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by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Apache. Bands of Apache occupied the Gila River region in Arizona within historic times and periodically overran much of the territory of the State. (See New Mexico.)
Cocopa. Significance of name unknown.
Connections.The Cocopa belong to the Yuman linguistic family a branch of the Hokan stock.
Location.About the mouth of Colorado River. (See also Mexico.)
River Cocopa and Mountain Cocopa.
Cuculato and Llagas are also mentioned, the latter a name applied by the Spaniards to a group of villages.
Villages: Gifford (1923) reports as follows:
"Settlement sites on W. bank of Colorado from Hardy confluence N. (when river flowed near Colonia Lerdo):
1, A'u'ewawa 2, Kwinyakwa'a; 3, Yishiyul, settlement of Halyikwamai in 1848; 4, Heyauwah, 5 miles N. of Yishiyul and opposite Colonia Lerdo (8 hours' slow walk from Colorado-Hardy confluence); 5, Amanyochilibuh; 6, Esinyamapawhai (Noche Buena of the Mexicans)." There was also a town called Hauwala below or above No. 5.
"Settlement sites on W. bank of Hardy from confluence N:
1, Karukhap; 2 Awiahamoka; 3, Nümischapsakal; 4, EweshespiL, 5, Tamanikwawa. (meaning 'mullet (tamanik) place') on lagoon 4 or 5 miles SE of Cocopah mts; 6, awikukapa (Cocopa mt.); 10, WeLsuL; 11, Awisinyai, northernmost Cocopa village, about 5 miles S. of Mexicali.
"Lumholtz (p. 251) lists following Cocopa settlements in the first decade of 20th century:
Noche Buena (20 families), Mexical (40- 50 families), Pescador (15 families), Pozo Vicente (more than 100 families)."
History.Without question this tribe was first met by Hernando de Alarcón in 1540. They are mentioned by Oñate in 1604-5, by Kino in 1701-2 under the name "Hogiopas," and by Francisco Garcés in 1776. Most of their territory was outside of the limits of the United States, but a small part of it passed under United States Government control with the Gadsden Purchase. Those Cocopa who remained on the northern side of the International Boundary were placed on the Colorado River Reservation.
Population.Garcés estimated 3,000 in 1776. In 1857 Heintzelman placed the former strength of the tribe at about 300 warriors. There are now said to be 800 in northern Baja California. There were 99 in the United States in 1930, and 41 in 1937.
Halchidhoma. Significance unknown.
Connections.The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected also with the Maricopa.
Location.At various points On the Colorado River near the mouth of the Gila. (See also California.)
Asumpción, a group of villages on or near the Colorado River, in California, more than 50 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.
Lagrimas de San Pedro, a group of villages in the neighborhood of Asumpción.
San Antonio, in the same general location as Lagrimas but only 35 or 40 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.
Santa Coleta, a group of villages in the same region as Asumpción and Lagrimas de San Pedro.
History.The Halchidhoma were probably encountered by Alarcón in 1540, though he does not mention them. In 1604-5 Oñate found them occupying eight villages on the Colorado below the mouth of the Gila; Father Eusebio Kino in 1701-2 came upon them above the Gila, and by Garcés' time (1776) their villages were scattered on both sides of the Colorado, beginning about 38 miles below Bill Williams' Fork and extending the same distance downstream. Later they moved farther north, along with the Kohuana, but were soon forced downstream again by the Mohave and ultimately took refuge with the Maricopa on Gila River, by whom they were ultimately absorbed.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 3,000 in 1680, but this is evidently based on Garcés figure of 2,500 in 1776, which Kroeber (1920) believes much too high. Kroeber suggests about 1,000 as of the year 1770.
Halyikwamai. Significance unknown. Also spelled Jallicumay, Quigyuma, Tlalliguamayas, Kikima (by Mason, 1940), and in various other ways.
Connections.The Halyikwamai belonged to the Yuman linguistic stock, their dialect being reported as close to Cocopa and Kohuana.
Presentacion, probably Quigyuma, on the west side of the Colorado River, in Baja California.
San Casimiro, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River, above tidewater, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.
San Felix de Valois, apparently on the east bank of the Rio Colorado, between its mouth and the junction of the Gila, probably about the present Arizona-Sonora boundary Tine.
San Rudesindo, probably on the east bank of the Colorado River, just above its mouth, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Santa Rosa, a group of villages on the eastern side of the lower Rio Colorado, about latitude 32- 18' N., in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
History.The Halyikwamai were discovered in 1540 by Alarcón, who calls them Quicama. In 1604-5 Oñate found them in villages on the Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila River and above the Cocopa Indians. In 1762 they dwelt in a fertile plain, 10 or 12 leagues in length, on the eastern bank of the Colorado, and here they were found by Father Garcés in 1771 in a group of villages which he named Santa Rosa. By 1775, when he revisited the tribe, they had moved to the west side of the river, their first villages on the north being in the vicinity of Ogden's Landing, about latitude 32- 18' N., adjacent to the Kohuana. It is probable that they were finally absorbed by the Cocopa or some other Yuman people.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates a population for the Halyikwamai in 1680 of 2,000, which is Garcés' estimate in 1775. Oñate estimated 4,000-5,000 in 1605, but all of these figures are probably much too high.
Havasupai. Signifying "blue (or green) water people," abbreviated into Supai. Also called.
Ak'-ba-su'-pai, Walapai form of name.
Ka'nína, Coconino, Cosnino, Kokonino, Zuñi name said to have been borrowed from the Hopi and to signify "piñon nut people."
Nation of the Willows, so called by Cushing.
Yabipai Jabesua, so called by Garcés in 1776.
Connections.The Havasupai belong to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock, being most closely connected with the Walapai, and next with the Yavapai.
Location.They occupy Cataract Canyon of the Colorado River, northwestern Arizona.
History.The nucleus of the Havasupai Tribe is believed to have come from the Walapai. The Cosnino caves on the upper Rio Verde, near the northern edge of Tonto Basin, central Arizona, were named for them, from a traditional former occupancy. Garcés may have met some of these Indians in 1776, but definite notices of them seem to be lacking until about the middle of the last century. Leroux (1888) appears to have met one of this tribe in 1851, and since then they have come increasingly to the knowledge of the Whites.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates about 300 Havasupai in 1680, but Spier (1928) believes this figure somewhat too high. In 1869, 300 were reported; in 1902, 233; in 1905, 174; in 1910, 174; and in 1923, 184. In 1930, with the Walapai and Yavapai, they numbered 646. In 1937 the number estimated was 208.
Hopi. Contracted from their own name Hópitu, "peaceful ones," or Hópitu-shínumu, "peaceful all people." Also called:
A-ar-ke, or E-ar'-ke, Apache name, signifying "live high up on top of the mesas."
Ah-mo-kái, Zuñi name.
Ai-yah-kín-nee, Navaho name.
A'-mu-kwi-kwe, Zuñi name, signifying "smallpox people."
Asay or Osay, by Bustamante and Gallegos (1582).
Bokeaí, Sandia Tiwa name.
Buhk'hérk, Isleta Tiwa name for Tusayan.
Bukín, Isleta name for the people.
Eyaníni diné, Navaho name (Gatschet).
Hapeka, a Zuñi name, referring to excrement.
Joso, Tewa name.
Khoso, Santa Clara name.
Kosho, Hano Tewa name.
K'o-so-o, San Ildefonso Tewa name.
Maastoetsjkwe, given by Ten Kate, signifying "the land of Másawé," god of the earth, given as the name of their country.
Mastutc'kwe, same as preceding.
Moki, signifying "dead" in their own language, but probably from some other, perhaps a Keresan dialect.
Topin-keua, said to be a Zuni name of which Tontonteac is a corruption.
Tusayan, name of the province in which the Hopi lived, from Zuñi Usayakue, "people of Usaya," Usaya referring to two of the largest Hopi villages.
Whiwunai, Sandia Tiwa name.
Connections.The Hopi constitute a peculiar dialectic division of the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family, and they are the only Shoshonean people, so far as known, who ever took on a Pueblo culture, though the Tanoans are suspected of a remote Shoshonean relationship.
Location.On Three Mesas in northeastern Arizona.
Awatobi (destroyed), on a mesa about 9 miles southeast of Walpi.
Hano, occupied by Tewa (see Tewa Pueblos under New Mexico).
Homolobi, near Winslow, was formerly occupied by the ancestors of various Hopi clans.
Kisakobi, at the northwest side of the East Mesa.
Kuchaptuvela, on the terrace of the First or East Mesa below the present Walpi village.
Mishongnovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.
Moenkapi, about 40 miles northwest of Oraibi, a farming village of Oraibi.
Oraibi, on the Third or West Mesa.
Shipaulovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.
Shongopovi, on the Second or Middle Mesa.
Sichomovi, on the First or East Mesa.
Walpi, on the First or East Mesa.
Kisatobi and Kuchaptuvela were successively occupied by the ancestors of the Walpi before the later Walpi was built.
History.According to tradition, the Hopi are made up of peoples who came from the north, east, and south. Their first contact with Europeans was in 1540, when Coronado, then at Zuni, sent Pedro de Tobar and Fray Juan de Padilla to visit them. They were visited by Antonio de Espejo in 1583, and in 1598 Juan de Oñate, governor and colonizer of New Mexico, made them swear fealty and vassalage to the King of Spain. In 1629 a Franciscan mission was established at Awatobi, followed by others at Walpi, Shongopovi, Mishongnovi, and Oraibi. These were destroyed in the general Pueblo outbreak of 1680, and an attempt to reestablish a mission at Awatobi in 1700 led to its destruction by the other pueblos. The pueblos of Walpi, Mishongnovi, and Shongopovi, then situated in the foothills, were probably abandoned about the time of the rebellion, and new villages were built on the adjacent mesas for defense against a possible Spanish attack which did not materialize. After the reconquest of the Rio Grande pueblos by Vargas, some of the people who formerly occupied them fled to the Hopi and built a pueblo called Payupki on the Middle Mesa. About the middle of the eighteenth century, however, they were taken back and settled in Sandia. About 1700 Hano was established on the East Mesa, near Walpi, by Tewa from near Abiquiu, N.M., on the invitation of the Walpians. About the time when the Payupki people returned to their old homes, Sichomovi was built on the First Mesa by clans from the Rio Grande, and Shipaulovi was founded by a colony from Shongopovi. The present Hopi Reservation was set aside by Executive order on December 16, 1882.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates a Hopi population of 2,800 in 1680. In 1890 the population of Oraibi was 905, and in 1900 the other pueblos (exclusive of Hano) had 919. In 1904 the total Hopi population was officially given as 1,878. The Census of 1910 returned 2,009, apparently including Hano, and the Report of the United States Indian office for 1923 gave 2,336. The United States Census of 1930 returned 2,752. In 1937 there were 3,248) including the Tewan Hano.
Connection in which they have become noted.The Hopi are noted as a tribe Shoshonean in language but Puebloan in culture, and also deserve consideration as one of the Pueblo divisions to which particular attention has been paid by ethnologists, including Fewkes, the Stevensons, Hough, Voth, Forde, Lowie, etc. Great popular attention has been drawn to them on account of the spectacular character of the Snake Dance held every 2 years.
Kohuana. Significance unknown. Also given as Cajuenche, Cawina, and Quokim.
Connections.The Kohuana belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock, spoke the Cocopa dialect, and were also closely connected with the Halyikwamai.
Location.In 1775-76 the Kohuana lived on the east bank of the Colorado River below the mouth of the Gila, next to the Halyikwamai, their villages extending south to about latitude 32- 33' N., and into southern California, at about latitude 33- 08' N., next to the eastern Diegueno. (See also Mexico.)
Merced, a group of rancherias in northeastern Baja California, west of the Colorado and 4 leagues southwest of Santa Olalla, a Yuma village.
San Jacome, probably Cajuenche, near the mountains, about latitude 33- 8' N., in southern California.
San Sebastian, Cajuenche or Diegueño, in southern California, latitude 33- 8' N., evidently at Salton Lake.
History.The Kohuana are the Coana mentioned by Hernando de Alarcón, who ascended the Colorado River in 1540. Juan de Oñate visited them in 1604-5, and they are probably the Cutganas of Kino (1701-2), while Francisco Garcés in 1776 reported that they were numerous and at enmity with the Cocopa. From Mohave tradition, it appears that at n somewhat later period they lived along the river near Parker together with the Halchidhoma, whom they followed to the fertile bottom lands higher up. Later the Mohave crowded them southward but still later compelled them to return to the Mohave country where they remained for 5 years. At the end of that period they determined to go downstream again to live with the Yuma; but, one of their number having been killed by the Yuma, they joined the Maricopa, with whom they ultimately became merged.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000 Kohuana in 1680, the figure given by Garcés in 1775-76. Kroeber (1920) believes these estimates are too high. In 1851 Bartlett reported 10 of this tribe living with the Maricopa, and, according to a Mohave informant of Kroeber's, there were 36 about 1883.
Maricopa. Significance of the name unknown. Also called:
Atchihwa', Yavapai name (Gatschet 1877-92).
Cocomaricopa, an old form.
Cohpáp, or Awo-pa-pa, Pima name.
Pipatsje, own name, signifying "people."
Si-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa, signifying "living in sand houses."
Tá'hba, Yavapai name (Gatschet, 1877-92).
Tchihogásat, Havasupai name.
Widshi itíkapa, Tonto name, also applied to Pima and Papago.
Connections.The Maricopa belong to the Yuman linguistic stock, a part of the Hokan family, and are said to be related most closely to the Yuma tribe proper and the Halchidhoma.
Location.On Gila River, with and below the Pima, to the mouth of the river. Anciently they are said to have had some rancherias in a valley west of the Colorado.
Villages: The following villages were all on the Gila River unless otherwise specified:
Aritutoc, on the north side at or near the present Oatman flat and the Great Bend of the river.
Baguiburisac, probably Maricopa, near the Gila River.
Cant, probably Maricopa, not far below the mouth of Salt River.
Coat, probably Maricopa, location uncertain.
Dueztumac, about 120 miles above the mouth of the Gila.
Hinama, its people now on the south bank of Salt River east of the Mormon settlement of Lehi, Maricopa County.
Hueso Parado, with Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation.
Sacaton, mainly Pima, on the Gila River about 22 miles east of Maricopa Station.
San Bernadino, at Agua Caliente, near the Gila River, another place on the river was called by the same name.
San Geronimo, 20 leagues from Merced and 27 leagues from the Gila River.
San Martin, on the Gila River west of the Great Bend.
San Rafael, probably Maricopa, in southern Arizona.
Sibagoida, probably Maricopa, location uncertain
Sicoroidag, on the Gila River below Tucsani.
Tota, probably Maricopa.
Tuburh, location uncertain.
Tucavi, perhaps identical with Tucsani.
Tumac, said to have been the western-most Maricopa village on the Gila River.
Uitorrum, a group of rancherias on the south bank of the Gila River not far west of the Great Bend.
Upasoitac, near the Great Bend of Gila River.
History.The Maricopa are thought to have separated from the Yuma and to have moved slowly up the Colorado River to the lower Gila River; or, as later history would indicate, they may have been forced into this region by hostile tribes. They were encountered by Juan de Oñate in 1604-5, and by Kino in 1701-2. From 1775 until recent times they were at war with the Yuma, and in 1857, in alliance with the Pima, they inflicted a severe defeat upon the Yuma near Maricopa Wells. A reservation was set apart for the Maricopa and Pima by Act of Congress February 28, 1859; it was enlarged by Executive order of August 31, 1876, but was revoke and other lands were set apart by Executive order of June 14, 1879. This was again enlarged by Executive orders May 5, 1882, and November 15, 1883. No treaty was ever made with them.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 Maricopa in 1680. Venegas (1758) says that in 1742 there were about 6,000 Pima and "Cocomaricopa" on Gila River, and in 1775 Garcés estimates a population of 3,000 Maricopa. In 1905 there were 350 under the Pima School Superintendent. The census of 1910 gives 386, and the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923, 394. The census of 1930 returned 310, and the Report of the United States Indian Office of 1937, 339.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name of the Maricopa is preserved in that of Maricopa County, Ariz., and in the name of a post village in Pinal County and another in Kern County, Calif.
Mohave. From a native word "hamakhava," referring to the Needles and signifying " three mountains." Also given as Amojave, Jamajabs. Synonyms are:
Naks'-at, Pima and Papago name.
Soyopas, given by Font (1775).
Tzi-na-ma-a, given as their own name "before they came to the Colorado River."
Wamakava, Havasupai name.
Wili idahapá, Tulkepaya name.
Connections.The Mohave belonged to the Yuman linguistic family.
Location.On both sides of the Colorado River— though chiefly on the east side— between the Needles and the entrance to Black Canyon.
Pasion, a group of rancherias on the east bank of the Colorado, below the present Fort Mohave.
San Pedro, on or near the west bank of the Colorado, about 8 miles northwest of Needles, Calif.
Santa Isabel, a group of rancherias situated at or in the vicinity of the present Needles.
History.Possibly Alarcón may have reached the Mohave territory in 1540. At any rate, Oñate met them in 1604, and in 1775-76 Garcés found them in the above-named villages. No treaty was made with them by the United States Government, but by Act of March 3, 1865, supplemented by Executive orders in 1873, 1874, and 1876, the Colorado River Reservation was established and it was occupied by the Mohave, Chemehuevi, and Kawia.
Population.Mooney (1928) gives, 3,000 Mohave in 1680, and Kroeber (1925) the same as of 1770, the estimate made by Garcés in 1775-76. About 1834 Leroux estimated 4,000. In 1905 their number was officially given as 1,589, of whom 508 were under the Colorado River School Superintendent, 856 under the Fort Mohave School Superintendent, 50 under the San Carlos Agency, and about 175 at Camp McDowell, on the Verde River. The Indians at Fort Mohave and Camp McDowell, however, were apparently Yavapai, commonly known as Apache Mohave. The census of 1910 gives 1,058 true Mohave. The United States Indian Office Report for 1923 seems to give 1,840, including Mohave, Mohave Apache, and Chemehuevi. The census of 1930 returned 854, and the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937, 856.
Connection in which they have become noted.The name Mohave has been preserved in the designation of the Mohave Desert and Mohave River in California, and Mohave County, Ariz., and also in the name of a post-village in Arizona. There is also a post village named Mojave in Kern County, Calif.
Navaho. The Navaho occupied part of the northeastern section of Arizona. (See New Mexico.)
Paiute. The southern or true Paiute occupied or hunted over some of the northernmost sections of Arizona. (See Nevada.)
Papago. Signifying "bean people," from the native words papáh, "beans," and óotam, "people." Also called:
Saikinné, Si'-ke-na, Apache name for Pima, Papago, and Maricopa.
Táh'ba, Yavapai name.
Texpamais, Maricopa name.
Tóno-oohtam, own name, signifying "people of the desert."
Vidshi itikapa, Tonto name.
Connections.The Papago belong to the Piman-branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and stand very close to the Pima.
Location.In the territory south and southeast of the Gila River, especially south of Tucson the main and tributary valleys of the Santa Cruz River; and extending west; and southwest across the desert waste known as the Papaguería, into Sonora, Mexico.
Subdivisions and Villages:
Acachin, location uncertain.
Alcalde, probably in Pima County.
Ana, probably in Pima County.
Anicam, probably in Pima County.
Areitorae, south of Sonorita, Sonora, Mexico.
Ati, on the west bank of Rio Altar, between Uquitoa and Tubutama, just south of the Arizona boundary.
Babasaqui, probably Papago, 3 miles above Imuris, between Cocospera and Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico.
Bacapa, in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, slightly southeast of Carrizal.
Baipia, slightly northwest of Caborca, probably on the Rio Altar, northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Bajío, location uncertain.
Batequi, east of the Rio Altar in northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Boca del Arroyo, probably in Pima County.
Caborica, on the Gila River.
Caca Chimir, probably in Pima County.
Cahuabi, in Arizona near the Sonora border.
Canoa, between Tubac and San Xavier del Bac, on Rio Santa Cruz.
Casca, probably in Pima County.
Charco, probably identical with Chioro.
Chiora, probably in Pima County.
Chuba, location uncertain.
Coca, location uncertain.
Comohuabi, in Arizona on the border of Sonora, Mexico.
Cops, west of the Rio San Pedro, probably in the vicinity of the present Arivaca, southwest of Tubac.
Cubac, in the neighborhood of San Francisco Atí, west from the present Tucson.
Cuitoat, between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.
Cujant, in northwest Sonora, between the mouth of the Rio Gila and Sonorita.
Cumaro, southern Arizona near the Sonora border.
Elogio, probably in Pima County.
Fresnal, probably in Pima County.
Guadalupe, about 10 leagues south of Areitorae.
Gubo, probably Papago, 13 leagues east of Sonorita, just below the Arizona boundary.
Guitciabaqui, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz River, near the present Tucson.
Juajona, near San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.
Junostaca, near San Xavier del Bac.
Macombo, probably in Pima County.
Mata, probably Papago, north of Caborica.
Mesquite, probably in Pima County.
Milpais, location uncertain.
Nariz, probably in Pima County.
Oapars, in Arizona between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River.
Ocaboa, location uncertain.
Oisur, on the Santa Cruz River, 5 or 6 leagues north of San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.
Onia, probably in Pima County.
Ooltan, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, 3 leagues northwest of Busanic.
Otean, location uncertain.
Perigua, Arizona, south of the Gila River.
Perinimo, probably in Pima County.
Piato, probably the same as Soba, in the region of Tubutama and Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.
Pitic, on the Rio Altar, northwest Sonora.
Poso Blanco, in Arizona south of the Gila River.
Poso Verde, south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary, opposite Oro Blanco, Ariz.
Purificación, probably Papago, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary, 12 leagues from Agua Escondida, probably in a southeasterly direction.
Quitovaquita, on the headwaters of Rio Salado of Sonora, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary line.
Raton, location uncertain.
San Bonifacio, probably Papago, south of the Gila River between San Angelo and San Francisco, in the present Arizona.
San Cosme, probably Papago, directly north of San Xavier del Bac, on the Santa Cruz River, Ariz.
San Ignacio, with Pima, on the north bank of Rio San Ignacio, latitude 30- 45' N., longitude 111x W., Sonora, Mexico.
San Ildefonso, 4 leagues northwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.
San Lazaro, probably Papago, on the Rio Santa Cruz in longitude 110- 30' W., just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
San Luis Babi, in northwest Sonora, Mexico, between Busanic and Cocospera.
San Martin, probably Papago, on the Gila River, west of the Great Bend of the Colorado.
San Rafael, in southern Arizona near the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora.
Santa Barbara, probably Papago, 4 miles southwest of Busanic, near the head-waters of the north branch of the Rio Altar, in Sonora, Mexico.
Santa Rosa, south of the Gila River and west of Tucson.
Saric, probably Papago, on the west bank of Rio Altar, in northern Sonora, Mexico.
Saucita, in southern Arizona.
Shuuk, or Pima, on the Gila River Reservation, southern Arizona.
Sierra Blanca, probably in Pima County.
Soba, a large body of Papago, including the villages of Carborica, Batequi, Mata, Pitic, and San Ildefonso.
Sonoita, on the headwaters of the Rio Salado of Sonora, just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Tachilta, in southern Arizona or northern Sonora.
Tacquison, on the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Tecolote, in southwestern Pima County, Ariz., near the Mexican border.
Tubasa, probably on the Rio Santa Cruz River between San Xavier del Bac and the Gila River, southern Arizona.
Tubutama, on the eastern bank of the northern branch of the Rio Altar, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.
Valle, probably in Pima County.
Zuniga, probably Papago, in northwest Sonora, Mexico.
History.Father Eusebio Kino was probably the first while man to visit the Papago, presumably on his first expedition in 1694. Their subsequent history has been nearly the same as that of the Pima, except that they were not brought quite as much in contact with the Whites.
Population.Mooney (1928) places the number of Papago at 6,000 in 1680. In 1906 they were reported as follows: Under the Pima School Superintendent, 2,233; under the farmer at San Xavier, 523 allottees on the reservation and 2,225 in Pima County. In addition, 859 Papago were officially reported in Sonora, Mexico, in 1900, probably an underestimate. In 1910, 3,798 were reported in the United States, but the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 gives 5,672; the 1930 census, 5,205; and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 6,305.
Pima. Signifying "no" in the Nevome dialect and incorrectly applied through misunderstanding by the early missionaries. Also called:
Â'-â'tam, own name, signifying "people," or, to distinguish them from the Papago, Â'-â'tam â'kimûlt, "river people."
Nashteíse, Apache name, signifying "live in mud houses."
Painyá, probably name given by Havasupai.
Saikiné, Apache name, signifying "living in sand (adobe) houses," also applied to Papago and Maricopa.
Tex-pas, Maricopa name.
Tihokahana, Yavapai name
Widshi iti'kapa, Tonto-Yuma name.
Connections.The Pima gave their name to the Piman linguistic stock of Powell, which is now recognized to be a subdivision of the great Uto-Aztecan stock, also including the Nahuatlan and Shoshonean families. The tribes connected most intimately with the Pima were the Papago (see above) and the Quahatika (q. v.), and after them the so-called Pima Bajo or Nevome of México.
Location.In the valleys of the Gila and Salt Rivers. (See also México.)
Formerly the name Pima was applied to two tribes called respectively the Pima Bajo and Pima Alto, but the former, living chiefly in Sonora, Mexico, are now known as Nevome, the term Pima being restricted to the Pima Alto.
Agua Escondida, probably Pima or Papago, southwest of Tubac, southwestern Arizona.
Agua Fria, probably Pima, or. Gila River Reservation.
Aquitun, 5 miles west of Picacho, on the border of the sink of the Santa Cruz River.
Aranca, two villages, location unknown.
Arenal, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Gila River.
Arivaca, west of Tubac.
Arroyo Grande, southern Arizona.
Bacuancos, 7 leagues south of the mission of Guevavi, northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Bisani, 8 leagues southwest of Caborica, Sonora, Mexico.
Bonostac, on the upper Santa Cruz River, below Tucson.
Busanic, southwest of Guevavi, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary, latitude 31- 10' N. Longitude 111- 10' W.
Cachanila, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz.
Casa Blanca, on the Gila.
Cerrito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz.
Cerro Chiquito, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz.
Chemisez, on the Gila.
Chupatak, in southern Arizona.
Chuwutukawutuk, in southern Arizona.
Cocospera, on the headwaters of the Rio San Ignacio, latitude 31 N., Sonora, Mexico.
Comac, on the Gila River, 3 leagues (miles?) below the mouth of Salt River, Ariz.
Estancia, 4 leagues south of the mission of Saric, which was just south of the Arizona boundary.
Gaibanipitea, probably Pima, on a hill on the west bank of the San Pedro River, probably identical with the ruins known as Santa Cruz, west of Tombstone, Ariz.
Gutubur, locality unknown.
Harsanykuk, at Sacaton Flats, southern Arizona.
Hermho, on the north side of Salt River, 3 miles from Mesa, Maricopa County, Ariz.
Hiatam, north of Maricopa Station on the Southern Pacific R. R., southern Arizona.
Hormiguero, probably Pima, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz.
Huchiltchik, below Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Gila.
Hueso Parado, with Maricopa, on the Pima and Maricopa Reservation, Ariz.
Imuris, near the eastern bank of Rio San Ignacio, or Magdalena, latitude 30- 50' N. longitude 110- 50' W., in the present Sonora, Mexico.
Judac, on the Gila.
Kamatukwucha, at the Gila crossing.
Kamit, in southern Arizona.
Kawoltukwucha, west of the Maricopa and Phoenix R. R., in Maricopa County, Ariz.
Kikimi, on the Gila River Reservation.
Kookupvansik, in southern Arizona.
Mange, on the Gila.
Merced, northeast of San Rafael, in what is now southern Arizona.
Nacameri, on the east bank of Río Horcasitas, Sonora, Mexico.
Napeut, on the north bank of the Gila.
Ocuca, in Sonora, Mexico, near the Rio San Ignacio, northwest of Santa Ana.
Oquitoa, on the Rio del Altar, northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Ormejea, in southern Arizona.
Oskakumukchochikam, in southern Arizona.
Oskuk, on the Gila.
Peepchiltk, northeast of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona.
Pescadero, in northern Sonora, Mexico.
Petaikuk, in southern Arizona.
Pitac, on the Gila.
Potlapigua, about Babispe, Baserac, and the frontier in Sonora, Mexico, but this was Opata territory.
Remedios, a mission on the San Ignacio branch of the Rio Asuncion, in Sonora, Mexico.
Rsanuk, about 1 mile east of Sacaton Station, on the Maricopa and Phoenix R. R., southern Arizona.
Rsotuk, northwest of Casa Blanca, southern Arizona.
Sacaton, on the Gila, about 22 miles east of Maricopa Station and 16 miles north of Casa Grande Station on the Southern Pacific R. R., Ariz.
San Andrés Coata, near the junction of the Gila and Salado Rivers, Ariz.
San Fernando, 9 leagues east of the ruins of Casa Grande, near the Gila.
San Francisco Ati, west of the Santa Cruz River, Ariz.
San Francisco de Pima, 10 or 12 leagues above the Rio Asuncion from Pitic, about latitude 31 N., Sonora, Mexico.
San Serafin, northwest of San Xavier del Bac, southern Arizona.
Santan, on the north bank of the Gila, opposite the Pima Agency.
Santos Angeles, in Sonora, Mexico.
Saopuk, at The Cottonwoods, on the Gila River.
Sepori, south of the Gila River, Ariz.
Shakaik, on the north side of the Gila, northwest of Casa Blanca.
Statannyik, on the south bank of the Gila, between Vaaki (Casa Blanca) and Huchiltchik.
Stukamasoosatick, on the Gila River Reservation.
Sudacson, on the Gila River, Pinal County, Ariz., between Casa Grande and a point 10 leagues below.
Tatsituk, about Cruz's store in southern Arizona.
Tubuscabors, on or near the Gila River, southern Arizona.
Tucson, probably with Papago and Sobaipuri, on the site of modern Tucson.
Tucubavia, on the headwaters of Rio Altar, northern Sonora, Mexico.
Tutuetac, about 16 miles northwest of Tucson and west of the Santa Cruz River, in southern Arizona.
Uturituc, on the Gila and probably on the site of the present Sacaton.
Wechurt, at North Blackwater, southern Arizona.
History.According to native tradition, the Pima originated in the Salt River Valley and spread later to the Gila River. They attribute the large adobe ruins in their country, including the Casa Grande, to their ancestors, and tell stories of their occupancy of them, but the connection is still in doubt. The Nevome and Opata of the Altar, Magdalena. and Sonora Rivers are said to have sprung from Pima colonies. They claim that their old manner of life was ended by three bands of foreigners from the east, who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people. The rest fled to the mountains, and when they returned they did not rebuild the substantial adobe structures which they had formerly occupied, but lived in dome-shaped lodges of pliable poles covered with thatch and mud. Russell (1908) considers it unlikely that Coronado encountered the Pima, but in 1694 Father Eusebio Francisco Kino reached the Casa Grande and undoubtedly met them. Under his inspiration, an expedition was sent to the Gila in 1697 to ascertain the disposition of the tribe. In 1698 he again visited them and between that date and 1702 entered their country four times more. In 1731 Fathers Felipe Segresser and Juan Bautista Grashoffer took charge of the missions of San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi and became the first permanent Spanish residents of Arizona. Padre Ignacio Javier Keller visited the Pima villages in 1736-37 and in 1743, and Sedelmayr reached the Gila in 1750. The first military force to be stationed among the Pima was a garrison of 50 men at Tubac on the Santa Cruz. The presidio was moved to Tucson about 1776 and in 1780 it was increased to hold 75 men. Between 1768 and 1776 Father Francisco Garcés made five trips from Xavier del Bac to the Pimas and beyond. In 1851 parties of the Boundary Survey Commission passed down the Gila River, and J. R. Bartlett, the American Commissioner, has left an excellent description of the Pima Indians (Bartlett, 1854). After the California gold rush began, the Pima frequently assisted parties of explorers and travelers who were making the southern route, and they often protected them from the Apache. In 1853 the Gadsden Purchase transferred the Pima to the jurisdiction of the United States. Surveys for a railroad through Pima territory were made in 1854 and 1855, but it was not constructed until 1879. In the meantime the Pima were subjected to contact with White outlaws and border ruffians of the worst description, and White settlers threatened to absorb their supplies of water. In 1857 the first United States Indian Agent for the territory acquired by the Gadsden Purchase was appointed. In 1871 the first school among them was opened.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 4,000 Pima in 1680. In 1775 Garcés placed the number of those on the Gila River at 2,500. In 1906 there were 3,936 in all; in 1910, according to the United States Census, 4,236; and in 1923, according to the Report of the United States Indian Office, 5,592. The 1930 census returned 4,382. The Indian Office reported 5,170 in 1937.
Connections in which they have become noted.Pima County, Ariz., and a post town in Graham County, Ariz., preserve the name of the Pima, which has also been made familiar to ethnographers and geographers by the use to which it has been put in the Powell classification to cover a supposed linguistic stock. There is little doubt, however, that this supposed stock is merely a part of a much larger stock, the Uto-Aztecan.
Quahatika. Significance unknown. Also spelled Kohátk.
Connections.The Quahatika belonged to the Piman division of the Uto-Aztecan stock, and were most closely related to the Pima, of which tribe they are said to have been a branch.
Location.In the desert of southern Arizona, 50 miles south of the Gila River.
The chief Quahatika settlement is Quijotoa, in the western part of Pima County, southern Arizona. Early in the eighteenth century they are said to have shared the village of Aquitun with the Pima. (See Pima.)
History.The history of the Quahatika has, in the main, been parallel with that of the Pima and Papago (q. v.). They are said to have left Aquitun about 1800, and to have introduced cattle among the Pima from the Mexicans about 1820.
Population.The Quahatika seem to have been enumerated with the Pima.
Sobaipuri. Significance unknown. Also called:
Rsársavinâ, Pima name, signifying "spotted."
Connections.The Sobaipuri were intimately connected with, if not a part of, the Papago, of the Piman division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.
Location.In the main and tributary valleys of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, between the mouth of the San Pedro River and the ruins of Casa Grande, and possibly eastward of this area in southern Arizona.
Alamos. on Rio Santa Cruz, southern Arizona.
Aribaiba, on the San Pedro River, not far from its junction with the Gila.
Babisi, probably Sobaipuri, at the southern boundary near Suamca.
Baicadeat, on the San Pedro River, Ariz.
Busac, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a tributary of the San Pedro, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz.
Camani, probably Sobaipuri, on the Gila River, not far from Casa Grande, Ariz.
Causac, on the San Pedro.
Comarsuta, on the San Pedro, between its mouth and its junction with Arivaipa Creek.
Esqugbaag, probably Sobaipuri, on or near the San Pedro, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Guevavi, on the west bank of the Santa Cruz, below Tubac, at or near the present Nogales.
Jiaspi, on the western bank of San Pedro, probably near the present Prospect, Ariz.
Juamalturgo, or Pima, in Arizona south of the ruins of Casa Grande.
Muiva, on the San Pedro, probably near the mouth of Arivaipa Creek.
Ojio, on the eastern bank of the San Pedro River, near its junction with the Gila River and not far from the present Dudleyville, Ariz.
Optuabo, probably Sobaipuri, near the present Arizona-Sonora boundary and probably in Arizona.
Quiburi, on the western bank of the San Pedro, perhaps not far from the present Benson, Ariz.
Quiquiborica, on the Santa Cruz, 6 leagues south of Guevavi, near the Arizona-Sonora boundary.
Reyes, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, in the present southern Arizona.
San Angelo, near the western bank of the Santa Cruz, below its mouth, in southern Arizona.
San Clemente, probably Sobaipuri, on the western bank of the Santa Cruz, north of the present Tucson, Ariz.
San Felipe, at the junction of the Santa Cruz and Gila Rivers.
San Salvador, on the San Pedro River, above Quiburi, southern Arizona.
San Xavier del Bac, on Santa Cruz, 9 miles south of Tucson in the northeast corner of what is now the Papago Reservation.
Santa Eulalia, probably Sobaipuri, slightly northwest of Busanic, just south of the Arizona-Sonora boundary line.
Sonoita, on the Santa Cruz, north of the present Nogales and 7 leagues east northeast of Guevavi.
Suamca, on the headwaters of the Santa Cruz, in the vicinity of Terrenate, Sonora, Mexico, just below the Arizona-Sonora boundary line.
Tubo, probably Sobaipuri, apparently on Arivaipa Creek, a tributary of the San Pedro River, east of old Camp Grant, Ariz.
Tumacacori, probably Sobaipuri, on the Santa Cruz, south of Tubac and 8 leagues north northwest of Guevavi.
Turisai, probably Sobaipuri, probably on or near the Santa Cruz River, southern Arizona.
Tusonimon, about 4 leagues west of Casa Grande, near the Gila River.
Tutoida, on the San Pedro, probably between Arivaipa Creek and the Gila.
History.The Sobaipuri were visited by Kino, 1694-1702, and missions were established among them, but at a later period the tribe was broken up by the Apache and seems to have sought refuge among the Papago, with whom it became merged.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 600 Sobaipuri in 1680. They are now extinct as an independent tribe.
Tonto. This name has been applied to a number of distinct groups of Apache and Yuman peoples. It is said to have been given to a mixture of Yavapai, Yuma, and Maricopa, with some Pinaleño Apache, placed on the Verde River Reservation, Ariz., in 1873, and transferred to the San Carlos Reservation in 1875; also to a body of Indians, descended mostly from Yavapai men and Pinaleño women. (See New Mexico.)
Walapai. From the native word Xawálapáiya, "pine-tree folk" (fide J. P. Harrington). Also called:
E-pa, by A. Hrdlicka (information, 1906), given as their own name.
Gualiba, by Garcés in 1776 (Diary, p. 404, 1906); Yavapai name.
Hawálapai, by Curtis (1907-9, vol. 2, p. 116).
Jaguallapai, by Garcés in 1776 (Diary, p. 308, 1900).
Matáveke-Paya, by Corbusier MS. p. 27. Meaning "people to the north" (?); Yavapai name.
Oohp, by Ten Kate (1885, p. 160), Pima name.
Páxuádo ámeti, by Gatschet (1886, p. 86), meaning "people far down the river," Yavapai name.
Setá Koxniname, by Ten Kate (1884, p. 9), Hopi name
Täbkepáya—Gatschet (1883, p. 124), Yavapai name; abbreviated from Matáveke-Paya.
Tiqui-Llapais, by Domenech (1860, vol. 1, p. 444).
Connections.The Walapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and were connected especially closely with the Havasupai, the Yavapai apparently standing next.
Location.On the middle course of the Colorado River, above the Mohave Indians, between Sacramento Wash and National Canyon and inland, extending south almost to Bill Williams Fork.
Subdivisions and Villages: Kroeber and his collaborators give the following:
A. Mata'va-kopai (north people) (the northwestern division).
Villages: Hadu'-ba, Hai'ya, Hathekáva-kió, Huwuskót, Kahwága, Kwa'thekithe'i'ta, Mati'bika, Tanyika";
B. Soto'lve-kopai (west people) (the Cerbat Mountains and the country west to the Colorado).
Villages: Chimethi'ap, Hakamuê", Háka-tovahádja, Hamté", Ha'theweli'-kio', Ivthi'ya-tanakwe, Kenyua'tci, Kwatehá, Nyi'i'ta, Quwi'-nye-há, Thawinúya, Waika'i'la, Wa-nye-ha', Wi'ka-tavata'va, Wi- kawea'ta, Winya'-ke-tawasa, Wiyakana'mo;
C. Ko'o'u-kopai (mesa people) (north central section).—
Villages: Crozier (American name), Djiwa'ldja, Hak-tala'kava, Haktutu'deva, Hê'i, Katha't-nye-ha', Muketega'de, Qwa'ga-we', Sewi", Taki'otha'wa, Wi-kanyo";
D. Nyav-kopai (east people) (east of the point where Truxton Canyon begins to cut its way down to Hualpai Valley).—
Villages: Agwa'da, Ha'ke-takwi'va, Haksa", Ha'nya-djiluwa'ya, Tha've-nalnalwi'dje, Wiwakwa'ga, Yiga't;
E. Hakia' tce-pai (?) or Talta'l-kuwa (cane?) (about the Mohon Mountains).—
Villages: Hakeskia'l, Hakia'ch, Ka'nyu'tekwa', Tha'va-ka-lavala'va, Wi-ka-tava, Witevikivol, Witkitana'kwa;
F. Kwe'va-kopai (south people).—
Villages: Chivekaha', Djimwa'nsevio", Ha-djiluwa'ya, Hapu'k, Kwakwa', Kwal-hwa'ta, Kwatha'wa, Tak-mi'nva;
G. Hua'la-pai, Howa'laa-pai (pine people) (at the northern end of the Hualpai Mountains, extending in a rough half-circle from east to west.)-
Villages: Hake-djeka'dja, Ilwi'-nya-ha', Kahwa't, Tak-tada'pa.
History.It is possible that some of the Walapai were encountered by Hernando de Alarcón in 1640, and at any rate Marcos Farfan de los Godos met them in 1598, and Francisco Garcés in 1776;. Their history since that time has been little different from that of the other Yuman tribes of the region.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 700 Walapai in 1680, but estimates of native informants regarded by Kroeber and his associates as reliable would give a population of more than 1,000 previous to 1880. There were 728 in 1889; 631 in 1897; 501 in 1910, according to the census of that year; 440 in 1923; and 449 in 1932; 454 in 1937. (See Havasupai.)
Yavapai. According to the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910), from enyaéva, "sun," and pai, "people," and thus signifying "people of the sun," but the southeastern Yavapai interpreted it to mean "crooked-mouth people," that is, a "sulky" people who do not agree with other peoples (fide Gifford, 1936). Also called:
Apache Mohaves, in Rep. Office Ind. Aff., 1869, p. 92; 1870.
Apáches, by Garcés in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900); also by Spaniards.
Cruzados, by Oñate in 1598 (Col. Doc. Inéd., vol. 16, p. 276, 1864-84).
Dil-zha, by White (MS.); Apache name meaning "Indians living where there are red ants."
E-nyaé-va Pai, by Ewing (1892, p. 203), meaning "sun people" because they were sun worshipers.
Gohún, by Ten Kate, (1884, p. 5), Apache name.
Har-dil-zhays, by White (1875 MS.), Apache name.
Inya'vapé, by Harrington (1908, p. 324), Walapai name.
Jum-pys, by Heintzelman, (1857, p. 44)
Kohenins, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276), Apache name.
Ku-we-ve-ka pai-ya, by Corbusier (MS., p. 27); said to be own name, because they live in the south.
Nyavapai, by Corbusier (1886, p. 276).
Taros, by Garcés in 1775-76 (Diary, p. 446, 1900), Pima name.
Yampaos, by Whipple (1856, p. 103).
Connections.The Yavapai belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic family, their closest cultural affiliations being with the Havasupai and Walapai.
Location.In western Arizona from the Pinal and Mazatzal Mountains to the country of the Halchidhoma and Chemehuevi in the neighborhood of Colorado River and from Williams and Santa Maria Rivers, including the valleys of the smaller branches, to the neighborhood of the Gila River.
Subdivisions: Gifford gives the following:
A. Kewevikopaya or Southeastern Yavapai, which included the Walkamepa Band (along the southerly highway from Miami to Phoenix via Superior), and the Wikedjasapa Band (along the present Apache trail highway from Phoenix to Miami via Roosevelt Dam). These included the following exogamous bands: Limited to the Walkamepa Band: Ilihasitumapa (original home in the Pinal Mountains); limited to the Wikedjasapa Band: Amahiyukpa (claiming as their homeland the high mountains on the west side of the Verde River, just north of Lime Creek and directly opposite the territory of the Yelyuchopa Clan), Atachiopa (who originated in the mountains west of Cherry), Hakayopa (whose inland homeland was Sunflower Valley, south of Mazatzal Peak, high in the Mazatzal Mountains, and west of Fort Reno in the Tonto Basin), Hichapulvapa (whose country was the Mazatzal Mountains southward from the East Verde River and westward from North Peak and Mazatzal Peak); represented in both bands: Iiwilkamepa (who considered the mountainous country between the Superstition and Pinal Mountains as their homeland), Matkawatapa (said to have originated from intermarriage between people of the Walkamepa Band and Apache from the Sierra Ancha), Onalkeopa (whose original homeland was in the Mazatzal Mountains between the lands of the Hichapulvapa and Yelyuchopa clans but who moved later south into the territory of the Walkamepa Band), Yelyuchopa (who claimed as their homeland the Mazatzal Mountains between the territories of the Hakayopa and Hichapulvapa clans). Cuercomache (on one of the heads of Diamond Creek, near the Grand Canyon of the Colorado) is given as a village. Amanyiká was the principal camp site of the Wikedjasapa south of the Salt River.
B. Yavepe or Northeastern Yavapai, including.
a. Yavepe proper (claiming upper Verde Valley and the mountains on either side, including the Montezuma National Monument), whose bands were: Wipukupa (occupying caves in Redrock country, probably in the region designated as Red Buttes on maps, and descending Oak Creek to plant maize in certain moist flats and to gather mesquite in Verde Valley), Matkitwawipa (people of upper Verde Valley, East Verde River, Fossil Creek, Clear Creek, ranging south to Cave Creek, and Walkey-anyanyepa (people of the mesa to which Jerome clings).
b. Mat-haupapaya (inhabiting the massif from Prescott to Crown King and Bumble Bee), and including: Wikutepa (the Granite Peak Band) and Wikenichapa (the Black Mountains or Crown King Band).
C. Tolkepaya or Western Yavapai, including: Hakupakapa or Inyokapa (inhabitants of mountains north of Congress); Hakehelapa Wiltaikapaya (people of Harquahala and Harcuvar Mountains on either side of Wiltaika (Salome); People's Valley, Kirkland Valley (upper drainage of Hassayampa Creek near Wickenburg and region around Hillside); Haka-whatapa or Matakwarapa (who formerly lived at La Paz and Castle Dome).
History.Gifford (1936) states that "the earliest probable mention" of the Yavapai "is by Luxan of the Espejo expedition, who in 1582-1583 apparently visited only the country of the Northeastern Yavapai." In 1598 Marcos Farfan de los Godos met them and called them Cruzados because they wore small crosses on their heads, and in 1604 Juan de Oñate also visited them, as did Father Francisco Garcés in 1776, after which time contact with Europeans was pretty regular. They were removed to the Verde River Agency in May 1873. In 1875 they were placed on the San Carlos Apache Agency, but by 1900 most of the tribe had settled in part of their old home on the Verde River, including the abandoned Camp McDowell Military Reservation, which was assigned to their use, November 27, 1901, by the Secretary of the Interior, until Congress should take final action. By Executive Order of September 15, 1903, the old reservation was set aside for their use, and the claims of the white settlers purchased under Act of April 21, 1904.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates 600 Yavapai in 1680. Gifford's (1936) estimate would about double that, though he does not believe they ever exceeded 1500. In 1873 they were said to number about 1,000 and in 1903 between 500 and 600. In 1906, 520 were reported, 465 at Camp McDowell and Upper Verde Valley and 55 at San Carlos. In 1910. 289 were reported by the Census, but the same year the Indian Office reported 178 under the Camp McDowell School Superintendent, 282 under the Camp Verde School, and 89 under the San Carlos School; total, 549. In 1823 the Indian Office reported 708 under the Camp Verde School and Salt River Superintendencies. In 1932 the Indian Office reported only 193, but the "Yuma Apache" would add 24. In 1937 there were 194.
Connection in which they have become noted.(See Havasupai.) The name has been perpetuated in that of Yavapai County, Ariz.
Yuma. Said to be an old Pima and Papago term for this tribe and in some cases the Kamia and Maricopa also (Forde, 1931). Also called:
Cetguanes, by Venegas (1759).
Chirumas, an alternative name given by Orozco y Berra (1964).
Club Indians, by Emory (1848).
Cuchan, or, strictly, Kwitcyána, own name.
Dil-zhay's, Apache name for this tribe and the Tonto and Mohave, signifying "red soil with red ants" (White, MS.).
Garroteros, by Emory (1848).
Guichyana, Chemehuevi name.
Hatilshe', same as Dil-zhay's.
Húkwats, Paiute name, signifying "weavers."
Kún, said to be Apache name for this tribe and the Tulkepaia.
Wamakava, applied by Havasupai to Mohave and perhaps to this tribe also.
Connections.The Yuma were one of the chief tribes of the old Yuman linguistic stock, to which they have given their name, but their closest immediate relatives were the Maricopa and Halchidhoma. The Yuman stock is now considered a part of the larger Hokan family.
Location.On both sides of the Colorado River next above the Cocopa, or about 50 or 60 miles from the mouth of the river, at and below the junction of the Gila River, Fort Yuma being in about the center of their territory. (See also California.)
Villages: Forde (1931) gives the following:
Ahakwedehor (axakweðexor), about 2 miles northeast of Fort Yuma.
Avikwotapai, some distance south of Parker on the California side of the Colorado.
Huksil (xuksi'l), along the Colorado River near Pilot Knob, a few miles south of Algodones and across the International Boundary.
Kwerav (ava'io), about 2 miles south of the present Laguna Dam and on the California side of the Colorado.
Unnamed town, a little east of the present site of Picacho, at the foot of the Chocolate Mountains.
History.Neither Alarcón, who ascended the Colorado River in 1540, nor Oñate, who visited it in 1604, mentions the Yuma, but in the case of Oñate this may be accounted for by the fact that these Indians were then living exclusively on the west side of the river, which he did not reach. The first explorer to mention them by name seems to have been Father Kino, 1701-2; and Garcés, 1771, and Anza, 1774 and 1775, have a great deal to say about them. Garcés and Eixarch remained among them in 1775. (See Kino (1726), and Garcés (1900).) Most of their territory passed under the control of the United States by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, and the remainder in consequence of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. After the founding of Fort Yuma, contacts between the Whites and this tribe became intimate. Most of them were ultimately concentrated on the Colorado River and Yuma Reservations.
Population.Garcés (1776) estimated that there were 3,000 Yuma, but Anza (see Coues, 1900) raises this to 3,500. An estimate attributed to M. Leroux dating from "early in the 19th century," again gives 3,000. According to the Report of the United States Indian Office for 1910, there were then 655 individuals belonging to the tribe, but the census of that year gives 834. The Indian Office figure for 1923 is 826 and that for 1929, 826, but the United States Census for 1920 increases it very materially, to 2,306. However, the Report of the Indian Office for 1937 gives only 848.
Connections in which they have become noted.Besides giving its name to the Yuman stock, the name Yuma is preserved by counties in Arizona and Colorado; localities in Yuma County, Ariz., Yuma County, Colo.; Cloud County, Kans.; Taylor County, Ky.; Wexford County, Mich.; and Carroll County, Tenn.