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by John R. Swanton
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 1451953
[726 pagesSmithsonian Institution]
Bannock. From their own name Bana'kwut. Also called:
Diggers, by many writers.
Ogoize, by the Kalispel.
Panai'ti, form of name given by Hoffman (1886).
Pun-nush, by the Shoshoni.
Robber Indians, by Ross (1855).
Ush-ke-we-ah, by the Crow Indians.
Connections.The Bannock belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, being a detached branch of the Northern Paiute.
Location.In historic times their main center was in southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, between latitude 42 and 45 North and from longitude 113 West eastward to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon River and even into southern Montana. (See also Colorado, Oregon, and Utah.)
A few local group names have been preserved, such as the Kutsshundika or Buffalo-eaters, Penointikara or Honey-eaters, and Shohopanaiti or Cottonwood Bannock, but these are not well defined.
History.Bridger met the Bannock Indians in the country above indicated as early as 1829, but contacts between them and the Whites became much more intimate with the establishment of Fort Hall in 1834. In 1869 Fort Hall Reservation was set aside for them and the Shoshoni, but they were in the habit of wandering widely and it was a long time before they were gathered into it. They claimed the territory in southwestern Montana in which are situated Virginia City and Bozeman, and it is probable that they were driven across the mountains into the Salmon River Valley at a comparatively recent period. Before 1853 they were decimated by the smallpox and were finally gathered under the Lemhi and Fort Hall agencies. Loss of their lands, failure of the herds of buffalo, and lack of prompt relief on the part of the Government occasioned an uprising of the tribe in 1878, which was suppressed by General O. O. Howard.
Population.Bridger, in 1829, stated that the Bannock had 1,200 lodges, or a population of about 8,000, but he evidently included the neighboring Shoshoni. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1845 there were about 1,000, but Forney, in 1858 (p. 213) gave only 400 to 500. In 1870 Jones estimated 600 and Mann 800 "Northern Bannocks." In 1901 they numbered 513 but were so intermixed with Shoshoni that the figure is uncertain. The census of 1910 reported 413, all but 50 of whom were in Idaho, and the census of 1930 gave 415, including 313 in Idaho. In 1937, 342 were reported.
Connections in which they have become noted.The only prominence attained by the Bannock was for a brief period during the Bannock War. The name is perpetuated by a river, a range of mountains, and a county. There is also a place named Bannock in Belmont County, Ohio, and another in Butler County, Ky., but these are probably not connected with the tribe.
Kalispel. From a native term said to mean "Camas"; they were given the name Pend d'Oreilles, because when they were first met by Europeans nearly all of them wore large shell earrings. Also called:
Ak-min'-e-shu'-me, by the Crow and meaning "the tribe that uses canoes".
Camas People, a translation of Kalispel.
Earring People, an English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
Hanging Ears, English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
Ni-he-ta-te-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
Papshpûn`lema, Yakima name, signifying "people of the great fir trees."
Connections.The Kalispel belonged to the interior division of the great Salishan family.
Location.On Pend d'Oreille River and Lake, Priest Lake, and the lower course of Clark's Fork. They were said to have extended eastward to Thompson Lake and Horse Plains and to have hunted over some of the Salmon River country, Canada, and were formerly said to have extended to Flathead Lake and Missoula. (See also Montana and Washington.)
(1) Upper Kalispel or Upper Pend d'Oreilles (in Montana from Flathead Lake and Flathead River to about Thompson Falls on Clark Fork of the Pend Oreille River, including the Little Bitterroot, southward about to Missoula and northward to the International Boundary), with bands at Flathead Lake, near Kalispel, at or near Dayton, near Polson at the foot of the lake, and possibly one at Columbia Falls; some wintered on the Bitterroot and a large band at St. Ignatius.
(2) Lower Kalispel or Lower Pend d'Oreilles or Kalispel proper (from Thompson Falls down Clark Fork, Pend Oreille Lake, Priest Lake, and Pend Oreille River nearly to the International Boundary and hunting territories along Salmon River, British Columbia).
(3) The Chewelah (in the country west of the Calispell or Chewelah Mountains in the upper part of the Colville Valley).
The Lower Kalispel also included several minor bands, the Chewelah apparently two. The Chewelah subdivision spoke a slightly different dialect and was sometimes regarded as an independent tribe.
History.The Kalispel were visited by Lewis and Clark in 1805, and in 1809 a post was established on Pend Oreille Lake by the Northwest Company and another on Clark Fork the same year called Salish House. Emissaries of the American Fur Company reached them later, and in 1844 they were missionized by the Roman Catholic Church. July 16, 1855, the Upper Kalispel, Kutenai, and Salish surrendered all of their lands except an area about Flathead Lake which became the Jocko Reservation. The greater part of the Kalispel settled here, but part of the Lower Kalispel were gathered on Colville Reservation with the Okanagon, Colville, and a number of other tribes.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that the Kalispel numbered 1,200 in 1780, but Teit (1930) considered that the prehistoric population must have been between 5,000 and 6,500, an estimate which would seem to be excessive. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated that there were 30 lodges of these people and a population of 1,600. In 1905 there were 640 Upper and 197 Lower Pend d'Oreilles under the Flathead Agency (Jocko Reservation) and 98 under the Colville Agency. The census of 1910 reported 386 from Montana, 157 from Washington, 15 from Idaho, and 6 from three other States They were not separately enumerated in 1930, but the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 97 in 1937.
Connections in which they have become noted.The name Kalispel is preserved in that of the banking city of Kalispell, county seat of Flathead County, Mont., by Calispell Lake, and by the Calispell Mountains. The name Pend d'Oreilles is preserved in Pend Oreille Lake in northern Idaho and in Pend Oreille River in Montana, Idaho, and Washington.
Kutenai. This tribe occupied the extreme northern part of Idaho. (See Montana.)
Nez Percé. A French appellation signifying "pierced noses." Also called:
A'dal-k'ato'igo, Kiowa name, signifying "people with hair cut across the forehead."
Anípörspi, Calapooya name.
A-pa-o-pa, Atsina name (Long, 1823).
A-pu-pe', Crow name, signifying "to paddle," "paddles."
Blue Muds, name applied by traders.
Chopunnish, Lewis and Clark.
Green Wood Indians, Henry-Thompson Journal.
I'-na-cpe, Quapaw name.
Kamu'inu, own name.
Ko-mun'-i-tup'-i-o, Siksika name.
Mikadeshitchísi, Kiowa Apache name.
Nimipu, own name, signifying "the people."
Pa ka'-san-tse, Osage name, signifying "plaited hair over the forehead."
Pe ga'-zan-de, Kansa name.
Pierced Noses, English translation of name.
Po'-ge-hdo-ke, Dakota name.
Sa-áptin, Okanagon name.
Shi'wanish, Tenino name for this tribe and the Cayuse, signifying "strangers from up the river."
Tchaxsúkush, Caddo name.
Thoig'a-rik-kah, Shoshoni name, signifying "louse eaters(?)."
Tsuhárukats, Pawnee name.
Tsútpeli, own name.
Connections.The Nez Percé Indians were the best known tribe of the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, to which they gave the name commonly applied to them by Salish tribes.
Location.The Nez Percé occupied a large part of central Idaho, and sections of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. (See also Montana and Oklahoma.)
Subdivisions: The following bands are given by Spinden (1908):
Alpowe'ma, on Alpaha (Alpowa) Creek.
Atskaaiwawixpu, at the mouth of the northern fork of Clearwater River.
Esnime, Slate Creek Band, the Upper Salmon River Indians.
Hasotino, at Hasutin, opposite Asotin City, Wash.
Hatweme, on Hatweh Creek.
Heswéiwewipu, at the month of Asotin Creek.
Hinsepu, at Hansens Ferry on the Grande Ronde.
Imnáma, on Imnaha River.
Inantoinu, at the mouth of Joseph Creek.
Isäwisnemepu, near Zindels, on the Grande Ronde.
Iwatoinu, at Kendrick on Potlatch Creek.
Kamiaxpu, at Kamiah, at the mouth of Lawyer's Creek; this band also called Uyame.
Lamtáma, on Salmon River.
Lapweme, on Lapwai and Sweetwater Creeks.
Makapu, on Cottonwood or Maka Creek.
Painima, near Peck, on Clearwater River.
Pipu'inimu, on Big Cañon Creek.
Saiksaikinpu, on the upper portion of the Southern Fork of Clearwater River.
Sakánma, between the mouth of Salmon River and the mouth of Grande Ronde.
Sálwepu, on the Middle Fork of Clearwater River, about 5 miles above Kooskia, Idaho.
Saxsano, about 4 miles above Asotin City, Wash., on the east side of Snake River.
Siminekempu, at Lewiston, Idaho.
Taksehepu, at Agatha on Clearwater River.
Temanmu, at the mouth of Salmon River.
Tewepu, at the mouth of Oro Fino Creek.
Toiknimapu, above Joseph Creek on the north side of the Grande Ronde.
Tsokolaikiinma, between Lewiston and Alpowa Creek.
Tuke'liklikespu, at Big Eddy.
Tukpäme, on the lower portion of the South Fork of Clearwater River.
Tunèhepu, at Juliaetta on Potlatch Creek.
Walwáma, in Willowa Valley.
Wewi'me, at the mouth of the Grande Ronde.
Witkispu, about 3 miles below Alpowa Creek, on the east side of Snake River.
Yakto'inu, at the mouth of Potlatch Creek.
Yatóinu, on Pine Creek.
The Nuksiwepu, Sahatpu, Wawawipu, Almotipu, Pinewewewixpu, Tokalatoinu, and other bands extended about 80 miles down Snake River from Lewiston.
History.In 1805 Lewis and Clark passed through the territory of the Nez Percé Indians. The first friction between this tribe and the Whites followed upon the discovery of gold in the West and the consequent influx of miners and settlers. By treaties concluded in 1855 and 1863 they ceded all of their lands to the United States Government with the exception of one large reservation. The occupants of Wallowa Valley refused to agree to the final cessions, and the Nez Percé war of 1877 resulted, distinguished by the masterly retreat of Chief Joseph toward the Canadian line, which was almost attained by him before he was overtaken. Joseph and his followers to the number of 460 were sent to Oklahoma, but they lost so heavily from disease that in 1885 they were removed to the Colville Reservation, Wash., where a few still live.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 4,000 Nez Percé in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark computed the total number at 6,000, if we deduct the estimated population of the two tribes later reckoned as distinct. Wilkes (1849) gives 3,000 and Gibbs (1877) estimates more than 1,700 in 1853. In 1885 the official figure was 1,437. In 1906 there were 1,534 on Lapwai Reservation and 83 on Colville Reservation, Wash. The census of 1910 reported 1,259, of whom 1,035 were in Idaho. The Report of The United States Indian Office for 1923 gave 1,415 and the report for 1937, 1,426. In 1930 the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan stock numbered 4,119.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Nez Percé have claims to remembrance, (1) as the largest and most powerful tribe of the Shapwailutan stock, (2) as having given a name applied to them to the principal division of the formerly independent Shahaptian family. From this tribe Nez Perce County, Idaho, and the post village of Nez Perce in Lewis County derive their names.
Paiute, Northern. Indians of this group entered the southwestern part of Idaho at times. (See Nevada.)
Palouse. This tribe extended up the Palouse River into Idaho.
Salish, or Flathead. The present State of Idaho was visited to some extent by Indians of this tribe. (See Montana.)
Shoshoni, Northern. Significance of the word Shoshoni is unknown. Also called:
Aliatan, a name taken originally from that of the Ute and subsequently applied to many Shoshoni tribes, including the Shoshoni proper.
Bik-ta'-she, Crow name, signifying "grass lodges."
E-wu-h.a'-wu-si, Arapaho name, signifying "people that use grass or bark for their houses or huts."
Gens du Serpent, by the French.
Ginebigônini, Chippewa name, signifying "snake men."
Kinebikowininiwak, Algonkin name, signifying "serpents."
Ma-buc-sho-roch-pan-ga, Hidatsa name.
Miká-atí, Hidatsa name, signifying "grass lodges."
Mi`kyashe, Crow name, signifying "grass lodges."
Pezhi'-wokeyotila, Teton Dakota name, signifying "grass-thatch dwellers."
Pi-ci'-kse-ni-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
Sin-te'-hda wi-ca-sa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying "rattlesnake Indians."
Sisízhanin, Atsina name signifying "rattlesnake men."
Snake Indians, common English name.
Snóa, Okanagon name.
Wákidohka-numak, Mandan name, signifying "snake man."
Wes`anikacinga, Omaha and Ponca name, signifying "snake people."
Zuzéca wicása, Teton Dakota name, signifying "snake people."
Connections.The Northern Shoshoni belonged to the Shoshoni-Comanche dialectic group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family.
Location.The Northern Shoshoni occupied eastern Idaho, except the territory held by the Bannock; western Wyoming; and northeastern Utah.
Their only subdivisions were a number of bands headed by popular chiefs, the make up of which was constantly shifting.
Lemhi and Central Idaho:
Bohodai, near the junction of Middle Fork with the Salmon, and an unnamed site on upper Salmon River where a few families from Sohodai sometimes wintered.
Guembeduka, about 7 miles north of the town of Salmon.
Padai, scattered along Lemhi River about Salmon.
Pagadut, on Red Rock Creek, about Lima, Mont.; possibly a few families lived near Dillon, Mont.
Pasasigwana, at a warm spring in the mountains north of Clayton.
Pasimadai, on Upper Salmon River.
Sohodai, on the upper middle Fork of Salmon River, near Three Rivers.
Fort Hall Shoshoni:
No band names given.
Bannock Creek (Kamdüka) Shoshoni (Pocatello's Band):
Biagamugep, the principal village, near Kelton.
Cache Valley (Pangwiduka) Kwagunogwai:
Along the Logan River above its junction with the Little Bear River.
Salt Lake Valley:
There are said to have been bands in the Ogden, Weber, and Salt Lake Valleys, but their names have not been preserved; they are sometimes called Ute, but Steward is certain that they were affiliated with the Shoshoni.
History.At one time the Northern Shoshoni extended farther eastward into the Plains but there is no reason to suppose that they did not at the same time retain the mountain territories later held by them. They were affected only indirectly by the Spanish settlements to the south and southwest. In 1805 they were met by Lewis and Clark who were guided by a famous woman of their nation, Sacagawea, and from that time on contact with the Americans became fairly common. The Northern Shoshoni, particularly those under the famous chief Washakie, were unusually friendly to the Whites. They were finally gathered upon the Lemhi and Fort Fall Reservations in Idaho and the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. By the Treaty of Fort Bridger, July 3, 1868, the eastern bands of the Shoshoni and Bannock ceded all rights to their territories in Wyoming and Idaho except the Wind River Reservation in the former state for the Shoshoni and a reservation to be set apart for the Bannock whenever they desired it. On July 30, 1869, Fort Hall Reservation was set aside for the Bannock but subsequently occupied in part by the Shoshoni. February 12, 1875, the Lemhi Reservation was established for these two tribes and the Sheepeater band of Western Shoshoni.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated 4,500 in the year 1845, including the Western Shoshoni. The United States Census of 1910 gave 3,840 "Shoshoni," of which number about 2,000 appear to have belonged to this division. The Report of the Office for Indian Affairs of 1917 indicated about 2,200. The census of 1930 reported 3,994 for the Northern and Western Shoshoni combined, but in 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 3,650 Northern Shoshoni alone.
Connections in which they have become noted.The Northern Shoshoni are the most prominent and strongest tribe of the upper plateau. They were also distinguished by the fact that their name was employed by Gallatin (1936) and later adopted by Powell (1891) for application to a linguistic stock, a stock now considered a branch of a much larger group, the Uto-Aztecan. The Shoshoni came into prominence in the last century (1) because Sacagawea or Bird Woman, the famous guide and interpreter of Lewis and Clark in their expedition to the Pacific, was a number of this tribe; and (2) because of the ability of chief Washakie and his constant friendship for the Whites. The name Shoshone has been applied to rivers and mountains in Wyoming and Nevada; to a lake in Yellowstone National Park; to the Shoshone Falls of Snake River; to a county in Idaho; and to places in Inyo County, Calif.; Lincoln County, Idaho; White Pine County, Nev.; and Fremont County, Wyo.
Shoshoni, Western. Significance of the word Shoshoni is unknown.
Connections.The same as for the Northern Shoshoni.
Location.Central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and a small territory in California north of and about Death and Panamint Valleys.
The names of a great many local groups have been recorded, usually signifying that they were "eaters" of certain kinds of food, but most of these seem to have belonged to territories rather than people, the "eaters" in each being subject to change. A few of these have, however, acquired special interest and some measure of permanence as, for instance, the Tukuarika, Tukuadüka, or Sheep Eaters, extending from the Yellowstone National Park to the middle course of Salmon River; the Gosiute of northern Utah and eastern Nevada and the Panamint or Koso, the Californian representatives of the division.
Villages: Steward (1938) gives the following villages under the several natural areas occupied by these Indians:
Lida and vicinity:
Kamuva, or Wipa, several miles east of Goldfield.
Old Camp, on the north side of Gold Mountain.
Tumbasai'uwi, at Stonewall Mountain.
Isha'mba (Waucoba Spring).
Ko (Saline Valley).
Navadu, at the Springs in Cottonwood Canyon which runs west from Death Valley.
Tuhu, at Goldbelt Spring.
Little Lake and Koso Mountains:
Mua'ta (Coso Hot Springs).
Pagunda (Little Lake).
Pakwa'si (at Alancha).
Uyuwu'mba, about 5 miles south of Darwin.
No villages given.
Northern Death Valley:
Mahunu (springs in Grapevine Canyon and probably Grapevine Springs).
Ohyu, at Surveyor's Well.
Panuga (Mesquite Springs).
Central and Southern Death Valley:
Tumbica, at the several springs at Furnace Creek.
Village (perhaps) some 15 miles south of Furnace Creek.
Beatty and Belted Mountains (camps): (in order of location, not alphabetized)
Howell Ranch, near Springdale.
Hunusu, at Burn's Ranch.
Indian Camp, at the head of Oasis Valley.
Mutsi, in the vicinity of the water holes marked merely "Tanks" on the U. S. Geol. Surv. map.
Sivahwa, a few miles north of the last.
Tunava, at Whiterock Springs.
Takanawa, at Hick's Hot Springs.
Sakaiñaga, at the mouth of Beatty Wash on the Amagrosa River.
Panavadu, somewhere near the last.
Wuniakuda, 2 or 3 miles east of the Ammonia Tanks.
Wiva, at Oaksprings.
Kuikun (Captain Jack Spring).
Tupipa, at Tippipah Springs.
Pokopa, at Topopah Spring.
Pagambuhan (Cane Spring).
Ione Valley, Reese River, and Smith Creek Valley:
Reese River Valley (camps): (in order of location)
Wiyunutuahunupi, at the first creek south of Austin.
Angasikigada, 1 mile from the last.
Tutumbihunupi, 1 1/2 miles from the last.
Ohaogwaihunupi, 1 mile from the last.
Bambishpahunupi, about 2 miles from last.
Songwatumbihun, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
Gunuvijep, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
Biahunupi, at Big Creek, west of Kingston.
Mezaguahunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Oapihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Tudupihunupi, 1 1/2 miles from the last.
Yudigivoihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Aihyuhunupi, about 2 miles from the last.
Navahodava, 3 miles from the last.
Guvadakuahunupi, 2 miles from the last or about halfway between Austin and Bell's Ranch.
Baiambasahunupi, about 1 mile from the last.
Kwinahunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Tosakuahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
Asunguahunupi, 1 mile from the last.
Wakaihunupi, 1 mile from the last.
Boyuwihunupi, 3 miles from the last.
Yumbahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
Onihunupi, about 2 1/2 miles from the last.
Adumbihunupi, about 2 1/2 miles from the last.
Bukwiyohunupi, about 4 miles from the last and a little south of Bell's Ranch.
Reese River Valley (winter sites):
Sunungoi, about 10 miles northwest of Austin and slightly north of Mount Airy.
Sova, a spring near the summit of Mount Airy.
Tuosava, 2 or 3 miles south of the last.
Yutomba, 1 mile from the last.
Evimba, 3 or 4 miles from the last.
Dumboi, 2 or 3 miles from the last.
Hukumba, about 2 miles from the last.
Kosiva, 3 miles from the last.
Wupayagahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
Dawishiwuhunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Kunuvidumbihunupi, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
Pazuyohoi, 4 miles from the last.
Wangodusikihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
Ava, 2 miles from the last.
Bohoba, a spring 3 miles from the last.
Dongwishava, slightly south of Ione, west of the Bell Ranch.
There is also a camp southwest of Berlin Peak at a spring called Wanzi awa.
Great Smoky Valley and Monitor Valley:
No villages given.
Kawich Mountains (winter camps):
Hot Creek, about 10 miles north of Tybo.
Hot Springs, to the south, had several winter encampments.
Hugwapagwa (Longstreet Canyon or Horse Canyon).
Kunugiba (Tybo Creek).
Tuava (Rose Spring).
Little Smoky Valley and vicinity:
Little Smoky Valley:
Dzishava (Moore Station).
Indian Creek (Bagumbush?), 6-7 miles north of Kwadumba.
Kwadumba (Snowball), 8 miles north of Sapava.
Kwatsugu (Fish Creek).
Sapava (Hick's Station), 12 miles north of Morey.
Tutoya, at a spring 4 or 5 miles south of Morey, on the west side of the valley.
Fish Springs Valley:
Butler's Place, about 20 miles north of Wongodoya.
Udulfa (Hot Creek).
Wongodoya, at a spring in the hills west of Fish Springs.
Railroad Valley (camps in north end of valley):
Akamba, or probably also Watoya, at a spring west of Mount Hamilton.
Bambasa, on the west side of Mount Hamilton.
Bauduin (Warm Spring).
Bawazivi (Currant Creek).
Biadoyava, at Blue Eagle Springs.
Nyala, native name unknown.
Wongodupijugo, southeast of Green Spring.
"There were . . . villages at Ely, on Duck Creek, about 8 miles northwest of McGill, and at Warm Spring, Schellbourne, Egan Canyon, and Cherry Creek."
Spring, Snake, and Antelope Valleys:
Aidumba, at a spring west of Aurun.
Basamba, slightly up the hill west of Sogowosugu.
Basiamba, in vicinity of Oceola.
Basawinuba, either 3 or 4 miles northwest of Aurun.
Basawinuba (Mud Springs), about 7 miles south of Aurun.
Basonip, about 7 miles (?) south of Cleveland Ranch.
Bauumba, near Shoshone.
Biabauwundu, at Cleveland Ranch.
Haiva, about 6 miles north of Cleveland or two canyons south of Wongovitwuninogwap.
Sogowosugu, at Aurun.
Supuva, at Anderson's Ranch.
Taiwudu, on west slope of Snake Mountains.
Toziup, on west slope of Mount Moriah.
Tuhuva, between Yellen's and Cleveland Ranches.
Tupa, about 7 miles north of Anderson's Ranch.
Wongovitwuninogwap, on Valley Creek, about 10 miles north of Cleveland
Bohoba, at Mike Springs south of the villages in Antelope Valley.
Hugapa, at Chinn Creek.
Kwadumba, at a spring about 3 miles south of Tippetts.
Suhuva, at a spring near Kwadumba.
Toiva, at a spring at north end of valley.
Wadoya, at a spring 15 miles north of Toiva.
Bauwunoida, at the present Baker.
Biaba, at Big Spring.
Tosakowaip, at Silver Creek.
Tunkahniva, near a cave near Lehman Cave in the canyon west of Baker.
Cave Valley, south of Steptoe Valley:
A cave on the north end of the Skull Valley Mountains a short distance from the present highway.
Haiyashawiyep, near present town called Iosepa.
Iowiba, in mountains just east of Skull Valley Reservation.
Ongwove, a few miles south of Orr's Ranch.
Suhudaosa, at the present Orr's Ranch (?).
Tiava, on present reservation.
Tozava, at a spring on west side of Lakeside Range.
Tutiwunupa, on west slope of the Cedar Mountains, just east of Clive.
Utcipa, south of Tutiwunupa on west slope of Cedar Mountains.
Wanapo'ogwaipi, at Indian Springs, south of Ongwove.
Pine Creek and Diamond Valley:
Bauwiyoi, a group of at least 6 encampments at the foot of the Roberts Mountains.
Todzagadu, on the west side of the Sulphur Spring Mountains.
Tupagadu, west of the Alkali flat in Diamond Valley.
Ruby Valley and Vicinity:
A settlement on south side of Spruce Mountains.
A village on the east slope of the Pequop Mountains.
Baguwa, in the flats near Overland.
Butte Valley, at north end on a canyon called Natsumbagwic.
Medicine Spring, on the west slope of the Cedar Mountains, east of Franklin Lake.
Suhuwia, on the headwaters of Franklin River.
Toyagadzu (Clover Valley).
Waihamuta, on the creek against the hills, west of the Neff Ranch.
Wongogadu, on north side of Spruce Mountains.
Yuogumba or Sihuba (Long Valley).
Humboldt River (districts):
A village in a valley a little south of Elko.
A village somewhere on upper Huntington Creek.
Banadia, scattered along both sides of Lamoille Creek.
Badukoi, village about 3 miles below Carlin.
Elko, preferred site for village being at the mouth of the South Fork.
Independence Valley, in the valley of what is called Magpie or Maggie Creek.
Kinome, 5 miles north of Huntington.
Palisade, people lived near here along Humboldt River.
Sahoogep, at Lee.
The valley of North Fork.
Toyagadzu, at Wells.
Tukwampandai, at Deeth.
Battle Mountain and Vicinity:
There was a concentration of population between Battle Mountain and Iron Point.
Snake River (three villages between Hagerman and Bruneau):
Ototumb, near Bliss.
Pazintumb, about 8 miles below Hagerman.
Saihunupi, about 4 miles below Hagerman.
Boise River and Vicinity:
No village names recorded.
Kuiva, on Raft River, probably near Lynn and Yost.
O'o or Podongoe, a little southwest of Lucin.
Paduyavavadizop (Dove (?) Creek).
Tusaid or Angapuni (Grouse Creek).
Promontory Point (Hukundu''ka):
Nagwituwep, on Blue Creek, north of the old railroad.
Nanavadzi, near Little Mountain, east of Promontory Point.
Sudotsa, scattered along valley of Bear River from near Bear River City to Deweyville.
Tongishavo, on the west side of Promontory Point near Mount Tarpey.
The following names, derived from various sources may be appended:
Kaidatoiabie (with 6 subbands), in northeastern Nevada.
Nahaego, in Reese River Valley, and about Austin, Nev.
Pagantso (with 3 subbands), in Ruby Valley, Nev.
Sunananahogwa, on Reese River, Nev.
Temoksee, in Reese River Valley, Nev.
Toquimas, in lower Reese River Valley, Nev.
History.The history of the Western Shoshoni was practically identical with that of the Northern Shoshoni and Northern Paiute, except that their territory was somewhat more remote from the paths followed by American explorers in the north and Spaniards in the south. In 1825 Jedidiah Smith made several journeys across Nevada and may have been preceded by Old Greenwood. In 1847 the Mormons settled Nevada and came in contact with some of the eastern representatives of this Shoshonean division. Narratives of explorers generally waste few words on these Indians or the neighboring Paiute, classing them indiscriminately as "diggers" and dismissing them all with a few contemptuous words. They were affected materially by the discovery of the Comstock Lode. Although it was not in their territory, prospectors penetrated everywhere, stock was introduced which sorely affected the food supplies of the natives, and the resulting friction affected first the Northern Paiute and somewhat later the Shoshoni.
By 1865, Shoshoni of Battle Mountain and Austin were involved. Meanwhile south of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and in eastern California, Shoshoni, especially those known as Gosiute, were committing depredations against immigrants, raiding the pony express and attacking the stage line which ran through this territory ... For protection, Fort Ruby in Ruby Valley was built in 1862 ... An army unit massacred a large number of Shoshoni in Steptoe Valley in 1862, but by 1865 the strife was ended. In 1869 the railroad across the continent was completed and the native period was at an end. Shoshoni of central Nevada and of the more remote valleys seem to have kept pretty well out of the conflict. The treaty of 1863 included all the Shoshoni of northern Nevada. They were given the Western Shoshone or Duck Valley Reservation in 1877 (by Executive Order of April 16), but by no means all Shoshoni went to it. A few of the more westerly Shoshoni joined Paiute on reservations in western Nevada, but most Shoshoni remained near their native haunts, gradually abandoning their native economy and attaching themselves to ranches or mining towns. (Steward, 1938, p. 7.)
The Carlin Farms Reservation northwest of Elko was set aside by Executive Order of May 10, 1877, but restored to the public domain by Executive Order of January 16, 1879.
Population.Mooney (1938) estimated that there were 4,500 Northern and Western Shoshoni together in 1845. The United States Census of 1910 gave 3,840, a figure which included about 1,800 Western Shoshoni. The United States Indian Office Report for 1917 indicated perhaps 1,500. The census of 1930 raised this figure into the neighborhood of 2,000, but in 1937 the Indian Office returned only 1,201.
Skitswish. From their own name; significance unknown. Also called:
Coeur d'Alene, a French appellation meaning "awl heart," said to have been used originally by a chief to indicate the size of a trader's heart.
Q'ma'shpal, Yakima name, meaning "camas people."
Pointed Hearts, derived from the word Coeur d'Alene.
Connections.The Skitswish belonged to the inland division of the Salishan stock, their closest relatives being the Kalispel or Pend d'Oreilles, and other eastern tribes.
Location.On the headwaters of Spokane River from a little above Spokane Falls to the sources, including Coeur d'Alene Lake and all its tributaries, and the head of the Clearwater.
Subdivisions and Villages: Teit (1930) reports the following divisions and villages, noting that the last in reality may have included two sections, the Coeur d'Alene Lake Division and the Spokane River Division:
St. Joe River Division:
Ntcaamtsen (.ntcäa'mtsEn), at the confluence of the St. Joe and St. Maries Rivers.
Stiktakeshen (.sti'qutakEcEn?), near the mouth of St. Joe River, on the river, or nearby on the lake.
Stotseawes (stotsEäwes), on St. Joe River, at the place now called Fish Trap by the Whites.
Takolks (ta'x.olks) (?), on upper Hangman's River, at a spring near the foot of the hill just south of De Smet.
Tcatowashalgs (tcat'owacalgs), on St. Joe River a little above Stotseawes.
Tcetishtasheshen (tcêti'ctacEcEn). probably on the lake, near the Stiktakeshen, on the north or east side, not far from the mouth of the river.
Coeur d'Alene River Division:
Athlkwarit (alqwarit), at Harrison.
Gwalit (gwa'lît), near the lake and close to Harrison.
Hinsalut (hînsä'lut), on Coeur d'Alene River a little above Smakegen.
Kokolshtelps (qoqolc'têlps), a little above Nestagwast.
Nalstkathlkwen (nalstqa'lxwEn), a little above Senshalemants.
Neatskstem (ne'atsxstEm), on Coeur d'Alene River a little above Athlkwarit.
Nestagwast (nest'a'gwast), at Black Lake, at a tributary river and lake here.
Senshalemants (sEncä'lEmänts), a little above Hinsalut.
Smakegen (sma'qEgen), at Medimont.
Skwato (sk'wat'o'), at old mission.
Tclatcalk (tcla'tcalxw), on Coeur d'Alene Lake, close to the mouth of Coeur d'Alene River.
Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane River Division:
Ntaken (nt'a'q'En) Hayden Lake), north of Coeur d'Alene Lake.
Tcelatcelitcemen (tcêlätcelîtcEmEn), halfway down Coeur d'Alene Lake, on the east side.
Ntcemkainkwa (ntc'Emqa'inqwa), at Coeur d'Alene City.
Smethlethlena (smElEle'na), near the last on the same side.
Tpoenethlpem, very near the preceding, on the same side.
Nsharept (nca'rEpt), a little below the next to the last.
Stcatkwei (stcatkwe'i) a little below the last.
Kamilen (q'ämi'len), at Post Falls.
Hinsaketpens (hinsaq'a'tpEns), about one mile above the Spokane bridge.
Newashalks (ne'Ewa'calqs), a little below the preceding.
Ntsetsawolsako (ntsetsakwolsa'ko?), on Tamarack Creek, toward the mountains.
Neshwahwe (nesxwa'xxwe), on the river a little below the last two.
Nesthlihum (nesli'xum), a little below the last.
Tcanokwaken (tcanokwa'kEn?), a little below the last.
Mulsh (mu'lc), at Green Acres.
Tcatenwahetpem (tcatenwa'xetpEm), a short distance below Green Acres, and about 20 miles above Spokane City.
History.There is no tradition of any Skitswish migrations. Like so many other tribes in the region, the Skitswish were first brought clearly to the attention of Whites by Lewis and Clark. Although suffering the usual heavy losses following contact with Europeans, they continued to live in the same country and were finally allotted a reservation there bearing their name.
Population.Mooney (1928) estimated that the Skitswish may have numbered 1,000 in 1780, but Teit (1930) raises this to from 3,000 to 4,000. In 1905 the United States Indian Office returned 494, all on the one reservation. The census of 1910 gave 293, probably below the true figure, as the United States Indian Office reported 601 on the reservation, including probably some Spokane, and in 1937 it returned 608.
Connections in which they have become noted.Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho and a town on its shores preserve the memory of the Skitswish, as they bear the name given this tribe by the French.
Snakes, see Paiute, Northern.
Spokan. The Spokan extended a few miles into this State along its western boundary. (See Washington.)