whale and Payne Rivers, especially on Koksoak River.
Netcetumiut, about Cartwright, in Sandwich Bay.
Nunenumiut, about Nain.
Nuvugmiut, at Cape Wolstenholme.
Puthlavamiut, in Battle Harbor, Labrador.
Unavamiut, at Hopes Advance.
II. Central Eskimo:
Aivillirmiut, in Wager Inlet and along the coast from Cape Fullerton to Cape Penrhyn.
Akudnirmiut, from Home Bay to Scott Inlet.
Akuliarmiut, from Icy Cape to beyond Amadjuak Bay.
Akulliakatagmiut, on the south shore of Dolphin and Union Straits.
Arveqtormiut, in Bellot Strait.
Arviligyuarmiut, from Committee Bay nearly to Rae Strait.
Asiagmiut, opposite Melbourne Island.
Ekaluktogmiut, from Dease Strait to Denmark Bay.
Haneragmiut, on the north shore of Dolphin and Union Straits west of the last.
Haningayormiut, on the upper course of Backs River.
Harvaqtormiut, on Mistake Bay.
Hauheqtormiut, from Pistol Bay to Rankin Inlet.
Iglulirmiut, on Fury and Hecla Straits.
Iluilermiut, on Adelaide Peninsula and King William Island.
Kanghiryuachiakmiut, in Minto Inlet.
Kanghiryuarmiut, on the south coast of Banks Island and Prince Albert Sound.
Kiglinirmiut, on the eastern end of Victoria Island.
Kilusiktomiut, on Bathurst Inlet, on the mainland.
Kingnaitmiut, over most of the northern shore of Cumberland Sound.
Kogloktogmiut, on the lower course of Coppermine River.
Nagyuktogmiut, on the north shore of Coronation Gulf.
Nedlungmiut, between Jones' Sound and Norwegian Bay, Ellesmere Land.
Nenitagmiut, on Arctic Sound.
Netsilingmiut, on Boothia Peninsula.
Noahonirmiut, at Cape Krusenstern.
Nugumiut, in Frobisher Bay.
Padlimiut, two groups: (1) from Cape Dier to Home Bay; (2) from Cape Esquimaux to Ferguson River on the west coast of Hudson Bay.
Pilingmiut, at the end of Fox Channel(?).
Pingangnaktogmiut, on the south shore of Coronation Gulf.
Puivlirmiut, on the north shore of Dolphin and Union Strait west of Lady Franklin Point.
Qaernermiut, Chesterfield Inlet.
Qaumauangmiut, from Resolution Island to Icy Cove, Baffin Island.
Qinguamiut, at the head of Cumberland Sound.
Sagdlirmiut, on the south coast of Southampton Island.
Saumingmiut, between Cape Mercy and Exeter Sound.
Sikosuilarmiut, about King Charles Cape.
Sinimiut, on Pelly Bay.
Talirpingmiut, on the south shore of Cumberland Sound and Netilling Lake.
Tununerusirmiut, in Admiralty Inlet.
Tununirmiut, in Ponds Inlet and Eclipse Sound and on both sides of Lancaster Sound at its east end.
Ukkusiksaligmiut, on the lower part of Backs River.
Wallirmiut, from Rae River to Dease Bay on Great Bear Lake.
III. Mackenzie Eskimo:
Avvagmiut, between Franklin Bay and Liverpool Bay.
Kigirktarugmiut, from the mouth of the Mackenzie River into Alaska.
Kittegaryumiut, on the west side of Mackenzie Delta.
Kurugmiut, on Hutchison Bay.
Nuvorugmiut, from Anderson River to Cape Brown.
IV. The Greenland tribes are as follows, these divisions being named for the most part for modern places:
Nugsuak (two groups (1) on the south side of Nugsuak Peninsula; (2) from Melville Bay to Cape Shackleton).
Tasiusak, about the place so-called.
Upernivik, about Upernivik.
V. Alaskan Eskimo tribes and towns:
Aglemiut, from the mouth of Nushagak River to Heiden Bay, including these villages:
Igagik, at the mouth of Ugaguk River.
Ikak, near Naknek Lake.
Kingiak, on the north side of the mouth of Naknek River, Bristol Bay.
Paugwik, with Aleut, at the mouth of Naknek River, on the south side.
Ugashik, at the mouth of Ugashik River.
Unangashik, at Heiden Bay, Alaska Peninsula.
Chingigmiut, in the region of Cape Newenham and Cape Peirce; villages:
Aziavik, near Cape Peirce.
Kinegnak, on Cape Newenham.
Tzahavak, near Cape Newenham.
Chnagmiut, on the shore of Pastol Bay, in the Yukon Delta, and on both banks of Yukon River as far as Razboinski; villages:
Aiachagiuk, on the right bank of the Yukon near the head of the delta.
Aimgua, near the mouth of Yukon River.
Alexeief, in the Yukon Delta.
Andreafski, on the north bank of Yukon River 5 miles above a former Russian redoubt of that name.
Ankachak, on the right bank of the lower Yukon, perhaps identical with Kenunimik.
Apoon, on Apoon Pass, the northern mouth of the Yukon River.
Ariswaniski, on the right bank of the lower Yukon.
Avnulik, the exact location not given.
Chatinak, near the mouth of Yukon River.
Chefoklak, near the head of Yukon Delta.
Chukchuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Claikehak, on the north bank of Yukon River above Tlatek.
Fetkina, on the north arm of Yukon Delta.
Ingichuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Kanig, on the north bank of Yukon River near its mouth.
Kashutuk, on an island in the Yukon Delta.
Kenuninuk, given as 15 miles above Andreafski on the right bank but perhaps identical with Ankachak.
Komarof, on the north bank of Yukon River.
Kotlik, on Kotlik River.
Kusilvak, on Kusilvak Island at the mouth of Yukon River.
Kwiahok, at the southern mouth of the Kwikluak Pass of the Yukon River.
Nigiklik, at the head of the Yukon Delta.
Ninvok, near the Yukon Delta.
Nokrot, near Cape Romanzof on the coast of Norton Sound.
Nunapithlugak, in the Yukon Delta, on the right bank of Apoon Pass.
Onuganuk, at the Kwikluak mouth of the Yukon.
Pastoliak, on the right bank of Pastoliak River near the southern shore of Norton Sound.
Razboinski, on the right bank of the Yukon near the head of the delta.
Starik, on the south bank of Yukon River above the head of the delta.
Takshak, on the north bank of the Yukon near Razboinski.
Tiatiuk, in the Yukon Delta.
Tlatek, on the north bank of Yukon River 35 miles above Andreafski.
Chugachigmiut, from the western extremity of Kenai Peninsula to the delta of Copper River; villages:
Ingamatsha, on Chenega Island, Prince William Sound.
Kanikluk, on the north shore of Prince William Sound.
Kiniklik, on the north shore of Prince William Sound.
Nuchek, where the Russians established a stockade and trading post known as Fort Konstantine, at Port Etches, Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound.
Tatitlek, on the northeastern shore of Prince William Sound.
Ikogmiut, on both banks of Yukon River from the territory of the Chnagmiut as far inland as Makak: villages:
Asko, on the right bank of the lower Yukon below Anvik.
Bazhi, on the Yukon at the upper mouth of Innoko River.
Ignok, on the right bank of the Yukon near Koserefski.
Ikatlek, on the Yukon 30 miles below Anvik.
Ikogmiut, also called "Mission," on the Yukon near its southernmost bend.
Ikuak, on the Yukon at its southernmost bend.
Ingrakak, on the right bank of the Yukon near longitude 161- 30 W.
Katagkak, on Innoko River above its junction with the Yukon.
Khaik, on the northern bank of Yukon River nearly opposite Koserefski; given once apparently as Claikehak.
Kikhkat, on the north bank of Yukon River near Ikogmiut.
Kochkok, on the right bank of Yukon River near the Kuskokwim portage.
Koko, on the north bank of the Yukon below Ikogmiut.
Koserefski, formerly Kaiyuhkhotana, on the left bank of the Yukon near the mouth of Shageluk slough.
Kuyikanuikpul, on the right bank of Yukon River below Koserefski.
Kvikak, formerly Kaiyuhkhotana, on Yukon River 30 miles above Anvik.
Makak, on the right bank of the Yukon below Anvik.
Nukluak, on the left bank of the Yukon opposite Ikogmiut Mission.
Nunaikak, on the Yukon opposite Koserefski, perhaps the same as Ukak.
Nunaktak, on Yukon River above Anvik.
Paimiut, on the southern bank of the Yukon 38 miles above Ikogmiut, latitude 62- 10 N., longitude 160- 10 W.
Pogoreshapka, on the right bank of the Yukon about 20 miles from Koserefski.
Ribnaia, on the right bank of the Yukon above Ikogmiut.
Staria Selenie, on the Yukon River below Ikogmiut.
Uglovaia, on the right bank of the lower Yukon between Ikogmiut and Razboinski.
Ukak, on the Yukon nearly opposite Koserefski, perhaps the same as Nunaikak.
Imaklimiut, on Big Diomede Island in Bering Strait in U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union) territory.
Inguklimiut, on Little Diomede Island in Bering Strait; their village called Inalik.
Kagmalirmiut, on the lower course of Colville River but not extending to its mouth.
Kaialigmiut, north of the Kuskwogmiut, between Kuguktik River and Cape Romanzof and on Nelson Island; villages:
Agiukchuk, opposite the southern shore of Nelson Island.
Anogok, on the coast just west of Kuskokwim Bay; given by Porter (1893) as Magemiut but actually Kaialigmiut.
Asiknuk, on Hooper Bay near Cape Romanzof.
Chichinak, on a small river flowing into Etolin Strait.
Kaialik, in the Yukon Delta near Azun River.
Chalit, on the left bank of Kuguklik River, northwest of Kuskokwim Bay.
Igiak, inland from Scammon Bay and near Magemiut territory.
Kashigalak, in the center of Nelson Island.
Kashunuk, near the Kaskunuk outlet of the Yukon River.
Kenachananak, on the coast opposite Nunivak Island.
Kuskunuk, on Hooper Bay.
Kvigatluk, in the lake district northwest of Kuskokwim River.
Nuloktolok, on the south side of Nelson Island.
Nunvogulukhluguk, in the Big Lake region.
Nushanamut, south of Hooper Bay.
Sfaganuk, between Dall Lake and Etolin Strait.
Ukak, on Hazen Bay.
Ukuk, on Nelson Island.
Unakagak, at the head of Hazen Bay.
Kaniagmiut, on Kodiak Island and the mainland coast from Iliamna Lake to Ugashik River, and the southern coast to longitude 159 W.; villages:
Afognak, comprising 3 settlements on Afognak Island.
Aiaktalik, on one of the Goose Islands near Kodiak.
Akhiok, on Alitak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Aleksashkina, on Wood Island in St. Paul Harbor, Kodiak Island.
Alexandrovsk, on Graham Harbor.
Ashivak, near Cape Douglas.
Chiniak, at the east end of Kodiak Island.
Fugitive, at Hobson Harbor, Sitkalidak Island near Kodiak.
Igak, on Afognak Island east of Afognak.
Kaguyak, on the southwestern coast of Kodiak Island.
Kaluiak, on Chignik Bay.
Kanatak, on Shelikof Strait.
Karluk, on the northern coast of Kodiak Island.
Katmai, on the southeastern coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Kattak, on Afognak Island east of Afognak.
Kiliuda, on the eastern coast of Kodiak Island.
Kodiak, established by the Russians, on the eastern end of Kodiak Island.
Kuiukuk, on the southeastern coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Kukak, on Kukak Bay on the coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Liesnoi, on Wood Island near Kodiak.
Mitrofania, on Mitrofania Island, south of Chignik Bay.
Nauklak, 15 miles east of Naknek Lake, Alaska Peninsula.
Nunamiut, on Three Saints Harbor, Kodiak Island.
Nunikiak, on the southwestern shore of Afognak Island.
Orlova, at Eagle Harbor, Ugak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Ostrovki, on Kachemak Bay, on the coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Seldovia, on the south side of Kachemak Bay, on the west coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Sutkum, on Sutwik Island off the southern coast of Alaska Peninsula.
Three Saints, on the site of the oldest Russian settlement in Alaska, Kodiak Island.
Uganik, on the northern coast of Kodiak Island.
Uhaskek, on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island.
Ukshivikak, on the southwestern coast of Kodiak Island.
Uyak, near the salmon canneries on Uyak Bay, Kodiak Island.
Uzinki, on Spruce Island, Kodiak group.
Yalik, on Nuka Bay, eastern coast of Kenai Peninsula.
Yelovoi, on Spruce Island, Kodiak group.
Kaρianermiut, on the headwaters of Colville River.
Kaviagmiut, on the southern part of Seward Peninsula westward from Norton Bay, many wintering on the eastern shore of Norton Sound; villages:
Aiacheruk, near Cape Nome.
Akpaliut, on Norton Sound west of Golofnin Bay.
Anelo, at Port Clarence.
Anlik, on Golofnin Bay.
Atnuk, near Darby Cape.
Aziak, on Sledge Island.
Chaik, on the shore of Norton Sound.
Chainruk, at Port Clarence.
Chinik, on Golofnin Bay.
Chiukak, on the peninsula enclosing Golofnin Bay.
Iknetuk, on Golofnin Bay.
Imoktegokshuk, at Cape Nome.
Kachegaret, at Port Clarence.
Kalulek, at Port Clarence.
Kaveazruk, at Port Clarence.
Kaviak, southeast of Port Clarence.
Kogluk, at Cape Nome.
Kovogzruk, at Port Clarence.
Metukatoak, at Port Clarence.
Netsekawik, on Golofnin Bay.
Okinoyoktokawik, on the coast opposite Sledge Island.
Opiktulik, on the north shore of Norton Sound.
Perebluk, at Port Clarence.
Senikave, on the mainland opposite Sledge Island.
Shinnapago, at Port Clarence.
Siningmon, on Golofnin Bay.
Sitnazuak, west of Cape Nome.
Sunvalluk, on the coast opposite Sledge Island.
Takchuk, east of Port Clarence.
Tubuktolik, on the north shore of Norton Sound.
Uinuk, at the mouth of Nome River.
Ukivok, on King Island.
Ukodlint, on Golofnin Bay.
Kevalingamiut, on the coast of the Arctic Ocean from Cape Seppings and Cape Krusenstern inland to Nunatak River. Later they moved farther north, expelling the Tikeramiut from Port Hope and the district beyond; villages:
Ipnot, at Point Thomson.
Kechemudluk, at Cape Seppings.
Kivualinak, near Port Hope.
Ulezara, near Cape Kruzenstern.
Kiatagmiut, on Kvichivak River and Iliamna Lake; villages:
Chikak, on Iliamna Lake.
Kakonak, on the south shore of Iliamna Lake.
Kaskanak, on Kvichak River where it flows from Lake Iliamna.
Kichik, on Kichik Lake east of Iliamna Lake.
Kogiung, on Bristol Bay at the mouth of Kvichak River.
Kvichak, on Kvichak River.
Nogeling, on the outlet of Lake Clark.
Kigirktarugmiut, between Manning Point and the mouth of the Mackenzie River.
Killinermiut, on the middle course of Colville River.
Kinugumiut, on Seward Peninsula in the region about Cape Prince of Wales; villages:
Eidenu, at Cape Prince of Wales.
Kigegen, inland from Cape Prince of Wales.
Mitletukeruk, location unknown.
Nuk, at Port Clarence.
Pikta, near Cape Prince of Wales.
Shishmaref, at Shishmaref Cape.
Sinauk, on the north shore of Port Clarence.
Niktak, on Cape Prince of Wales.
Kowagmiut, on Kowak River east of Kotzebue Sound; villages:
Kikiktak, at the mouth of Hotham Inlet, Kotzebue Sound.
Kowak, at the mouth of Kowak River.
Umnokalukta, on Black River, a branch of Kowak River.
Unatak, on Kowak River.
Sheshalek, on the north shore of Kotzebue Sound, near the mouth of Noatak River, a trading settlement for several towns.
Kukparungmiut, on the Arctic Ocean between Point Belcher and Cape Beaufort; village:
Kokolik, at Point Lay.
Kunmiut, on Kuk River above Wainright Inlet; village:
Kilimantavie, on the Arctic coast west of Wainright Inlet.
Kuskwogmiut, on the shores of Kuskokwim Bay and the banks of Kuskokwim River as far inland as Kolmakof; villages:
Agomekelenanak, in the Kuskokwim district.
Agulakpak, near Kuskokwim River.
Aguliak, on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Agumak, location not given.
Akiachak, on Kuskokwim River.
Akiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Aklut, on Kuskokwim River at the mouth of the Eek.
Akmiut, on Kuskokwim River 10 miles above Kolmakof, also given as a Taiyanyanokhotana (Koyukon) village, perhaps Eskimoized in later times.
Anagok, on the coast near Cape Avinof.
Apahiachak, location uncertain.
Apokak, near the mouth of Kuskokwim River.
Atchaluk, location uncertain
Bethel, a Moravian Mission, close to Mumtrelek.
Chimiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Chuarlitilik, on Kanektok River.
Ekaluktaluk, location uncertain.
Etoluk, location uncertain.
Igiakchak, location uncertain.
Iliutak, on Kuskokwim Bay.
Kahmiut, location uncertain.
Kakuiak, on Kuskokwim River.
Kaltshak, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River about longitude 161- (159 ?) W.
Kaluktuk, location uncertain.
Kamegli, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River above Bethel.
Kanagak, location uncertain.
Kanak, location uncertain.
Kenachanansk, on the coast opposite Nunivok Island.
Kiktak, on an island in Kuskokwim River 25 miles above Bethel.
Kinak, on the north bank of the Kuskokwim River.
Kinegnagak, location uncertain.
Klchakuk, on the east side of the entrance to Kuskokwim Bay.
Kleguchek, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River at its mouth.
Klutak, location uncertain.
Kolmakof, a Moravian mission consisting of Eskimo mixed with Athapascans, 200 miles from the mouth of the Kuskokwim River.
Kongiganak, near the entrance to Kuskokwim Bay.
Kuilkluk, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River, perhaps identical with a town given as Quieclohchamiut or Quiechochlogamiut.
Kukluktuk, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River 30 miles below Kolmakof.
Kulvagavik, on the west shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Kuskok, on Kuskokwim River near its mouth.
Kuskovak, on the west bank of Kuskokwim River near its mouth.
Kweleluk, on a small river in the tundra north of Kuskokwim Bay.
Kwik, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River 10 miles above Bethel.
Kwikak, on upper Kuskokwim River.
Kwilokuk, location uncertain.
Kwinak, on the east side of Kuskokwim River near its mouth.
Lomavik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River.
Mumtrak, on Good News Bay.
Mumtrelek, on the west bank of lower Kuskokwim River.
Nak, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Nakolvakik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River near the mouth.
Napai, mixed with Athapascans, on the bank of Kuskokwim River a little above Kolmakof.
Napaiskak, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River about 4 miles below Bethel.
Napakiak, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River about 10 miles below Bethel.
Nochak, on Chilitna River.
Novotoklak, location uncertain.
Okaganak, on the south bank of Kuskokwim River.
Oknagak, on the north bank of Kuskokwim River.
Oyak, on the east shore of Ku6kokwim Bay, just north of the mouth of Kanektok River.
Papka, on the north shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Shevenak, on the left bank; of Kuskokwim River.
Shiniak, on the east shore of Kuskokwim Bay at the end of deep- water navigation.
Shokfak, on a lake in the tundra north of Kuskokwim Bay.
Takiketak, on the east shore of Kuskokwim Bay.
Togiaratsorik, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River.
Tuklak, on Kuskokwim River below the Yukon portage.
Tuluka, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River.
Tuluksak, on the left bank of Kuskokwim River 40 miles above Bethel.
Tunagak, location uncertain.
Ugovik, on the right bank of Kuskokwim River.
Uknavik, on Kuskokwim River 10 miles below the Yukon portage.
Ulokak, location uncertain.
Vinasale, a trading post on the upper Kuskokwim.
Yakchilak, near the mouth of Kuskokwim River.
Magemiut, in the lake country of Alaska from Cape Romanzof almost to the Yukon River, villages:
Anogok, see Kaialigmiut.
Chefoklak, on the left bank of Yukon River at the head of the delta.
Gilak, near Cape Romanzof.
Kipniak, at the mouth of the southern arm of Yukon River.
Kweakpak, in the tundra south of the Yukon Delta.
Kwikak, on the coast of the Yukon Delta, south of Black River.
Nanvogaloklak, on one of the lakes connected with Kvichivak River.
Nunochok, in the Big Lake region.
Tefaknak, south of the Yukon Delta.
Tiengak, on Kvichavak River.
Malemiut, on the coast of Norton Sound north of Shaktolik, and on the neck of Seward peninsula; villages:
Akchadak-kochkond, location uncertain.
Atten, near the source of Buckland River.
Chamisso, on Chamisso Island in Eschscholtz Bay.
Inglutaligemiut, on Inglutalik River.
Kongik, on Buckland or Konguk River.
Koyuktolik, on Koyuk River.
Kugaluk, on Spafarief Bay on the shore of Kotzebue Sound.
Kungugemiut, on Buckland River.
Kviguk, at the mouth of Kviguk River, on the shore of Norton Sound.
Kvinkak, on Kvinkak River at the upper end of Norton Sound.
Kwik, two villages: (1) on a stream near the head of Norton Sound; (2) on the west side of Bald Head, Norton Bay.
Nubviakchugaluk, on the north coast of Norton Sound.
Nuklit, near Cape Denbigh, Norton Sound.
Shaktolik, on the east coast of Norton Sound.
Taapkuk, at Cape Espenberg, Kotzebue Sound.
Ulukuk, on Ulukuk River east of Norton Sound.
Ungalik, at the mouth of Ungalik River at the eastern end of Norton Sound.
Noatagmiut, on the lower course of Noatak River; villages:
Aniyak, on the Arctic coast just north of Kotzebue Sound (?).
Noatak, on the lower course of Noatak River.
Nunatagmiut, on the upper course of Noatak River.
Nunivagmiut, occupying the greater part of Nunivak Island and a small district about Cape Vancouver on Nelson Island; villages:
Chulik, on Nunivak Island, in 1880 comprising two villages called Chuligmiut and Upper Chuligmiut.
Inger, on Nunivak Island.
Kaliukluk, south of Cape Vancouver on Nelson Island.
Koot, near Cape Etolin, Nunivak Island.
Kwik, on the southern shore of Nunivak Island.
Tanunak, near Cape Vancouver, Nelson Island.
Nushagagmiut, on the banks of Igushik, Wood, and Nushagak Rivers and the shores of Nushagak Bay; villages:
Agivavik, on Nushagak River.
Akak, location uncertain.
Akuliukpak, on Pamiek Lake.
Akulivikchuk, on Nushagak River.
Anagnak, on Wood River.
Angnovchak, location uncertain.
Annugamok, on an eastern tributary of Nushagak River.
Ekuk, near the mouth of Nushagak River.
Golok, location uncertain, perhaps the same as Kalignak.
Igivachok, location uncertain.
Igushik, on Igushik River.
Imiak, at the outlet of Aleknagik Lake.
Insiachak, location uncertain.
Kakuak, 60 miles up Nushagak River.
Kalignak, on a tributary of Nushagak River.
Kanakanak, on Nushagak Bay.
Kanulik, on the left bank of Nushagak River near its mouth.
Mulchatna, on Mulchatna River, a branch of Nushagak River.
Stugarok, on Nushagak Bay.
Tikchik, on Lake Tikchik, on the Kuskokwim portage.
Trinachak, location uncertain.
Vuikhtulik, on the northern shore of Lake Alaknakik.
Yaoherk, location uncertain, perhaps identical with Ekuk.
Nuwukmiut, at Point Barrow; villages:
Isutkwa, on the site of the United States Signal Station at Point Barrow.
Nuwuk, at Point Barrow.
Pernyu, on the western shore of Elson Bay, close to Point Barrow.
Ongovehenok, on Kugrua River near Point Barrow.
Selawigmiut, on Selawik Lake east of Kotzebue Sound:
Sidarumiut, west of Point Barrow; villages:
Atnik, near Point Belcher.
Attenok, on Seahorse Islands.
Charnroruit, on Seahorse Islands.
Nunaria, near Point Belcher.
Perignak, on Seahorse Islands.
Pinguishuk, on Seahorse Islands.
Sidaru, between Wainwright Inlet and Point Belcher.
Tikeramiut, at Point Hope; village:
Tikera or Nuna, at Point Hope.
Togiagmiut, about Togiak Bay and River; villages:
Aguliukpak, on lake of same name at head of Wood River.
Eklik, on Togiak River near its mouth.
Kashaiak, on Togiak River near its junction with the Kashaiak River.
Kassiank, on Togiak River.
Kulukak, on Kukulak Bay.
Togiak, at the mouth of Togiak River.
Tuniakpuk, on lower Togiak River.
Ualik, on Kulukak Bay.
Ugalakmiut, at the mouth of Copper River and on Kayak Island; in later years they became thoroughly altered by contact with the Tlingit so that they were often classed with the latter people. Village:
Eyak, at the entrance of Prince William Sound.
Unaligmiut, extending from 1he eastern shore of Norton Sound inland to the coast range; villages:
Anemuk, on Anvik River.
Iguik, on Norton Sound.
Kiktaguk, on the southern coast of Norton Sound.
Pikmiktalik, near the mouth of Pikmiktalik River, just north of Cape Romanzof.
Tachik, on St. Michael Island, near the Russian redoubt, and now included in the town of St. Michael.
Topanika, on the eastern coast of Norton Sound.
Unalaklik, at the mouth of Unalalik River.
Utkiavinmiut, on the Arctic coast west of Point Barrow; villages and summer camps:
Ernivwin, inland from Point Barrow.
Imekpung, near Point Barrow.
Ipersua, not accurately located.
Kuosugru, on a dry place inland from Point Barrow.
Nakeduxo, not accurately located.
Nunaktuau, close to Refuge Inlet.
Pengnok, near Cape Smythe.
Sakamna, inland from Point Barrow.
Sinyu, inland from Point Barrow.
Utkiavi, at Cape Smythe.
Walakpa, not located definitely.
Utukamiut, originating at Icy Cape; they later ranged along the Arctic coast from Point Hope to Wainright Inlet, and inland to Colville River; villages:
Kaiaksekawik, on the north side of Icy Cape.
Kelemanturuk, near Icy Cape.
Utuka, at Icy Cape.
Yuit, around East Cape, Indian Point, and Cape Chukotsky, Siberia, and on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; and divided into:
(1) The Noφkalit, at East Cape; villages:
Enmitahin, north of East Cape.
Nabukak, on East Cape.
Ulak, inhabited in part by Chukchi, just north of East Cape.
(2) The Aiwanat, about Indian Point; villages:
Avak, near Cape Chukotsky.
Imtuk, near Indian Point.
Napakutak, on an island near Indian Point (?).
Nasskatulok, at the head of Plover Bay.
Rirak, in Plover Bay.
Tesik, occupied partly by Chukchi, on the west shore of Chechin Bay.
Unisak, on Indian Point.
(3) The Wuteλlit, at Cape Ulakhpen; villages:
Chenlin, including Chukchi, west of the next.
Cherinak, near Cape Ulakhpen.
(4) The Eiwhuelit, on St. Lawrence Island; villages:
Chibukak, at Northwest Cape.
Chitnak, on the south coast.
Kialegak, near Southeast Cape.
Kukuliak, on the north coast.
Puguviliak, at Southwest Cape.
Punuk, on Punuk Island, east of St. Lawrence Island.
History.The Norse settlers of Greenland were the first white men to come in contact with Eskimo, though it is probable that the latter had relatively little to do with the extermination of the European colonists as was once thought. They, were rediscovered by Frobisher or perhaps even earlier explorers and contact between White and Eskimo was continuous from that time forward. In the eighteenth century the Danes began to resettle Greenland, and about the same time relations were opened between the western Eskimo and the Russians. The Eskimo of Labrador were missionized by Moravians, whose efforts among them are famous in the annals of missionary work. The central Eskimo were not reached until much later than those of the east and west, the first Europeans to come in contact with them being usually whalers, though some of the eighteenth-century explorers, such as Hearne (1795), reached them overland from the south. Many of their tribes were scarcely known at all until the recent explorations of Stefαnsson (1914) and Jenness (1922, 1923).
Population.Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 3,600 Eskimo in Labrador in 1600 and 22,300 in the rest of Canada in 1670; 10,000 in Greenland in 1721; and 40,000 in Alaska in 1740. As Mooney in preparing the data for each of his areas selects a date just before contact with the Whites made itself felt appreciably, we may assume that the figures given had remained relatively stationary for a considerable period and add them together for our total, which is 75,900. For the entire Eskimo population we must add 1,200 living in Asia, which gives us 77,100. To obtain the population of the linguistic stock we must increase this by the number of the Aleut, 16,000, making 93,100. Jenness thinks Mooney's estimates are much too high. He has kindly supplied me with the following figures for the present population: Canada, 6,184 (Ann. Rep. Dept. Ind. Aff. for 1927); Greenland, 14,066 (Statistisk Aarbog for 1922, Copenhagen, 1922), including, however, about 300 Europeans; Alaska, 13,698 (census of 1920); Labrador (from an estimate before it was entirely united to Canada), probably not over 1,200 since a large part of the Peninsula was included in Canada. This gives a total of approximately 35,000.
Connection in which they have become noted.From the time when they were first known to Europeans, the Eskimo were marked off from all other peoples in the minds of the former by their peculiar physical type, and the unique character of their customs and manner of life. They are distinguished as having been the first of all people of America to encounter Europeans, and they have earned an honorable name for themselves through the assistance they have rendered to Arctic explorers at all periods. They may be called the one people who did not have to discover America, since they lived on both sides of Bering Strait and hence in both the New and the Old Worlds.
Etchaottine. Significance unknown. Also called:
Awokΰnak, Cree name, meaning "slaves."
Brushwood Indians, by Franklin (1823).
Slaves, Slavey, by traders by translation of the Cree term.
Connections.The Etchaottine belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, their closest relatives having been, apparently, the Kawchottine.
Location.In the valley of Mackenzie River between Great Slave Lake and Fort Norman.
Subdivisions: The following names are mainly from Petitot (1891):
Desnedeyarelottine, on the banks of upper Mackenzie River.
Eleidlinottine, at the confluence of Liard and Mackenzie Rivers, their territory extending to La Martre, Grandin, and Tachι Lakes.
Etchaottine, between Liard River and the Divide, along Black, Beaver, and Willow Rivers.
Etcheridiegottine, on the middle course of Liard River.
Etechesottine, between Great Slave and La Martre Lakes.
Klodesseottine, on Hay River.
Petitot speaks of another band at Fort Norman, but applies no special name to it.
History.Petitot (1891) states that the Etchaottine anciently extended as far south as Lake Athabaska but that the Cree, on obtaining guns, drove them out of that region and, when they had taken refuge in the islands in Great Slave Lake, pursued them thither and slaughtered many. Although it is by no means certain that the Etchaottine ever extended as far as Lake Athabaska (see history of the Chipewyan), they no doubt suffered, like other Athapascan tribes of the region, from the invasion of the Cree. In 1789 Mackenzie passed through the entire length of the country and trading posts soon followed. They have since continued to occupy the territory above indicated while it has gradually been metamorphosed by the activities of the Hudson's Bay Company and the missionaries.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1670 there were 1,250 Etchaottine.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Etchaottine have appeared in history principally under the name of "Slaves" owing to the dominating position which the Cree obtained over them and the contemptuous attitude of that tribe toward them in consequence.
Haida. Their own name, meaning "people."
Connections.The Haida constitute the Skittagetan linguistic family, the speech of which has certain structural resemblances with that of the Tlingit and Athapascans, with which Sapir (1915) combined it under the term Na-dιnι.
Location.Originally on the Queen Charlotte Islands, but early in the eighteenth century a part of the Haida settled on the southern part of Prince of Wales, Island, Alaska, where they came to be known as Kaigani, from a summer camp where they were in the habit of gathering to meet trading vessels.
Subdivisions and Villages: The following are large local groups perhaps entitled to the appellation of tribes:
Chaahl, on the northwest coast of Moresby Island.
Cumshewa, at the north entrance of Cumshewa Inlet, Moresby Island.
Dadens, on the south coast of North Island, fronting Parry Passage.
Gahlinskun, on the east coast of Graham Island, north of Cape Ball.
Haena, on the east end of Maude Island, Skidegate Inlet.
Hlielung, on the right bank of Hi-ellen River, at its mouth, Graham Island.
Howkan, on Long Island, Alaska, facing Dall Island.
Kaisun, on the northwest coast of Moresby Island.
Kasaan, on Skowl Arm of Kasaan Bay, east coast of Prince of Wales Island.
Kayung, on the east side of Masset Inlet just above Masset.
Kiusta, on the northwest coast of Graham Island, opposite North Island.
Klinkwan, on Cordova Bay, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.
Kloo, at the east end of Tanoo Island.
Kung, at the mouth of Naden Harbor, Graham Island.
Kweundlas, on the west coast of Long Island, Alaska.
Masset, on the east coast of Masset Inlet near its entrance.
Naikun, Rose Spit or Nekoon, at the northeast angle of Graham Island.
Ninstints, on Anthony Island at the south end of Moresby Island.
Skedans, on a point of land which extends into Hecate Strait from the east end of Louise Island.
Skidegate, on the north shore of Skidegate Inlet near its entrance.
Sukkwan, on Cordova Bay, Alaska.
Tiun or Tigun, on the nest coast of Graham Island south of Point Lewis.
Yaku, on the northwest coast of Graham Island opposite North Island.
Yan, on the west side of Masset Inlet near its mouth.
Small towns and camps so far as known are as follows:
Aiodjus, on the west side of Masset Inlet at its mouth.
Atana, on House or Atana Island off the east coast of Moresby Island.
Atanus, on the northeast coast of Hippa Island.
Chaahl, on the east coast of North Island.
Chatchini, near Kasaan, Prince of Wales Island.
Chets, on an island at the mouth of Tsooskahli, Masset Inlet.
Chuga, near Houston Stewart Channel and the town of Ninstints.
Chukeu, on the southwest coast of Moresby Island.
Dadjingits, on the north shore of Bearskin Bay, Skidegate Inlet.
Dahua, north of Lawn Hill at the mouth of Skidegate Inlet.
Daiyu, on Shingle Bay, east of Welcome Point, Moresby Island.
Djigogiga, legendary town on Copper Bay, Moresby Island.
Djigua, legendary town on the north shore of Cumshewa Inlet.
Djihuagits, on a creek just south of Rose Spit, Graham Island.
Edjao, around Edjao Hill at the east end of Masset Village.
Gachigundae, on the northeast shore of Alliford Bay, Moresby Island.
Gado, two towns: (1) traditional, on the south side of De la Beche Inlet, Moresby Island; (2), on the east side of Lyell Island.
Gaedi, on the northeast shore of a small inlet just northeast of Houston Inlet.
Gaesigusket, on Murchison Island at a point opposite Hot Springs Island.
Gaiagunkun, legendary, near Hot Springs Island.
Gaodjaos, on the south shore of Lina Island, Bearskin Bay.
Gasins, on the northwest shore of Lina Island, Bearskin Bay.
Gatgainans, on Hippa Island.
Gitinkalana, on the north shore of Masset Inlet where it expands into the inner bay.
Guhlga, legendary, on the north shore of Skidegate Inlet one mile above Skidgate Village.
Gulhlgildjing, on the south shore of Alliford Bay, Moresby Island.
Gwaeskun, at Gwaeskun, the northernmost point on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Hagi, on or near the largest of the Bolkus Islands.
Heudao, on the east side of Gull Point, Prevost Island.
Hlagi, on an island near the east end of Houston Stewart Channel.
Hlakeguns, on Yagun River at the Head of Masset Inlet.
Hlgadun, on Moresby Island facing Anthony Island.
Hlgaedlin, on the south side of Tanoo Island.
Hlgahet, near Skidegate.
Hlgai, at the head of Skedans Bay.
Hlgaiha, north of Dead Tree Point at the entrance of Skidegate Inlet.
Hlgaiu, south of Dead Tree Point at the entrance of Skidegate Inlet.
Hlgihla-ala, north of Cape Ball, on the east shore of Graham Island.
Hlkia, on the outer side of Lyell Island.
Hluln, in Naden Harbor.
Hotao, legendary, on the southwest coast of Maude Island.
Hotdjohoas, on Lyell Island near the north end of Darwin Sound.
Hoyagundla, on a stream of the same name a short distance south of Cape Fife.
Huados, near Hlgihla-ala, north of Cape Ball.
Kadadjans, on the northwest end of Anthony Island.
Kadusgo, at the mouth of a creek of the same name on Louise Island, flowing into Cumshewa Inlet from the south.
Kae, on Skotsgai Bay above Skidegate.
Kaidju, on Hewlett Bay, east coast of Moresby Island.
Kaidjudal, on Moresby Island opposite Hot Springs Island.
Kaigani, at the southeast end of Dall Island, Alaska.
Kasta, legendary, on Copper Bay, Moresby Island.
Katana, on Louise Island.
Kesa, on the west coast of Graham Island.
Ket, on Burnaby Strait, Moresby Island.
Kil, on Shingle Bay, Skidegate Inlet.
Koagoagit, on the north shore of Bearskin Bay.
Koga, on McKay Harbor, Cumshewa Inlet.
Kogalskun, on Masset Inlet.
Kostunhana, a short distance east of Skidegate.
Kundji, 2 towns: (1) legendary, on the south shore of Copper Bay, Moresby Island; (2), on the west side of Prevost Island.
Kungga, on the south shore of Dog Island.
Kungielung, on the west side of the entrance to Masset Inlet.
Kunhalas, just inside of Cumshewa Inlet.
Kunkia, on the north coast of North Island.
Kuulana, in Naden Harbor.
Lanadagunga, south of Tangle Cove, Moresby Island.
Lanagahlkehoda, on a small island opposite, Kaisun, Moresby Island.
Lanahawa, 2 towns: (1) on the west coast of Graham Island opposite Hippa Island; (2) on the west coast of Burnaby Island south of Ket.
Lanahilduns, on the southwest side of Rennell Sound, Graham Island.
Lanaslnagai, 3 towns: (1) on the east coast of Graham Island south of Cape Ball, (2) on the west side of Masset Inlet where the inner expansion begins; (3) on Yagun River.
Lanaungsuls, on Masset Inlet.
Nagus, in an inlet on the southwest coast of Moresby Island.
Sahldungkun, on the west side of Yagun River at its mouth.
Sakaedigialas, traditional, on or near Kuper Island.
Sgilgi, in an inlet on the southwest coast of Moresby Island.
Sindaskun, near the south end of the islands.
Sindatahls, near Tsoo-skahli, an inner expansion of Masset Inlet.
Singa, on the north side of Tasoo Harbor, west coast of Moresby Island.
Skae, close to Cape St. James at the south end of the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Skaito, on the west coast of Moresby Island near Gold Harbor.
Skaos, at the entrance of Naden Harbor.
Skena, legendary, just south of Sand Spit Point, Moresby Island.
Skudus, on the north side of Lyell Island.
Stlindagwai, in an inlet on the west coast of Moresby Island.
Stunhlai, on the northwest coast of Moresby Island.
Sulustins, on the east coast of Hippa Island.
Ta, on the east coast of North Island.
Te, on the west coast of Graham Island opposite Frederick Island.
Tlgunghung, on the north side of Lyell Island.
Tlhingus, on Louise Island.
Tohlka, on the north coast of Graham Island just west of the entrance to Masset Inlet.
Widja, on the north coast of Graham Island just west of the entrance of Masset Inlet.
Yagun, on the north coast of Graham Island.
Yaogus, on the southwest side of Louise Island.
Yastling, in Naden Harbor, Graham Island.
Yatza, on the north coast of Graham Island between North Island and Virago Sound.
Youahnoe, given as a Kaigani town, perhaps identical with the town of Kaigani.
History.According to native traditions, the oldest Haida settlements were on the mainland side of the islands. The Haida towns in Alaska date back to the early part of the eighteenth century, i.e., their establishment was almost within the historic period. So far as is known, the Spanish Ensign Juan Perez in the corvette Santiago was the first white man to visit the islands. This was in the year 1774. In 1775, Bodega and Maurelle touched there. La Perouse coasted the shores of the group in 1786 and Dixon spent a month about them in 1787. He was followed by Douglas, Ingraham, Marchand, Vancouver, and numerous explorers and traders whose names have not been preserved. The Hudson's Bay Company located a post at Masset and mission stations were established at Masset and Skidegate by the Church of England and the Methodists respectively. Smallpox, consumption, liquor, and immorality depleted the native population rapidly even before any Whites settled upon the islands, but the remnant of the people now seems to have reached an adjustment to the new conditions.
Population.Mooney (1928), estimated that in 1780 there were 8,000 Haida on the Queen Charlotte Islands and 1,800 in Alaska. A detailed enumeration made between 1836 and 1841 gave 6,593 and 1,735 respectively, a total of 8,328. Dawson (1880) thought that there were between 1,700 and 2,000 on the Queen Charlotte Islands and in 1888 the Canadian Office of Indian Affairs estimated 2,500, but the next year, when an actual census was taken of all but one settlement, the total was 637, and in 1894, when all were included, it was only 639. In 1895 there were reported 593; in 1902, 734; and in 1904, 587. In 1880 Petroff (1884) gave 788 Kaigani but Dall (1886) estimated 300. In 1890, 391 were returned and in 1905 the number was estimated as 300. The United States Census of 1910 gave 530; that of 1920, 524; and that of 1930, 588.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Haida have been noted for much the same things as the Tsimshian; beautiful carvings, peculiar social and ceremonial customs, and large and well-made dugouts. The slate from which so many artistic objects have been made is all obtained at one spot in their country. They are usually regarded as the typical totem-pole people.
Hidatsa. Like their relatives, the Crow, the Hidatsa may have lived on the north side of the International Boundary in late prehistoric times, but this is as yet uncertain. (See North Dakota.)
Huron. When Canada was first settled, the Huron lived in the region of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, but a hundred years earlier part of them occupied the lower St. Lawrence Valley. (See Wyandot under Ohio.)
Iroquois. Bands belonging to the tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy lived in Canada at various times and some are there at the present day. (See New York.)
Kawchottine. Signifying "people of the great hares." Also called:
Hare Indians, English appellation derived from their own name.
Kkpayttchare ottinι, Chipewyan name.
Nouga, Eskimo name, meaning "spittle."
Peaux-de-Liθvres, French appellation from their own name.
Rabbitskins, English appellation derived from their own name.
Connections.The Kawchottine belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family, being most intimately connected with the tribes higher up Mackenzie River.
Location.West and northwest of Great Bear Lake.
Subdivisions: Petitot (1893) gives the following:
Chintagottine, also called Katagottine, on Mackenzie River north of Fort Good Hope and between the river and Great Bear Lake.
Etatchogottine, north and east of Great Bear Lake and on Great Cape.
Kawchogottine, on the border of the wooded region northeast of Fort Good Hope.
Kfwetragottine, south of Fort Good Hope along Mackenzie River.
Nellagottine, on Lake Simpson and along Anderson River.
Nigottine, also given as a part of the Kawchogottine, along the outlet of Great Bear Lake.
Satchotugottine, immediately north of Great Bear Lake, omitted from a later list.
History.The country of the Kawchottine was reached by Alexander Mackenzie in 1789. The establishment of Fort Good Hope in 1804 and Fort Norman in 1810 brought them in closer touch with Europeans, and the intimacy has increased steadily from that day to the present.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 750 Kawchottine in 1670. In 1858 Ross (1858) gave their number as 467.
Kitksan. Their own name, meaning "people of Skeena River." Phonetically rendered Gyitkshan.
Connections.The Kitksan constituted one of the three great tribes or tribal groups of the Chimmesyan linguistic family.
Location.On the upper waters of Skeena River.
Subdivisions and Villages: (The second name, where there are two, is the one given by Barbeau, 1929)
Kispiox or Kispayaks, at the junction of Kispiox and Skeena Rivers.
Kitanmaiksh or Gitenmaks, at Hazelton.
Kitgargas or Kisgagas, on the north bank of Babine River, 3 or 4 miles above its junction with the Skeena.
Kitsegukla or Gitsegyukla, on Skeena River between Hazelton and Kitwanga.
Kitwancool or Gitwinlkul, 14 miles above Kitwanga on the Grease trail to the Nass.
Kitwanga, on the north bank of Skeena River about 150 miles from the coast.
Kuldo or Qaldo, near the headwaters of Skeena River.
Meamskinisht, a modern mission village founded in 1889.
History.According to Barbeau (1929), many of the leading families of the Kitksan came from the north, from among the interior Athapascans and from the Tlingit, within the last two centuries. Contact with the Whites became intimate after the establishment of Fort Kilmaurs (Babine) in 1822, Fort Connolly in 1826, and Fort Stager, and European influences began to come up the river with greater strength after the foundation of Fort Simpson in 1831 and Fort Essington in 1835.
Population.(See Tsimshian.) In 1904 there were 1,120 Kitksan.
Connection in which they have became noted.(See Tsimshian.)
Kutchin. The Kutchin occupied the entire central portion of Yukon territory and extended to the lower course of the Mackenzie, which they occupied on both sides from New Fort Good Hope to the delta. (See Nakotcho-kutchin, Takkuth-kutchin, Tatlit-kutchin, and Alaska.)
Kutenai. The Kutenai were located on Kootenay River and Lake and extended into the United States, occupying the northern parts of Montana and Idaho. In later prehistoric times they extended some distance into the Plains. (See Montana.)
Kwakiutl. Own name, signifying according to themselves, "smoke of the world," but probably meaning "beach at the north side of the river."
Connections.With the Bellabella (q. v.), the Kwakiutl constituted one grand division of the Wakashan linguistic family, the Nootka forming the other.
Location.On both shores of Queen Charlotte Sound, and the northern end of Vancouver Island.
Subdivisions: The bands or septs, with the relations which they bear to one another, are indicated in the following list, based upon information obtained by Boas (1897):
Klaskino, on Klaskino Inlet, Vancouver Island.
Koprino, at the entrance of Quatsino Sound.
Quatsino, at the entrance of Quatsino Sound, Vancouver Island.
Nakomgilisala, originally at Cape Scott, Vancouver Island.
Tlatlasikoala, formerly at the northeast end of Vancouver Island.
Awaitlala, on Knight Inlet.
Goasila, on Smith Inlet.
Guauaenok, on Drury Inlet.
Hahuamis, on Wakeman Sound.
Koeksotenok, on Gilford Island.
Kwakiutl, including Guetela, Komkutis, Komoyue, Matilpe, and Walas Kwakiutl most of whom lived at Fort Rupert.
Lekwiltok, between Knight and Bute Inlets.
Mamalelekala, on Village Island.
Nakoaktok, on Seymour Inlet.
Nimkish, on and near Nimkish River.
Tenaktak, on Knight Inlet.
Tlauitsis, on Cracroft Island.
Tsawatenok, on Kingcombe Inlet.
An extinct band was called Hoyalas.
Awaitlala and Tenaktak: Kwatsi, at Point Macdonald, Knight Inlet. (See Tsawatenok.)
Goasila: Waitlas, at the mouth of Samo River, Smith Inlet.
Guauaenok: Hohopa, on the west coast of Baker Island; Kunstamish, on the east side of Clayton Bay, Wells Passage. (See Tsawatenok.)
Hahuamis. (See Tsawatenok.)
Koeksotenok: Kwakwakas, on the west coast of Gilford Island.
Koeksotenok and Mamalelekala: Memkumlis, on Village Islands, at the mouth of Knight Inlet.
Lekwiltok: Husam, at the mouth of Salmon River; Tatapowis, on Hoskyn Inlet; Tsaiiyeuk, at the entrance of Bute Inlet; Tsakwalooin, near Cape Mudge.
Mamalelekala. (See Koeksotenok).
Matilpe: Etsekin, on Havannah Channel.
Nakoaktok: Awuts, on the lagoon above Shelter Bay; Kikwistok, on the lower part of Seymour Inlet; Mapakum, on Deserter's Island of the Walker Group.
Quatsino: Owiyekumi, on Forward Inlet, Quatsino Sound; Tenate, on the north shore of Forward Inlet.
Tenaktak: (See Awaitlala.)
Tlauitsis: Kalakowis, on the west end of Turnour Island.
Tsawatenok: Hata, at the head of Bond Sound; Kwae, at the head of Kingcombe Inlet.
Tsawatenok, Hahuamis, and Guauaenok together: Kwaustums, on Gilford Island.
History.If the voyage of Fuentes in 1640 is authentic, he was probably the first European to encounter any of the Kwakiutl Indians. Bodega and Maurelle passed along their coast in 1775, and from this time on they were visited by English and American explorers and traders at frequent intervals. The establishment of a Hudson's Bay post at Victoria in 1843 marked an epoch in their dealings with the Whites which since then have been more and more intimate. Mission work among the Bellabella was very successful but the southern branches of the family held on to their ancient customs with more tenacity.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 4,500 southern Kwakiutl Indians. In 1906 there were 1,257. The Report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives 2,090 Kwakiutl.
Connection in which they have become noted.These tribes are note-worthy for the very complete studies of their social organization and potlatch customs made by Boas (1897), assisted by George Hunt, and the important part these studies have played in the development of general theories of exogamy and totemism.
Lillooet. Signifying "wild onion." The name seems to have been given originally to a part of the Lower Lillooet. Also called:
Stla'tliumH, own name, applied properly to the Upper Lillooet.
Connections.The Lillooet belong to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic family, their nearest relatives being the Shuswap and Ntlakyapamuk.
Location.On the upper part of Harrison Lake, Lillooet River, Bridge River, and part of Fraser River above and below the mouth of the latter stream and between the Shuswap and Ntlakyapamuk, and on the heads of some of the streams flowing into the Gulf of Georgia.
Subdivisions: The Lillooet are divided primarily into the Lower Lillooet and the Upper Lillooet, each consisting of two principal bands as follows:
Lower Lillooet: Lillooet River or Douglas (on Little Harrison Lake and the lower Lillooet River up to Lower or Little Lillooet Lake), Pemberton (on Lillooet Lake, Pemberton Meadows, Pole River, Upper Lillooet River, Green Lake, etc.).
Upper Lillooet: Lake (on Anderson and Seaton Lakes, Cayuse River to Duffey Lake and westerly to the headwaters of the streams flowing into Jervis Inlet and the northwest sources of Bridge River), Fraser River (from about 5 miles below the month of Cayuse Creek to a few miles below the mouth of Pavilion Creek, a few miles up Cayuse Creek, in Three Lake Valley and on the neighboring hills between the Fraser River and Hat Creek, lower Bridge River and northwest to near the head of Big Creek).
Hahtsa or (by Whites) Douglas, on Little Harrison Lake, about 4 miles from Tipella on Great Harrison Lake.
Kwehalaten, on Little Lillooet Lake.
Lalakhen, on Lower Lillooet River, 10 miles above Douglas.
Samakum, on Lower Lillooet River about 25 miles above Douglas.
Sektcin or (by Whites) Warm Springs, near Lower Lillooet River about 23 miles from Douglas.
Shomeliks, near Lower Lillooet River 10 miles above Douglas.
Skatin or (by Whites) Skookum Chuck, on Lower Lillooet River about 17 or 18 miles above Douglas.
Smemits, a short distance above Lalakhen.
Hazilkwa, at head of slough, 1 mile above Nkimsh.
Lakemitc, less than 1 mile above Hazilkwa.
Nkimsh, on Upper Lillooet River, a little above the head of Lillooet Lake.
Stlalek or Stlaluk or (by Whites) Pemberton, near the big bridge across Upper Lillooet River, about 1 mile above Lakemitc.
Sulpauthltin, on Upper Lillooet River, about 2 miles above Stlalek.
Heselten, about one-third up Seaton Lake on the north side.
Nkaiot, at the foot of Anderson Lake.
Nkuatkwa, at the head of Anderson Lake.
Skemkain, at the foot of Seaton Lake, about 4 miles from Lillooet.
Slaus, at the head of Seaton Lake.
Tcalethl, about two-thirds up Seaton Lake on the north side.
Hahalep or Fountain, on the east side of Fraser River near Fountain Creek and about 9 miles above Setl.
Nhoisten, on the upper side of the mouth of Bridge River about 4 miles above Setl.
Setl or Lillooet village, just west of Lillooet town on the west side of Fraser River.
Skakethl, on the west side of Fraser River about 3 1/2 miles above Setl.
Skulewas or Skulewes, on the south side of the mouth of Cayuse River.
Tseut, on the east side of Fraser River about 2 miles above Setl.
History.The first white man to penetrate the country of the Lillooet was probably Simon Fraser in 1809. Contact with traders was practically continuous from that time forward and with the miners from 1858. The Lillooet suffered more than any other tribe from the great smallpox epidemic of 1863.
Population.Mooney's (1928) estimate. of Lillooet population as of the year 1780 is 4,000, perhaps copied from that of Teit (1900). The report of the Canadian Office of Indian Affairs of 1904 seems to give 978 Lillooet, but there are probably omissions, as Teit's estimate of about the same time is 900 Lower Lillooet and 700 Upper Lillooet, a total of 1,600.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Lillooet have given their name to Lillooet Lakes and Lillooet River.
Malecite. Many explanations of the name have been offered but the most probable is that of Chamberlain (M.S.), who says it is from Malisit, the Micmac term for them, which means "broken talkers." Also called:
Etchemin, perhaps from tchinem, "men"
"Muskrats," by some of their neighbors.
Wula'stegwi.ak, meaning "Good River People," name used by themselves, referring to the St. John.
Connections.The Malecite belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, their nearest relatives being the Passamaquoddy, and after them the Penobscot, Abnaki, and Pennacook. They were frequently classed with these under the general name Abnaki.
Location.In the valley of St. John River, New Brunswick, but extending slightly into the northeastern corner of Maine.
Subdivisions: Maurault (1866) makes a distinction between Malecite and Etchemin, but there seems to have been no valid foundation for this.
Medoctec, about 10 miles below Woodstock, N.B.
Okpaak, on the middle course of St. John River, N.B.
Saint Anne, on an island near Frederickton, N.B.
Viger, in Viger township, Temiscouata County, Quebec Province.
History.Like the Abnaki, the Malecite trace their origin to some region in the southwest. Early in the sixteenth century some of them were probably encountered by French and English explorers and fishermen, but they were first referred to specifically by Champlain in 1604, though his "Etechemins" were on the St. Croix River and were perhaps Passamaquoddy. Some years later Fort La Tour was built on St. John River, and it became a noted resort for members of this tribe. After the English gained possession of Malecite territory, certain lands were assigned to the Indians. In 1856, according to Schoolcraft (1851-57), these had become reduced to the valley of "the Tobique river, and the small tract at Madawaska, Meductic Point, and Kingsclear, with their small rocky islands near St. John, containing 15 acres." The descendants of the Malecite live partly in New Brunswick and partly in the province of Quebec, while a few appear in the population statistics of the State of Maine.
Population.The Malecite population is estimated by Mooney to have been 800 in 1600. In 1884 there were 767 (584 in New Brunswick; 183 in Quebec); in 1904, 805 (702 in New Brunswick; 103 in Quebec). The United States Census of 1910 returned 142 living on the south side of the International Boundary, of whom 138 were in Maine.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Malecite is preserved in that of a small town called Maliseet in New Brunswick, and one of its synonyms in Etchemin River, Province of Quebec.
Micmac. From the native term Migmac, meaning "allies." Also called:
Matu-es'-wi skitchi-nϊ-ϋk, Malecite name, meaning "porcupine Indians," on account of their use of porcupine quills in ornamentation.
Shonack, Beothuk name, meaning "bad Indians."
Souriquois, name by which they were known to the French.
Connections.The Micmac belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and to that part of the Central Algonquian group represented typically by the Cree, though their speech differed in some striking particulars. Their closest relatives, however, were the Malecite, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and Abnaki.
Location.Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, the eastern shore of New Brunswick as far north as Restigouche, the head of the Bay of Bundy, and, in later times, Newfoundland.
Subdivisions: Rand (1894) states that the Micmac distinguished seven districts, Prince Edward Island where the head chief lived, constituting one of these. The other six consisted of two groups of three each: one, called Sigunikt, including the districts of Memramcook, Pictou (at the north end of Nova Scotia), and Restigouche (in northern New Brunswick and neighboring parts of Quebec); the other, called Kespoogwit (south and east Nova Scotia), including Annapolis (in southwest Nova Scotia), Eskegawage (in east Nova Scotia from Canso to Halifax), and Shubenacadie (in north central Nova Scotia).
Antigonishe (?), probably on or near the site of the present Antigonishe, Nova Scotia.
Beaubassin, a mission, probably Micmac, site unknown.
Boat Harbor, near Pictou, Nova Scotia.
Chignecto, Nova Scotia.
Eskusone, on Cape Breton Island.
Indian Village, near Lake Badger, Fogo County, Newfoundland.
Isle of St. Johns, probably in Nova Scotia.
Kespoogwit, given by one authority as a village, see under subdivisions.
Kigicapigiak, on Cascapediac River, Bonaventure County, Quebec.
Le Have, near the mouth of Mercy River, about Lunenberg, Nova Scotia.
Maria, in Maria township, Bonaventure County, Quebec.
Minas, in Nova Scotia.
Miramichi, on the right bank of Miramichi River at its mouth.
Nalkithoniash, perhaps in Nova Scotia.
Nipigiguit, Bathurst, at the mouth of Nipisiguit River, New Brunswick.
Pictou, at the north end of Nova Scotia.
Pohomoosh, probably in Nova Scotia.
Restigouche, on the north bank of Restigouche River near its mouth, Bonaventure County, Quebec.
Richibucto, at the mouth of Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick.
Rocky Point, on Prince Edward Island.
Shediac, at Shediac on the east coast of New Brunswick.
Shubenacadie, at the head of Shubenacadie River, Nova Scotia.
Tabogimkik, probably in Nova Scotia.
History.Some Micmac may have been encountered by Norse voyagers about 1000 A.D. They were probably seen next by John Cabot in 1497, and from that time on they were constantly visited by explorers and even more by fishing vessels from France and England. During this period they acted as middlemen between the Europeans and the Indians farther west and south and found this profitable. Early in the seventeenth century they were missionized by the French and became so devoted to French interests that after the cession of Acadia to England in 1713 disputes and difficulties between them and the English continued until 1779. Since then they have been peaceful occupants of the territory with which they have always been associated and have gradually adopted the ways and customs of European civilization.
Population.Mooney's (1928) estimate for the Micmac applying to the year 1600 is 3,500. This seems to be based on Biard's 1611 estimate of 3,000 to 3,500. (See Jesuit Relations, 1858.) In 1760 they were reported to number somewhat under 3,000 but after that date they increased and in 1884 were officially reported as 4,037. The Canadian Report of Indian Affairs for 1904 gives 3,861, but it does not include the Micmac of Newfoundland.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Micmac are remarkable (1) as having been one of the earliest Indian tribes of the North American continent, if not the very earliest, to be encountered by Europeans, and (2) that, in spite of that fact and contrary to the general impression, they suffered no permanent decline in numbers and continued to occupy the territories, or at least a part of the territories, in which they had been found.
Montagnais-Naskapi. The first component, a French word meaning "mountaineers," and 90 called from the character of their country; and the second, a term of reproach applied by the Montagnais themselves to their more northern kindred. Also called:
Chauhaguιronon, Huron name.
Kebiks, said to have been so named on account of their warning cry of "Kebik!" when approaching in canoes the rapids of the St. Lawrence near Quebec.
Ne-e-no-il-no, a name used by themselves, meaning "perfect people."
Shoudamunk, Beothuk name, meaning "good Indians."
Tshe-tsi-uetin-euerno, a name used by themselves and said to signify "people of the north-northeast."
Ussagene'wi, Penobscot name, meaning "people of the outlet."
Ussaghenick, Malecite name.
Connections.The Montagnais-Naskapi belong to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Cree from whom they are set off by certain phonetic peculiarities.
Location.Between St. Maurice River and the hinterland of Labrador, and from the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence to James Bay, including also the entire interior of the Labrador Peninsula. The Labrador division has sometimes been made independent under the name "Nascapee" (Naskapi) but without sufficient justification.
Bands: The southern bands of this group were encountered by Europeans early in the seventeenth century while the northern ones, except for some on James Bay, were but little known until the nineteenth century. To this circumstance, more than anything else, we owe the two names Montagnais and Naskapi. Bands which probably existed in some form or other in 1650, although not necessarily under the names given, were the following:
Bersimis, on Bersimis River.
Chicoutimi, at Chicoutimi and northward.
Chisedec, on Seven Islands and Moisie River
Escoumains, on and near Escoumains River.
Godbout, on Godbout River.
Mistassini, about Lake Mistassini.
Nichikun, about Nichikun Lake.
Ouchestigouetch, at the heads of Manikuagan and Kaniapiskau Rivers.
Oumamiwek or Ste. Marguerite, on Ste. Marguerite River and to the westward.
Papinachois, at the head of Bersimis River and eastward.
Tadousac, on the west side of the lower Saguenay River.
By 1850 (following Speck, 1942) we find that some of these, including the Chisedec, Oumamiwek, and Papinachois, have disappeared or been renamed, and the following added:
Barren Ground, on the middle course of George River.
Big River, on Great Whale and Fort George Rivers.
Davis Inlet, south of the Barren Ground band.
Eastmain, on and to the northward of Eastmain River.
Kaniapiskau, at the head of Kaniapiskau River.
Michikamau, around Mishikamau Lake.
Mingan, on Mingan River.
Musquaro or Romaine, on Olomanoshibo River.
Natashkwan, on Natashkwan River.
Northwest River, north of Hamilton Inlet and on Northwest River.
Petisikapau, on Petisikapau Lake and in the surrounding country.
Rupert House, on Rupert Bay and River.
St. Augustin, on St. Augustin River.
Shelter Bay, on Shelter Bay River, a modern subdivision.
Ungava, southwest of Ungava Bay.
Waswanipi, on Waswanipi River.
White Whale River, between Lake Minto and Little Whale River and eastward to Kaniapiskau River or even to Whale River.
The territory of the Kaniapiskau and Petisikapau seems to be within that of the earlier Ouchestigouetch. The Shelter Bay band is of very recent origin and seems to have been in the land of the Oumamiwek. The Mingan, Musquaro or Romaine, Natashkwan, Northwest River, and St. Augustine hands are in a region formerly occupied by Eskimo.
Appeelatat, on the south coast of Labrador.
Assuapmushan, a mission, probably at the entrance of Ashuapmouchouan River into Lake St. John.
Bonne Espιrance, at the mouth of Eskimo River on the north coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Chicoutimi, a mission, on the right bank of the Saguenay at the present place of the same name, Quebec Province.
Esquimaux Point, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, about 20 miles east of Mingan.
Godbout, on the north shore of St. Lawrence River at the mouth of Godbout River.
Itamameou, a mission, on the north bank of St. Lawrence River east of Natashquan.
Islets de Jeremie, probably Montagnais, on lower St. Lawrence River.
Mingan, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near the mouth of Mingan River.
Moisie, a summer village of Montagnais and Naskapi, at the mouth of Moisie River.
Mushkoniatawee, on the south coast of Labrador.
Musquarro, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, opposite Anticosti Island.
Nabisipi, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, opposite Anticosti Island.
Natashkwan, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, at the mouth of Natashkwan River.
Pashasheebo, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Romaine, at the mouth of Olomanoshibo River on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
St. Augustine, with Naskapi, on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
History.Montagnais were met by Champlain in 1603 at the mouth of the Saguenay. Missionary work was begun among them in 1615 and they remained firm friends of the French. During the wars between the French and Iroquois, the latter drove some Montagnais bands out of their old seats, but they reoccupied them again on the restoration of peace. The first explorers of the Gulf of St. Lawrence found its northern shore as far west as Mingan in possession of the Eskimo, but the latter people soon retired from this region and the Montagnais took their places. They have gradually adjusted themselves to the new conditions brought about by European colonization, the fur trade serving to protect them from the expropriation suffered so much by the Indians farther south.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates the Montagnais and Naskapi together as numbering 5,500 in 1600 In 1812 they were supposed to total 1,500; in 1857 there were estimated at 1,100; and in 1884 they were officially reported at 1,395 but this figure includes only seven bands. In 1906 the Montagnais in the same territory, together with the Naskapi, numbered 2,183.
Nahane. Signifying "people of the west." Also called:
Gonana, Tlingit name (applied to all interior Indians).
Connections.The Nahane form a major division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.In northern British Columbia and the Yukon Territory between the coast range and the Rocky Mountains and latitude 57 and 60 N., some bands extending to the Mackenzie River in Mackenzie Territory.
Subdivisions: There is no consistency in the lists given by various writers, and Jenness reports a great deal of displacement since the early nineteenth century. The following bands or tribes may, however, be enumerated:
Esbataottine, in the valleys of Beaver, Nahanni, and North Nahanni Rivers.
Etagottine, in the valleys of Gravel and Dahachuni Rivers.
Kaska, on the upper Liard River.
Pelly River Indians, the country in the vicinity of Ross and Perry Rivers.
Tagish, about Tagish and Marsh Lakes.
Takutine, on Teslin River and Lake and upper Taku River.
Titshotina, between the Cassiar Mountains and Liard and Dease Rivers, British Columbia.
The Tahltan (q.v.) are sometimes regarded as a Nahane band.
History.Some of the easternmost bands of Nahane may have been met by Mackenzie in 1789. Fort Simpson, at the junction of the Liard and Mackenzie Rivers became the base of operations for exploitation of the Nahane country. This was established at the very beginning of the nineteenth century and shortly afterward Fort Liard at the junction of the Liard and Black Rivers and Fort Nelson on the south branch of the Liard, now Fort Nelson River, brought the Hudson Bay factors still farther into Nahane territory. The last-mentioned fort was destroyed by the Indians but reestablished in 1865. Fort Halkett, on the upper Liard, and in the very heart of Nahane territory, was established soon after the union of the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies, which took place in 1821. Forty or fifty years later it was abandoned but a smaller post called Toad River was built some time afterward, halfway between the site of Halkett and Fort Liard. In 1834 Chief Trader John M. McLeod pushed up through the mountains and discovered Dease River and Dease Lake. In 1838, a trading post was established on the latter by Robert Campbell, a Scotch officer, and in the summer of that year he pushed across the Pacific slope to the headwaters of the Stikine. His post excited the hostility of the coast Indians, however, who had enjoyed a monopoly of trade with the Athapascans, and Campbell was forced to abandon it, and it was burned by the coast Indians. In 1840 he went north from Fort Halkett as far as Pelly River. In 1842 he built a fort at Lake Francis and Pelly Banks and in 1848 Fort Selkirk at the junction of the Pelly and Lewis Rivers. Two years afterward this latter was destroyed by the Chilkat, whose trade monopoly it threatened. In the meantime European influences had been working inland through the medium of the same coast tribes, from the Russian and from British and American trading vessels, and later on through the Hudson's Bay Company along the passageway marked by the Stikine River. The Nahane were powerfully affected by the Klondike rush, and since then European influences have been growing ever stronger.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 2,000 Nahane in the present British Columbia in 1780 and 800 in the Yukon Territory in 1670, besides 400 "Mountain Indians" (Tsethaottine). A few hundred must be added for the Nahane in Mackenzie District. In 1906 there were 374 Nahane in British Columbia, 600 in Yukon Territory, and 250 in Mackenzie District. This total, 1,224, agrees fairly well with the 1,000 estimate of Morice (1904).
Nakotcho-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell on the flats." Also called:
Gens de la Grande Riviere, by Ross (MS.).
Loucheux, by Franklin (1823, p. 261).
Mackenzie Flats Kutchin, by Osgood (1934, p. 174).
Mackenzie's River Louchioux, by Ross (MS.).
Connections.The Nakotcho-kutchin were one of the tribes of the Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.On the lower course of Mackenzie River north of the Kawchodinneh and extending to the head of the Mackenzie Delta.
Population.With two neighboring tribes, Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 800 Nakotcho-kutchin in 1670. In 1906 he estimates there were 600. (See Kutcha-kutchin under Alaska.)
Nanaimo. A contraction of Snanaimux, meaning "people of Snonowas (Nanoose)."
Connections.The Nanaimo belonged to the Cowichan branch of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.On the east coast of Vancouver Island about Nanaimo Harbor and Nanoose Bay.
Nanaimo, about Nanaimo Harbor.
Snonowas, about Nanoose Bay.
History.The history of the Nanaimo was practically identical with that of the Cowichan.
Population.(See Cowichan.) In 1906 there were 161 Nanaimo and in 1909, 14 Snonowas.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Nanaimo have given their name to an important port, owing its existence largely to the lignite coal deposits in the vicinity.
Neutral. This name was applied to a confederacy of Iroquoian tribes found by the Whites in occupancy of the southern part of Ontario, the western extremity of New York, and portions of Michigan and Ohio. (See New York.)
Niska. Significance unknown. Phonetically spelled Nisk.a'. Also called:
Nass River Indians, from their habitat.
Connections.The Niska were one of the three tribes or tribal groups constituting the Chimmesyan linguistic family.
Location.On Nass River and the neighboring coast. (See also Alaska.)
Subdivisions and Villages: There were four divisions or tribes which, including the village or villages of each, are as follows:
Kithateh or Gitrhatin, including the villages of Kincolith, on Nass Inlet, and Lakkulzap or Greenville.
Kitgigenik or Gitwinksilk, including the village of Lahanla or Lakungida, near the mouth of Nass River.
Kitwinshilk, including the village of Lahulyans or Underleaf.
Kitanwilksh, including the village of Kitlakdamik or Gitlarhdamks, above the canyon of Nass River, and Aiyansh, on the lower course of Nass River.
The following names of villages are also given by various writers:
Kitaix, near the mouth of Nass River.
Gwinwah, on Nass River.
Kisthemuwelgit or Willshihunhtumwillwillgit, on the north side of Nass River near its mouth.
Qunahhair, on the south bank of Nass River just below the canyon.
Sheaksh, on the south bank of Nass River, 5 miles above the canyon.
Kitahon, Kitangata, Kitlakaous, and Andeguale may be additional towns or synonymous names for some of the above.
Emmons (in Hodge, 1910) divides the Niska into the Kitkahteen (Kithatch), including those below the canyon, and the Kitanweliks (Kitanwilksh), those above the canyon.
History.The history of the Niska was almost the same as that of the Tsimshian (q.v.), though the resort of so many tribes to Nass River during the eulachon run may have given them a more cosmopolitan character than the other Chimmesyans.
Population.(See Tsimshian.) In 1902 the population of the Niska towns was given as 842, in 1906 as 814.
Connection in which they have become noted.Besides the connections mentioned in treating of the Tsimshian, the Niska were note-worthy from the fact that the territory they occupied included Nass Inlet, which was a place of resort for tribes from all sections during the eulachon season, and that the myths of many of these tribes center around it. Perhaps it was owning to this circumstance that the Nass River seems to have been the center of the northwest cultural area.
Nooksak. A tribe, living mainly in the State of Washington, which is said to have branched off from the Squawmish of British Columbia (See Washington.)
Nootka. Significance unknown. The name as originally applied to a tribe also known as Mooachaht living at Nootka Sound but was afterward extended to all of the tribes of the same group even including the Makah of the State of Washington, though the latter are more often treated independently. (See Makah under Washington.) Also called:
Aht, from the endings of their divisional names.
Tc'eca'atq. Skokomish name.
Connections.The Nootka constituted one of the two great branches of the Wakashan linguistic family, the other being the Kwakiutl.
Location.All the Nootka are located on the west coast of Vancouver Island from Cape Cook on the north to beyond Port San Juan, except the Makah and Ozette, who live about Cape Flattery, in the State of Washington.
Subdivisions or Tribes:
Ahousaht, about Clayoquot Sound.
Chaicclesaht, on Ououkinsh and Nasparte Inlets.
Clayoquot, on Meares Island and Torfino Inlet.
Ehatisaht, on Esperanza Inlet.
Ekoolthaht, on Barclay Sound.
Hachaaht, on or north of Barclay Sound.
Hesquiat, on Hesquiat Harbor.
Kelsemaht, on Clayoquot Sound.
Klahosaht, north of Nootka Sound.
Kwoneatshatka, toward the north end of Vancouver Island.
Kyuquot, on Kyuquot Sound.
Makah, about Cape Flattery.
Manosaht, at Hesquiat Point.
Mooachaht, on the north side of Nootka Sound.
Muchalat, on Muchalat Arm of Nootka Sound.
Nitinat, on the tidal lake of Nitinat near the southwest coast of Vancouver Island.
Nuchatlitz, on Nuchalitz and Esperanza Inlets.
Oiaht, on Barclay Sound.
Opitchesaht, on Alberni Canal, Somass River, and neighboring lakes.
Pacheenaht, on San Juan Harbor.
Seshart, on Barclay Sound and Alberni Canal.
Toquart, on the north shore of Barclay Sound.
Uchucklesit, on Uchucklesit Harbor, Barclay Sound.
Ucluelet, at the north entrance of Barclay Sound.
Villages: Exclusive of the Makah and Ozette towns (see Washington), the names of the following Nootka villages have been recorded:
History.Juan de Fuca (1592) is the first white man known to have visited the Nootka country. Fuentes, if he and his voyage be not myths, was among these people, or at least near them, in 1640. Ensign Juan Perez is believed to have anchored in Nootka Sound in 1774, and the next year Bodega and Maurelle passed along the Nootka coasts on their way south. From March to April 1778, Captain Cook was at Nootka Sound, and we owe one of our oldest accounts of the Indians there to him. In 1786 English vessels under Captains Hanna, Portlock, and Dixon visited them and from that time on British and American trading vessels constantly resorted to them, usually calling at Nootka Sound. Between 1792 and 1794 Capt. George Vancouver visited the country. In 1803 the Boston, from the New England port of that name, was destroyed by Nootka Indians and all on board killed except two persons, one of whom, John Jewett (1815), has left us an important account of his captivity and his captors. A new era was opened with the settlement of Victoria in 1843 and since then absorption in European culture has gone on apace. The Nootka have been missionized principally by the Roman Catholic Church.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that, in 1780, there were 6,000 Nootka proper and 2,000 Makah. In 1906 there were 2,159 and 435 respectively.
Connections in which they have become noted.The claim of the Nootka to special recognition rests, (1) on the fact that, with the exception of a few of their neighbors, they were the only Indians on the Pacific coast who hunted whales; and, (2) from the part played by Nootka Sound in the early history of the northwest coast.
Ntlakyapamuk. From their own name NLak.a'pamux. Also called:
Cκ'qtamux (c=sh) Lillooet name, from their name for Thompson River.
Knife Indians, by the employees of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Lόkatimό'x, Okanagon name.
Nko'atamux, Shuswap name.
Salic, Okanagon name.
Sema'mila, by the Cowichan of Fraser River.
Thompson River Indians, popular name given by the Whites.
Connections.The Ntlakyapamuk were a tribe of the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location.On Fraser and Thompson Rivers, B. C. (See also Washington.)
Subdivisions and Villages:
Lower Thompson, on Fraser River from a short distance below Spuzzum nearly to Cisco:
Chetawe, on the east side of Fraser River about 16 1/2 miles above Yale.
Kalulaadlek, on the east side of Fraser River about 24 miles above Yale.
Kapachichin, on the west side of Fraser River about 28 miles above Yale.
Kapaslok, on Fraser River above Suk.
Kimus, on the east side of the Fraser between Yale and Siska.
Kleaukt, on Fraser River below North Bend.
Koiaum, on the east side of Fraser River 25 miles above Yale.
Nkakim, near Spuzzum, on Fraser River.
Nkattsim, on the east side of Fraser River about 38 miles above Yale and near Keefer's Station.
Nkoiam, on Fraser River below Cisco.
Noieltsi, on the west side of Fraser River about 23 miles above Yale.
Npiktim, on the east side of Fraser River about 30 miles above Yale.
Ntsuwiek, on the west side of Fraser River 27 miles above Yale.
Sintaktl, on the west side of Fraser River 30 to 40 miles above Yale.
Skohwak, on the west side of Fraser River about 15 miles above Yale.
Skuzis, on Fraser River above Spuzzum.
Skwauyik, on the west side of Fraser River.
Spaim, on the east side of Fraser River.
Spuzzum, on the west side of Fraser River below Spuzzum Station.
Stahehani, on the east side of Fraser River between Keefer's Station and Cisco.
Suk, on the east side of Fraser River below Keefer's Station.
Takwayaum, on Fraser River below North Bend.
Tikwalus, on the east side of Fraser River 13 miles above Yale.
Tliktlaketin, on the east side of Fraser River 3 miles below Cisco.
Tzauamuk, on Fraser River 6 or 7 miles above Boston Bar.
Upper Thompson: Lytton band (Lytton and vicinity):
Anektettim, on the east side of Fraser River, 3 miles above Lytton.
Cisco, on Fraser River 8 miles below Lytton.
Kittsawat, near Lytton.
Natkelptetenk, on the west side of Fraser River about 1 mile above Lytton.
Nchekchekokenk, on the west side of Fraser River, 15 miles above Lytton.
Nehowmean, on the west side of Fraser River, 1 1/2 miles above Lytton.
Nikaomin, on the south side of Thompson River, 10 miles above Lyttvn.
Nkoikin, on the east side of Fraser River, 8 miles above Lytton
Nkya, on the west side of Fraser River, 2 miles below Lytton.
Noot, on the west side of Fraser River, 12 miles above Lytton.
Npuichin, on the west side of Fraser River, 8 miles above Lytton.
Ntlaktlakitin, at Kanaka Bar, Fraser River, about 11 miles below Lytton.
Staiya, on the east bank of Fraser River just below Lytton.
Stryne, on the west side of Fraser River, 5 miles above Lytton.
Tlkamcheen on the south side of Thompson River at its junction with the Fraser.
Tuhezep, on the east side of Fraser River about 1 mile above Lytton.
Upper Fraser Band, from the territory of the Lytton band up Fraser River for a distance of 40 miles:
Ahulka, on Fraser River just below Siska.
Nesikeep, on the west side of Fraser River, 38 miles above Lytton.
Nkaktko, on the west side of Fraser River 28 miles above Lytton.
Ntlippaem, on the west side of Fraser River 22 miles above Lytton.
Skekaitin, on the west side of Fraser River 43 miles above Lytton.
Tiaks, at Fosters Bar on the east side of Fraser River, 28 miles above Lytton.
Spences Bridge band, from the territory of the Lytton band up Thompson River nearly to Ashcroft:
Atchitchiken, on the north side of Thompson River 3 miles back in the mountains from Spences Bridge.
Klukluuk, on Nicola River 8 miles from Spences Bridge
Nkamchin, on the south side of Thompson River at its junction with the Nicola, about 24 1/2 miles above Lytton.
Nkoeitko, on the south side of Thompson River 30 miles above Lytton.
Nokem, at Drynoch, on the south side of Thompson River 16 miles above Lytton.
Nskakaulten, on the south side of Thompson River, 1/2 mile below Spences Bridge.
Ntekem, on the north side of Thompson River about 1 mile back from the stream and 39 miles above Lytton.
Nukaatko, on the north side of Thompson River 43 miles above Lytton.
Pekaist, on the south side of Thompson River, 32 miles above Lytton.
Pemainus, on the south side of Thompson River 28 miles above Lytton.
Semehau, on the north side of Thompson River 32 miles above Lytton.
Snapa, on the south side of Thompson River, 1 1/2 miles back from the stream and 42 miles above Lytton.
Spatsum, on the south side of Thompson River, 35 miles above Lytton.
Stlaz, at Cornwalls near Ashcroft, 1 mile back from Thompson River.
Tlotlowuk, on Nicola River about 8 miles from Spences Bridge.
Zakhauzsiken, on the south side of Thompson River, half a mile back from the stream and 31 miles above Lytton.
Nicola band, in the valley of Nicola River:
Hanehewedl, near Nicola River, 27 miles above Spences Bridge.
Huthutkawedl, near Nicola River, 23 miles above Spences Bridge.
Koiskana, near Nicola River, 29 miles above Spences Bridge.
Kwilchana, on Nicola Lake.
Naaik, near Nicola River, 39 miles above Spences Bridge.
Nchekus, about 1 mile back in the mountains from Kwilchana.
Nsisket, near Nicola River a few miles from the west end of Nicola Lake.
Nrstlatko, near Nicola River a few miles from the west end of Nicola Lake.
Petutek, on Nicola river about 41 miles above Spences Bridge.
Shahanik, near Nicola River, 16 miles above Spences Bridge.
Tsulus, near Nicola River about 40 miles above Spences Bridge.
Zoht, near the west end of Nicola Lake, 50 miles above Spences Bridge.
History.Simon Fraser passed through the territory of the Ntlakyapamuk in 1809 and was followed by numerous employees of the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies. More injurious to the welfare of the Indians by far was the invasion of the miners in 1858. In 1863 the tribe was decimated by smallpox, and this and other epidemics have cut down numbers of them at various periods. They have continued to live in their ancestral territories though crowded into narrower quarters by the invasion and settlements of the Whites.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 5,000 Ntlakyapamuk. The report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1902 gives 1,826 and that for 1906, 1,776.
Okanagon. A tribe living on Okanagan Lake and later in the Similkameen Valley, and extending southward on the west side of Okanogan River to old Fort Okanogan in the State of Washington. (See Washington.)
Ottawa. This tribe occupied Manitoulin Island and bands belonging to it extended eastward toward Ottawa River. At a very early period they made settlements in the southern peninsula of Michigan. (See Michigan.)
Passamaquoddy. A tribe affiliated with the Malecite, living on Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Croix River, in New Brunswick and Maine. (See Maine.)
Puntlatsh. Phonetically rendered Pentlatc, significance unknown.
Connections.The Puntlatsh constituted a dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.On the east coast of Vancouver Island between the Cowichan and Comox tribes.
Hwahwatl, on Englishman River.
Puntlatsh, on Baynes Sound and Puntlatsh River.
Saamen, on Kwalekum River.
History.The history of the Puntlatsh is practically the same as that of the Cowichan (q.v.).
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 300 Puntlatsh in 1780; reduced to 13 in 1906.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Puntlatsh have given their name to Puntlatsh River, B.C.
Sarcee or Sarsi. From the Siksika (Blackfoot) words sa arsi, "not good." Also called:
Castors des Prairies, by Petitot, (1891, p. 362).
Circee, by Franklin, (1824, vol. 1, p. 170).
Ciriιs, by Gairdner in 1835 (1841. p. 257).
Isashbahαtse, by Curtis (1907-9, p. 180), meaning "bad robes": Crow name.
Mauvais Monde des Pieds-Noirs, by Petitot (1891).
Sussee, by Umfreville in 1790 (1859 p. 270).
Sussekoon, by Henry, Blackfoot MS. vocab., 1808: Siksika name.
Tco'ko, or Tsu'qos, by Chamberlain (1892, p. 8): Kutenai name.
Tsτ-Ottinθ, by Petitot (189l, p. 362), meaning "people among the beavers".
Ussinnewudj Eninnewug, by Tanner (1830, p. 316), meaning "stone mountain men": Ottawa name.
Connections.The Sarcee were connected with the Sekani and Tsattine divisions of the Athapascan linguistic family and probably separated from the latter.
Location.When first known to Europeans, the Sarcee were usually found on the upper courses of the Saskatchewan and Athabaska Rivers toward the Rocky Mountains.
Subdivisions: Jenness (1938) states that the tribe is constituted of the following five bands at the present time:
(1) Bloods, Klowanga or Big Plume's band, of mixed Sarcee and Blood (Blackfoot) descent.
(2) Broad Grass, Tents Cut Down, or Crow-Child's band, mixed Cree and Sarcee, hence their name, signifying that they came from the north where the grass is thick and long.
(3) People who hold aloof or Crow-Chief's band, nearly all pure Sarcee.
(4) Uterus or Old Sarcee's band, part Blackfoot, part Sarcee.
(5) Young Buffalo Robe or Many Horses' band, occasionally called also "Those who keep together."
History.The Sarcee evidently drifted to the Saskatchewan River from the north and, as Jenness (1938) thinks, "possibly towards the end of the seventeenth century." They are first mentioned by Matthew Cocking in 1772-73, but the erection of a trading fort at Cumberland House, followed by others farther up North Saskatchewan River, soon made them well-known to the traders. Early in the nineteenth century the Indians of the section acquired horses and guns, intertribal warfare was increased to such an extent that several tribes united for mutual protection, and the Sarcee allied themselves for this purpose with the Blackfoot. Nevertheless, they continued to suffer from attacks of the Cree and other tribes, and their numbers were still farther reduced by epidemics, particularly the smallpox epidemics of 1836 and 1870 and one of scarlet fever in 1856. In 1877, along with the Blackfoot and Alberta Assiniboine, they signed a treaty ceding their hunting grounds to the Dominion Government, and in 1880 submitted to be placed upon a reservation, where they declined steadily in numbers until 1920.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that there was a Sarcee population of 700 in 1670. Mackenzie (1801) estimated that there were 120 Sarcee warriors in 1801 and that their tents numbered 35.
Thompson (1916 ed.) and Henry (1801 ed.) allowed 90 tents, 150 warriors and about 650 souls. Sir John Franklin (1824) estimated that they had 100 tents. When their reservation life began Jenness (1938) believes that they numbered between 400 and 450, but they seem to have declined steadily and in 1924 there were 160 on the reserve, "all commonly considered Sarcee though an uncertain proportion were originally Cree and Blackfoot."
Connection in which they have become noted.The Sarcee are noted as the only northern Athapascan band which is known to have become accustomed to life on the Plains, though it is probable that they merely represent a recent case of Plains adaptation such as took place at an earlier period with the Apache and Kiowa Apache successively.
Seechelt. From their own name Siciatl (c=sh). Also called:
Niciatl, Comox name.
Connections.The Seechelt constituted a distinct dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.On Jervis and Seechelt Inlets, Nelson Island, and the southern part of Texada Island, B.C.
Subdivisions: Anciently there were four divisions or septs of the Seechelt, as follows:
Kunechin, at the head of Queen's Reach, Jervis Inlet.
Skaiakos, with no fixed abode.
Tsonai, at Deserted Bay at the junction of Queen's Reach and Princess Royal Reach, Jervis Inlet.
Tuwanek, at the head of Narrow's Arm, Seechelt Inlet.
The Kunechin and Tsonai are said to be descended from Kwakiutl from Fort Rupert. Later all Seechelt came to live in one town called Chatelech, on Trail Bay, at the neck of Seechelt Peninsula.
History.As above noted, two of the original four septs of the Seechelt trace their origin to Kwakiutl Indians from Fort Rupert. On physical grounds Hill-Tout (1902) thought them to be related to the Lillooet. Their history after the coming of Europeans has been similar to that of their neighbors. They were converted to Roman Catholicism by Bishop Durieu.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,000 Seechelt in 1780. In 1902 Hill-Tout gave a population of 325 but the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs only 236. The latter authority has 244 in 1909.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Seechelt have given their name to Seechelt Inlet.
Sekani. Signifying "dwellers on the rocks." Also called:
Al-ta-tin, by Dawson (1888, p. 192 B).
Lhtaten, by Morice (1889, p. 118), meaning "inhabitants of beaver dams": applied also to Nahane.
Rocky Mountain Indians, by Bancroft (1886-90, vol. 1, p. 35 map).
Sastotene, by Teit quoted by Jenness (1937, p. 5): Kaska name for certain bands, meaning "black bear people".
Thι-kι-nι, by Petitot (MS.), meaning "dwellers on the mountains."
Tsekennι, by Morice (1889, p. 112), meaning "inhabitants of the rocks." ["people of the contorted rocks," according to James Teit (1900)].
Tseloni, by Teit quoted by Jenness (1937, p. 5): Kaska name for certain bands, meaning "mountain top people".
T'set'sa'ut, by Jenness (1937, p. 5): so called by the Indians on Skeena and Nass Rivers.
Connections.The Sekani formed a group of bands or tribes of the Athapascan linguistic stock, and were dialectically affiliated with the Tsattine and Sarcee.
Location.On the headwaters of Peace and Liard Rivers and some of the neighboring western slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
Subdivisions: Jenness (1937) gives the following:
(1) Sasuchan or Sasuten, occupying all of the basin of Finlay River from the mouth of the Omineca north and west, including Thutade and Bear Lakes.
(2) Tsekani, occupying the country from McLeod Lake south to the divide, and east to the edge of the prairies.
(3) Tseloni, occupying the plateau country between the headwaters of Finlay and Liard Rivers, the Fox in its upper reaches, and the Kechika or Muddy River flowing through the center of their domain.
(4) Yutuwichan, in the country from the north end of McLeod Lake down the Parsnip and Peace Rivers to Rocky Mountain canyon and westward to the headwaters of the Manson and Nation Rivers, including Carp Lake and the upper reaches of Salmon River.
Morice (1889) counted nine bands, but he extended the name Sekani over the Tsattine and Sarcee and included three minor groups whose independent position is uncertain, and which have probably resulted from later mixtures.
History.Jenness (1937) believes that the Sekani were driven into the Rocky Mountains as a result of the westward thrust of the Cree. Morice (1889) tells us that the first Sekani encountered by Europeans were evidently the band met by Alexander Mackenzie on June 9, 1793, when on his way to the Pacific Ocean. One of these guided him to the head of Parsnip River but deserted shortly before they came to the Fraser. In 1797 James Finlay ascended the river which now bears his name. A few years later James McDougall penetrated the Sekani country, and in 1805 Simon Fraser established Fort McLeod on McLeod Lake for the Sekani trade. Since then the contact of the tribe with the Whites has been continuous and cumulative. Traders were followed by miners and missionaries and all the influences of a more complicated civilization.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 3,200 Sekani in 1780, not counting the Esbataottine, of whom he thought there might have been 300 in 1670. Drake (1848), estimated 1,000 in 1820, and Morice 500 in 1887 and 1893. Mooney (1928) estimated there were 750 in 1908, including 250 Esbataottine, but a census taken by the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs in 1923 returned only 160.
Senijextee or Lake Indians. These were a Salish people living on the Arrow Lakes and across the International Boundary in the State of Washington as far down the Columbia as Kettle Falls. (See Washington.)
Shuswap. From Suxwa'pmux, their own name, meaning unknown. Also called:
Atena or Atna, from a Carrier word, meaning "stranger."
Tlik'atewu'mtlat, Kutenai name, meaning "without shirts or trousers.
Connections.The Shuswap belong to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location.The Shuswap occupied territory on the middle course of the Fraser River, a second section of the Fraser near its head, the drainage of Thompson River above Kamloops Lake, and a large part of the valley of the upper Columbia above the Arrow Lakes.
Stlemhulehamuk (SLEmxu'lExamux) in the valley of Fraser River from High Bar to Soda Creek, including the people of Clinton.
Setlemuk (Se'tLmux), or Setlomuk (Set'Lomux) west of the Fraser, from about Churn Creek to beyond Riskie Creek.
Stietamuk (Stie'tamux), the interior of the plateau between Fraser and North Thompson Rivers.
Tekkakalt (Texqa'kallt) or Tekkekaltemuk (Texqκ'kalltemux), people of the North Thompson region.
Skstellnemuk (Sxstκ'llnEmux), on the Upper South Thompson, Shuswap Lake, and Spallumcheen River.
Stkamlulepsemuk (Stkamlu'lEpsEmux) or, sometimes, Sekwapmukoe (Sexwapmux'o'e), the people of Kamloops and Savona.
Zaktcinemuk (Zaxtci'nEmux), in the valley of the Bonaparte River to near Ashcroft on the main Thompson, Cache Creek, Loon Lake, the lower part of Hat Creek, through Marble Canyon to Pavilion, and on both sides of Fraser River near that point.
Bands and the Principal Village of Each:
Fraser River Division: Soda Creek (Hatsu'thl or Ha'tsu'thl), Buckskin Creek (Tcukkehwank), Williams Lake or Sugar Cane (Pethltcoktcitcen), Alkali Lake (Skat), Dog Creek (Ratltem or Ratlt), Canoe Creek (Teawak), Empire Valley (Tcekweptem or Tcekiuptem), Big Bar (Stekauz), High Bar (Thlenthlenaiten), Clinton (Pethlteket).
Caρon Division: Riskie Creek (Pek), North Caρon (Snhahalaus), South Caρon (Snhahelaus), Chilcotin Mouth (Tekhoilups).
Lake Division: Lake la Hache (Hatlinten or Hallinten), Canim Lake (Tskasken), Green Timber (Pelstsokomus).
North Thompson Division: Upper Thompson (Pesskalalten), Lower North Thompson (Tcoktcekwallk), Kinbaskets.
Bonaparte Division: Pavilion (Skwailak), Bonaparte River (Nhohieilten), Main Thompson.
Kamloops Division: Savona or Deadman's Creek (Sketskitcesten or Stskitcesten), Kamloops (Stkamluleps).
Shuswap Lake Division: South Thompson (Halaut), Adams Lake, Shuswap Lake (Kwaut), Spallumcheen (Spelemtcin), Arrow Lake.
History.This tribe was encountered by Alexander Mackenzie in 1793 and Simon Fraser in 1808. Mackenzie is thought to have been the first white man to meet any of them and Fraser was the first to explore the northern and western parts of their country. They were followed by fur traders of the Hudson's Bay Company, among them a band of Iroquois who came about the year 1816. The appearance of miners in 1858 introduced much greater changes into their lives which have since undergone rapid alterations though they have not, as in the case of so many Indian tribes of the United States, been driven out of their ancient territories.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 the population of the Shuswap was 5,300. Teit (1909) obtained an estimate from an intelligent old Indian which would give a population in 1850 of 7,200. The returns of the Canadian Indian Office for 1903 were 2,185; for 1906, 2,236.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Shuswap have given their name to a lake and hamlet in British Columbia.
Siksika (Blackfoot). In historic times this tribe was on the upper course of the Saskatchewan River and extended southward into the present State of Montana. Their eastern boundary was in the neighborhood of the 150th meridian, and they stretched westward to the Rocky Mountains. At an earlier period all seem to have been some distance north of the International Boundary (See Montana).
Songish. Name given to the principal band of the group by the Whites, who adopted it, in a corrupt form, from the name of a sept, the Stsa'ρges. Also called:
Etzamish, by the tribes of the south part of Puget Sound.
Lku'ngEn, own name.
Connections.The Songish constituted one of the dialectic groups of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.
Location.At the southern end of Vancouver Island and on the west coast of San Juan Island, State of Washington.
Subdivisions: There were three principal bands or tribes: the Sanetch, Songish, and Sooke.
The Sanetch consisted of the following septs or bands: Mayne Island, Panquechin, Tsartilp, Tsawout, Tsehump, to which the Saturna Island Indians should be added.
The following are Songish bands or septs: Chikauach (at McNeill Bay, Vancouver Island), Chkungen (at McNeill Bay, Vancouver Island), Kekayeken (between Esquimalt and Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island), Kltlasen (at McNeill Bay), Ksapsem (at Esquimalt), Kukoak (at McNeill Bay), Kukulek (at Cadboro Bay, Vancouver Island), Lelek (at Cadboro Bay, Vancouver Bay), Sichanetl (at Oak Bay, Vancouver Island), Skingenes (on Discovery Island off Vancouver Island), Skuingkung (at Victoria), Stsanges (between Esquimalt and Beecher Bay).
History.The Songish were probably first encountered by the Greek pilot Juan de Fuca in 1592, when he discovered the straits bearing his name. Spanish, English, and American exploring and trading vessels visited their country in ever-increasing numbers but the greatest change in their lives followed upon the settlement of Victoria, first as a Hudson's Bay Company post, in 1843. As this rose to be the capital of the province of British Columbia, it became a rendezvous of Indian tribes from all quarters and for all classes of Whites. It was at the same time a potent cause of the civilizing of the Songish and of their decline.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,700 people of the Songish group in 1780; they had become reduced to 488 in 1906.
Connection in which they have become noted.The only claim of the Songish to special recognition is the fact that Victoria, the provincial capital of British Columbia, was founded in their country. The name of the Sanetch, a Songish band, is perpetuated in Saanich Peninsula and that of another Songish band, the Sooke, in Sooke Inlet.
Squawmish. Significance unknown. Phonetically spelled Sk'qo'mic.
Connections.Together with the Nooksak of Washington, the Squawmish constituted a subdialect of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.
Location.On Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet, north of the mouth of Fraser River.
Chakkai, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Chalkunts, on Gambier Island.
Chants, on Burrard Inlet.
Chechelmen, on Burrard Inlet.
Chechilkok, at Seymour Creek, Burrard Inlet.
Chekoalch, on Burrard Inlet.
Chewas, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Chiakamish, on Chiakamish Creek, a tributary of Squawmisht River.
Chichilek, on Burrard Inlet.
Chimai, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Chukchukts, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Ekuks, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Etleuk, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Hastings Saw Mill Indians.
Helshen, on Burrard Inlet.
Homulschison, at Capilano Creek, Burrard Inlet.
Huikuayaken, on Howe Sound.
Humelsom, on Burrard Inlet.
Ialmuk, at Jericho, Burrard Inlet.
Ikwopsum, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Itliok, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Kaayahunik, on the west bank of Squawmisht River.
Kaksine, on Mamukum Creek, left bank of Squawmisht River.
Kapkapetlp, at Point Grey, Burrard Inlet.
Kauten, on the right bank of Squawmisht River
Kekelun, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Kekios, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Kekwaiakin, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Kelketos, on the east coast of Howe Sound.
Ketlalsm, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Kiaken, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Kiaken, on Burrard Inlet.
Kicham, on Burrard Inlet.
Koalcha, at Linn Creek, Burrard Inlet.
Koekoi, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Koikoi, on Burrard Inlet.
Kolelakom, on Bowen Island, Howe Sound.
Komps, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Kotlikaim, on Burrard Inlet.
Kuakumchen, on Howe Sound.
Kukutwom, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Kulatsen, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Kulaten, on Burrard Inlet.
Kwanaken, on Squawmisht River.
Kwichtenem, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Kwolan, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Male, shared with the Musqueam, north of Sea Island in the delta of Fraser River.
Mitlmetlelch, on Passage Island, Howe Sound.
Nkukapenach, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Nkuoosai, on Howe Sound.
Nkuoukten, on Howe Sound.
Npapuk, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Npokwis, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Nthaich, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Papiak, on Burrard Inlet.
Poiam, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Pokaiosum, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Sauktich, Hat Island, Howe Sound.
Schilks, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Schink, at Gibson's Lodge, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Selelot, on Burrard Inlet.
Shemps, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Shishaiokoi, on the east coast of Howe Sound.
Siechem, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Skakaiek, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Skauishan, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Skeakunts, on Burrard Inlet.
Skeawatsut, at Port Atkinson on the east side of Howe Sound.
Skelsh, on Burrard Inlet.
Sklau, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Skoachais, on Burrard Inlet.
Skumin, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Skutuksen, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Skwaius, on Burrard Inlet.
Slokoi, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Smelakoa, on Burrard Inlet.
Smok, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Snauk, at False Creek, Burrard Inlet.
Spapak, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Stamis, on the left bank of Squawmisht River.
Stetuk, on Burrard Inlet.
Stlaun, on Burrard Inlet.
Stoktoks, on Howe Sound.
Stotoii, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Suntz, on Burrard Inlet.
Sutkel, on Burrard Inlet.
Swaiwi, on Burrard Inlet.
Swiat, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Thetsaken, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Thetuksem, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Thetusum, on the west side of Howe Sound.
Thotais, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Tktakai, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Tlakom, on Anvil Island Howe Sound.
Tlastlemauk, in Burrard Inlet.
Tleatlum, on Burrard Inlet.
Toktakamai, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
Tseklten, on Howe Sound.
Tumtls, on the east side of Howe Sound.
Ulksin, on Burrard Inlet.
Yukuts, on the right bank of Squawmisht River.
There were a few more villages at the upper end of Burrard Inlet. Modern villages are: Burrard Inlet, No. 3. Reserve; False Creek (same as Snauk, q. v.), Kapilano (see Homulchison), Seymour Creek (See Checkilkok), and Squamish (on Howe Sound).
History.The history of the Squawmish has been practically identical with that of the other coast Salish tribes in their neighborhood.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 1,800 Squawmish in 1780. In 1909, 174 were returned.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Squawmish have given their name to Squawmisht River, B.C.
Stalo. Significance of name unknown. Also called:
Cowichan of Fraser River, on account of their close linguistic connection with the Cowichan proper of Vancouver Island.
Halkome'lem, said to be a name which they applied to themselves.
Hue-la-muh or Hum-a-luh, said to be the name by which at least a part of them called themselves.
Sa-chinco, Shuswap name for the upper Stalo, meaning "strangers."
Te'it, name for those above Nicomen and Chilliwack Rivers, so- called by the lower bands.
Connections.The Stalo belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Cowichan of Vancouver Island with whom they are often classed.
Location.On the lower Fraser River from a point below Spuzzum to the mouth of the river.
Subdivisions and Villages:
Chehalis, along the middle course of Harrison River.
Chilliwack, on Chilliwack River; they formerly spoke Nooksak.
Coquitlam, in Fraser River Valley just above the delta, but owning no land because practically slaves of the Kwantlen.
Ewawoos, in a town called Skeltem, 2 miles above Hope, on Fraser River.
Katsey, in villages called Seltsas and Shuwalethet, on Pitt Lake and River.
Kelatl, in a town called Asilao, on Fraser River above Yale.
Kwantlen, in villages called Kikait, Kwantlen, Skaiametl, Skaiets, and Wharnock, between Stave River and the mouth of the southern arm of Fraser River and Sumass Lake.
Musqueam, in the northern part of Fraser Delta.
Nicomen, in villages called Skweahm and Lahuai, on Nicomen slough and at the mouth of Wilson Creek.
Ohamil, on the south side of Fraser River just below Hope.
Pilalt, in villages called Chutil, Kwalewia, Skelautuk, Skwala, Schachuhil, and perhaps Cheam, on lower Chilliwack River and part of Fraser River.
Popkum, in a town of the same name on lower Fraser River.
Scowlits, in a town of the same name at the mouth of Harrison River.
Sewathen, on the coast south of the mouth of Fraser River.
Siyita, in a village called Skuhamen, at Agassiz on Fraser River.
Skwawalooks, on Fraser River below Hope.
Snonkweametl, in a village called Snakwametl, on Fraser River.
Squawtits, on Fraser River between Agassiz and Hope.
Sumass, on Sumass Lake and River.
Tsakuam, in a town called Shilekuatl, at Yale.
Tsenes, location uncertain.
History.The first visitors to the Stalo were probably Spaniards, possibly the companions of Juan de Fuca in 1592. In 1809 Simon Fraser passed through their country, and his name is perpetuated in that of the river upon which most of them lived. Afterward traders connected with the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies entered their territory more and more frequently and posts were established. They were followed about the middle of the nineteenth century by miners and the latter by more permanent settlers. Complete opening up of the country followed upon its penetration by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the consequent establishment of the port of Vancouver for trans-Pacific trade.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 7,100 Stalo and in 1907, 1,451.
Stuwihamuk. So called by the Ntlakyapamuk Salish, significance unknown. Also called:
SEi'lEqamuQ, another Ntlakyapamuk name, meaning "people of the high country."
Smξlκ'kamuQ, a third Ntlakyapamuk name.
Connections.The Stuwihamuk belonged to the Athapascan stock but to what particular branch of it is unknown.
Location.In Nicola Valley.
History.At some prehistoric period the Stuwihamuk forced their way into the midst of the territory occupied by Salishan tribes and were finally absorbed by the Ntlakyapamuk of Thompson River.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 150 Stuwihamuk, basing his conclusions on Boas' (1895) estimate of 120 to 150 at a later period (1895).
Tahltan. Properly, according the Morice (1904 b), "Thalhthan, a contraction of Tha-sζlhthan," from tha or thu, "water," and saelhthan, a verb that refers to some heavy object lying thereon, which seems to be confirmed by a myth reported to Emmons (1911), though some of the older people told the latter it was from a foreign tongue; some, however, derived it from "thalla-a, point, the first living place on the rocky tongue of land between Stikine and Tahltan Rivers; and still others claim that it originated from the exhibition or giving away of a piece of steel, thal, by a chief at a great feast given at this point in early days, in celebration of the bringing out of his daughter."
Connections.The Tahltan belong to the Athapascan linguistic family, and have usually been classed with the Nahane, but we follow Jenness (1932) in treating them separately.
Location.In the drainage basin of Stikine River down to the mouth of Iskut River, Dease Lake, and Dease River halfway to McDane Creek (though anciently the head of Dease Lake was not in their territory), the northern sources of the Nass and some of the southern branches of the Taku in Alaska and British Columbia.
Gikahnegah, a fishing village on the south bank of the Stikine opposite Nine Mile flat.
Lakneip, a subdivision or village on the upper course of Nass River.
Tahltan, called by themselves Goontdarshage, the modern village, 1 1/2 miles northwest of the mouth of Tahltan River.
Teetch-aranee, on the south bank of the Tahltan near its mouth.
Thludlin, on Tahltan River some 12 miles above its mouth.
Tratuckka, a fishing village at Nine Mile flat on the Stikine River.
Tsaqudartsee, several miles beyond Teetch-aranee on the rock ledge separating the Stikine and Tahltan Rivers.
There were some others of which the names have not survived.
History.The Tahltan claim descent from people from several different directions- the head of the Nass, Tagish Lake, the headwaters of the Taku, the Liard (or Peace) River, and also from the coast. Intimate contact with the Whites was delayed until placer gold was discovered in the river bottom below Glenora in 1861 when some desultory prospecting began, but constant contact only followed on the Cassiar gold excitement of 1874. They suffered in many ways from White contact, particularly during the smallpox epidemics of 1864 and 1868.
Population.Mooney (1928) placed the entire Nahane population including this tribe at 2,000 in 1780. In 1909 there were 229 Tahltan.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Tahltan are noted as a tribe whose organization has been made over by contact with coastal people.
Takkuth-kutchin. Significance uncertain but possibly "squinters." Also called:
Dakaz, by Morice (1906).
Dakkadhθ, by Petitot (1876).
Deguthee Dennee, by Franklin (1828).
Gens de rats, by Whymper (1868).
Klovιn-Kuttchin, by Petitot (1876).
Kukuth-kutchin, by Bancroft (1886-90).
Lapiene's House Indians, by Kirkby in Hind (1863).
Louchieux Proper, by Ross (MS.).
Nattsae-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891), meaning "marmot people."
Porcupine River Indians, by Whymper (1868).
Quarrelers, by Mackenzie (1801).
Rat Indians, by Hardisty (1867).
Rat River Indians, by Whymper (1868).
Squint-Eyes, by Franklin (1824)
Takadhι, by Petitot (MS.).
Ta-Kuth-Kutchin, by Hind (1863).
Tykothee-dinneh, by Franklin (1824).
Upper Porcupine River Kutchin, by Osgood (1934).
Yukuth Kutchin, by Bancroft (1886-90).
Connections.The Takkuth-kutchin were the central and most characteristic tribe of the Kutchin group of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.On the upper course of Porcupine River.
Population.With the Vunta-kutchin and Tutcone, Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 2,200 Takkuth-kutchin in 1670. In 1866 they had been reduced to 15 hunters or 40 men in all. Dawson (1888) gave 337 of this tribe and the Tatlit-kutchin; Morice (1906) estimated 150 in 1906. In 1910, 6 were living in Alaska. (See Nakotcho-kutchin, Tatlit-kutchin, and also Kutcha-kutchin under Alaska.)
Tatlit-kutchin. Signifying "those who dwell at the source of the river [i.e., the Peel River]." Also called:
Fon du Lac Loucheux, by Hooper (1853).
Gens du fond du lac, by Ross (MS).
Peel River Kutchin, by Osgood (1934).
Sa-to-tin, by Dawson (1888).
Tpe-tliet-Kouttchin, by Petitot (1891).
Connections.The Tatlit-kutchin belonged to the Kutchin group of tribes of the northern division of the Athapascan linguistic family, being particularly closely connected with the Takkuth-kutchin.
Locations.On Peel River and neighboring parts of the Mackenzie.
Population.Mooney (1928) gives 800 to the Tatlit-kutchin and the Nakotcho-kutchin, together. In 1866, 30 hunters and 60 men in all were reported. (See Nakotcho-kutchin, Takkuth-kutchin, and also Katcha-kutchin under Alaska.)
Tatsanottine. Signifying "people of the scum of water," "scum" being a figurative expression for copper. Also called:
Copper Indians, from the fact that copper was obtained in their country.
Couteaux Jaunes, French-Canadian name.
Red-knife Indians, referring to copper.
Yellow-knife Indian, referring to copper.
Connections.The Tatsanottine belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and were later classified with the Chipewyan, but their original position within the stock is unknown.
Location.On the northern shores and eastern bays of Great Slave Lake.
History.The Tatsanottine derived their name from the ore in a low mountain near Coppermine River which they formerly made into knives, axes, and other cutting tools and traded at fabulous prices, until the introduction of articles of European manufacture broke the market and they moved away from the mine toward trading posts in the south.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 430 in 1670. In 1859 a census, which may, however, have been only partial, returned 219. A later estimate by Morice (1906) gave 500.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Tatsanottine have become noteworthy merely on account of their association with the copper deposit above mentioned.
Thlingchadinne. signifying "dog-flank people." Also called:
Atticmospicayes or Attimospiquaies, by La Potherie, and said to mean "dog-ribs."
Dog Ribs, popular English name from their own designation.
Flancs-de-Chien or Plats-Cτtes-de-Chien, French name derived from their own designation.
Lintcanre, nickname applied by their congeners.
Connections.The Thlingchadinne belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock.
Location.Between Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Luke but not extending to the Mackenzie River.
Subdivisions: Petitot (1891) gives the following divisions:
Lintchanre, north and east of the northern arm of Great Slave Lake.
Takfwelottine, southeast of Great Bear Lake and at the source of Coppermine River.
Tsantieottine, on La Martre Lake and River.
Tseottine, along the south shore of Great Bear Lake.
History.The name of the Thlingchadinne appears as early as 1744. It is said that they were gradually forced northwest by the Cree but it is probable that this was true of only a part of them, the greater portion having occupied approximately the same territories. Their later history is bound up with that of the Hudson's Bay Company, the purveyors of European civilization to most of the Indians of northwestern Canada.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1670 there were 1,250 Indians of this tribe. In 1858 Ross (1858) gave their total population as 926. Morice (1906) estimated 1,150.
Tionontati. Signifying according to Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910), "there the mountain stands". Also called:
Gens du Petun, French name, meaning "tobacco nation," first used by Champlain (1616), on account of their agricultural activities.
Quieunontati, a slightly different form of Tionontati, meaning "where the mountain stands," used by some early writers.
Tobacco Indians, Tobacco Nation, popular English name.
Connections.The Tionontati belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic stock, being most closely connected probably with the Huron whose designation was sometimes extended over them.
Location.In the highland south of Nottawasaga Bay, in Grey and Simcoe Counties, Ontario. (See also Wisconsin.)
Ehouae (mission of St. Pierre and St. Paul), Ekarenniondi (St. Matthieu), Etarita (St. Jean), St. Andre, St. Barthelemy, St. Jacques, St. Jacques et St. Philippe, St. Simon et St. Jude, St. Thomas.
History.The Tionontati were first visited by Europeans, the French, in 1616, and in 1640 the Jesuits established a mission among them. When the Huron villages were destroyed by the Iroquois in 1648-49, many Hurons took refuge with this tribe, in consequence of which the Iroquois turned against them, and attacked Etarita in December 1649, during the absence of the warriors, destroying the mission and many of the inhabitants. In consequence the Tionontati abandoned their country and followed the fortunes of the Huron, with whom they subsequently became amalgamated. Hewitt believed that they are represented to a greater extent in the Wyandot of Ohio than were the Huron proper. (See Wyandot under Ohio.)
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1600 the Tionontati had a population of 8,000. They are no longer separable from the Huron.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Tionontati were noted solely for the extent to which they cultivated tobacco.
Tsattine. Signifying "dwellers among the beavers." Also called:
Beaver Indians, English term derived from their own name.
Connections.The Tsattine belonged to the same branch of the Athapascan family as the Sekani and Sarcee.
Location.On the prairies south of Peace River and east of the Rocky Mountains and on the upper part of Peace River.
History.The Tsattine and the Sekani were originally one people, the separation having come about by the gradual penetration of the Sekani westward into the mountains. The Sarcee evidently branched off from the Beaver. The invasion of the Cree probably had something to do with all this. Some of the Indians of this tribe resorted to the Hudson's Bay Company's posts before there was a post in their own country. Mackenzie (1801) says that they first secured firearms in 1782. This was perhaps a result of the establishment of a post on Athabaska River by Peter Pond for the Northwest Company in 1778. It was abandoned a few years later and never rebuilt but other forts took its place, such as Athabaska Landing, Peace River Landing, Fort St. John, Fort Dunvegan, and a post on Little Slave Lake. Mackenzie spent the winter of 1792-93 with one band of Beaver near Peace River crossing before setting out for the Pacific. Goddard (1916) states that they are now divided into three groups, one trading at Fort St. John, a second living about Dunvegan, and a third near Vermilion. There is also a large band at Hudson Hope.
Tsetsaut. Name given them by the Niska and signifying "people of the interior."
Connections.The Tsetsaut belonged to the Athapascan stock and were usually considered as a Nahane tribe. Their dialect is said to be similar to Tahltan, yet they are reported to have branched off from the Kaska.
Location.According to Teit, "their [the Tsetsaut's] country lay in a strip from near Bradfield canal and the Iskut across the streams flowing into Behm Canal perhaps to about the head of Boca de Quadra. They occupied all of the upper part of Portland Canal around Stewart, und Salmon and Bear Rivers. They may have come down the canal as far as Maple Bay. They occupied all the White River and Meziadin Lake basins and one of their original headquarters, especially for salmon fishing, was at Meziadin Lake. They stretched across the head of the Skeena River above Kuldo River over to Bear and Sustut lakes" (Teit's Note in D. Jenness, 1932).
History.Once a large tribe they were almost exterminated by the Lakweip and Tlingit about 1830. They once lived further down Behm Canal and were friendly with the Sanya Tlingit until they discovered that the latter had determined to kill them and enslave their women and children, when they emigrated to Portland Canal and, becoming reduced in numbers, fell under the control of the Niska, among whom the last of them found homes.
Population.About 1830 the Tsetsaut numbered 500; in 1895 they were reduced to 12.
Tsimshian. A native term meaning "people of Skeena River." Also called:
Kilat, by the Masset Haida.
Kilgat, by the Skidegate Haida.
Kwe'tEla, Heiltsuk Kwakiutl name.
Skeena Indians, an English translation of their own name.
Ts'otsqE'n, Tlingit name.
Connections.The Tsimshian are the largest of the three divisions of the Chimmesyan linguistic stock, to which they have given their name.
Location.On the lower course of Skeena River and the neighboring parts of the Pacific Coast. (See also Alaska.)
Subdivisions and Villages: The following are at the same time tribal or band, and town groups:
Kilutsai, near Metlakatla.
Kinagingeeg, near Metlakatla.
Kinuhtoiah, near Metlakatla.
Kishpachlaots, at Metlakatla.
Kitlani, near Metlakatla.
Kitsalthlal, between Nass and Skeena Rivers.
Kitunto, near the mouth of Skeena River.
Kitwilgioks, near the mouth of Skeena River.
Kitwilksheba, near Metlakatla and the mouth of Skeena River.
Kitzeesh, near MetlaKatla.
These were the Tsimshian proper, but in a more extended sense the name applies to the Kitzilas, who occupied two towns in succession- Old Kitzilas just above the canyon of Skeena River, and New Kitzilas just below, and Kitzimgaylum, on the north side of Skeena River below the canyon. In a still more extended sense it covered the Kitkahta, on Douglas Channel; Kitkatla, on Porcher Island; and the Kittizoo on the south side of Swindle Island, northwest of Milbank Sound.
Modern towns are:
New Metlakatla, at Port Chester on Annette Island, Alaska.
Old Metlakatla, 15 miles south of Port Simpson.
Port Essington, at the mouth of Skeena River.
Port Simpson, between Old Metlakatla and the mouth of Nass River.
History.Traditional and other evidence indicates that the Tsimshian formerly lived inland and have pushed down to the Pacific in relatively late times, probably displacing the Tlingit. Spanish navigators reached the latitude of their coast in very early times but it is questionable whether any actually touched there. In the latter part of the eighteenth century English and American explorers and traders met them and this contact became more intimate as time went on. Later the Hudson's Bay Company's posts were established at Fort Simpson in 1831 and at Fort Essington in 1835, and still later their country was overrun by miners and prospectors, particularly during the great Klondike rush. In 1857 Rev. William Duncan established a mission of the Church of England at Metlakatla, but, on account of differences with his superiors over the conduct of this work, he removed to Annette Island, Alaska, in 1887 with the greater part of the Indians under his charge and obtained the grant of this island for his colony. A still closer contact between them and the outside world resulted from the establishment of the terminus of the Grand Trunk (now the Canadian National Railway) among them at Prince Rupert.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 5,500 Indians belonging to the Chimmesyan linguistic stock of which the Tsimshian were a part. In 1908 there were 1,840 Tsimshian, including 465 in Alaska.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Indians of this stock, including the Tsimshian, are noted for their beautiful carvings, equaled if at all only by those of the neighboring Haida. They and the Haida together occupy the very center of the remarkable cultural area of the north Pacific coast, and their social and ceremonial institutions have attracted particular attention. Their language occupies a unique position among the tongues of the northwest.
Tutchone. Usually called Tutchone-kutchin, but their connection with the true Kutchin seems to be denied by later investigators; meaning of name "Crow People." Also called:
Caribou Indians, by Dall (1877).
Gens de bois, by Whymper (1869).
Gens des Foux, by Dall (1870).
Klo-a-tsul-tshik', by Dawson (1889).
Mountain Indians, by Hardisty (1867).
Nehaunee, by Dall (1877). (So called by Hudson's Bay Co. men.)
Tatanchaks, by Colyer (1870).
Wood Indians, by Dawson (1889). (So called by fur traders.)
Connections.The Tutchone belonged to the Athapascan stock and were probably most closely related to tbe Han Indians on the Yukon River to the north and the Nabesna Indians to the west.
Location.Between the Han Indians and the Nahane country.
Population.Hodge (1910), gives 1,100, on what authority is not stated, and it is uncertain how many other tribes may be included in whole or in part.